Om mulige bivirkninger

Medisinen brukes opprinnelig mot panikkangst og depresjoner, men kan føre til både aggressivitet og hukommelsetap.

Kommunelegen ønsker at tablettene trekkes fra markedet, og politiet er bekymret over utviklingen. (nrk.no 23.3.2006)

Myndigheterna har ingen kontroll över förskrivningen av det ångestdämpande läkemedlet Xanor, anser en distriktsläkare. (dagensmedicin.se 10.6.2014)

Selger piller utenfor apoteket Tabletten Xanor selges fra pasienter til rusmisbrukere utenfor apotek i Kristiansand. Kommunelegen mener tabletten, som er svært vanedannende, burde forbys. (nrk.no 23.3.2006)

USA versus Norge

Legemiddelomtale godkjent av FDA - xanax (alprazolam) (Selges under handelsnavnet Xanax i USA) (Preparatomtale - pakningsvedlegg)

Felleskatalogen (felleskatalogen.no)

- Bør forbys?

Deadly Duo: Mixing Alcohol and Prescription Drugs Can Result in Addiction or Accidental Death (Dødelig duo: Å blande alkohol og reseptbelagte legemidler kan føre til avhengighet og uheldige dødsfall)
sciencedaily.com 24.2.2012
Både alkohol og Xanax, begge påvist hos Whitney på Houstons hotellrom rett etter at hun døde, hemmer sentralnervesystemet og er avhengig av samme enzym for å brytes ned (Alcohol and Xanax, both found in Whitney Houston's hotel room right after she died, inhibit the central nervous system and depend on the same enzyme for bodily clearance)

Mysteriet med Whitney Houston død vil ikke bli løst på flere uker idet Los Angeles County Coroners Office venter på toksikologirapporten. Men mange eksperter spekulerer i at sangerens tragiske bortgang involverte en dødelig cocktail av alkohol og reseptbelagte legemidler, inklusive Xanax. (...) (The mystery of Whitney Houston's death will not be solved for several weeks, as the Los Angeles County Coroner's Office awaits a full toxicology report. But many experts speculate that the singer's tragic demise involved a deadly cocktail of alcohol and prescription drugs, including Xanax.)

(Anm: California doctor convicted of murder charges in overdose of patients. (…) Tseng was one of only a handful of doctors across the country who have faced murder charges for prescribing painkillers that led to a patient's death. Last month, a Florida physician was acquitted of first-degree murder in a patient's fatal overdose. (…) April Rovero, whose son, Joey, died nearly six years ago after mixing alcohol with Xanax and oxycodone he had obtained from Tseng, said she believes the verdict will resonate throughout the country. (latimes.com 30.10.2015).)

- Stadig flere ruser seg på Xanor

Stadig flere ruser seg på Xanor
helserevyen.no 18.4.2006
Statens legemiddelverk går nå ut med en advarsel til helsepersonell om økende bruk av legemidlet Xanor blant rusmisbrukere.

Legemiddelverket vil begrense eller unngå foreskrivning av legemidlet til rusmisbrukere og ber om at all forskrivning av Xanor må vurderes nøye og følges opp på grunn av misbruks- og avhengighetsrisiko.

Xanor (alprazolam) «Pfizer» er et legemiddel i benzodiazepin-gruppen som brukes mot panikkangst når annen behandling ikke har ført frem eller av spesielle grunner anses uegnet.

Det er bare spesialister i psykiatri som kan starte behandling med Xanor. I preparatomtalen advares det særlig mot utvikling av fysisk og psykisk avhengighet hos pasienter som misbruker eller tidligere har misbrukt legemidler og alkohol. (...)

(Anm: Benzodiazepines linked to worsened COPD in older adults. (clinicalpsychiatrynews.com).)

(Anm: Combining opioids with anti-anxiety medicines linked to greater risk of overdose. Taking opioids (strong prescription painkillers) together with benzodiazepines (widely used to treat anxiety and sleep problems) is associated with greater risk of opioid overdose, finds a study in The BMJ. (medicalnewstoday.com 16.3.2017).)

(Anm: Benzodiazepines Increase Risk of Hip Fractures in Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease. JOENSUU, Finland -- November 23, 2016 -- The use of benzodiazepines and related drugs increase the risk of hip fracture by 43% in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. The hip fracture risk was investigated in community-dwelling Finnish persons with Alzheimer’s disease. (dgnews.docguide.com 23.11.2016).)

(Anm: Benzodiazepiner knyttet til forverret KOLS hos eldre voksne. (Benzodiazepines linked to worsened COPD in older adults.) (clinicalpsychiatrynews.com).)

(Anm: COPD; Kronisk obstruktiv lungesykdom, ofte forkortet til KOLS, er en samlediagnose for en rekke nært beslektede sykdommer med kronisk og mer eller mindre irreversibel nedsettelse av lungefunksjonen. (no.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Fatigue in COPD: an important yet ignored symptom. Lancet Respir Med. 2017 Apr 21. pii: S2213-2600(17)30158-3. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Outcomes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosed with or without pulmonary function testing. (…) INTERPRETATION: Confirmation of a COPD diagnosis using pulmonary function testing is associated with a decreased risk of death and admission to hospital for COPD. In ambulatory patients, this effect may be from increased use of appropriate COPD medications. The findings of this study validate current guideline recommendations that encourage pulmonary function testing for diagnosis in all patients with suspected. COPD. CMAJ 2017;189(14) (First published November 14, 2016).)

(Anm: What are pulmonary function tests (PFTs)? Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are a group of tests that measure how well your lungs work. This includes how well you’re able to breathe and how effective your lungs are able to bring oxygen to the rest of your body. (healthline.com 4.11.2015).)

(Anm: Potential of stem cell therapy to repair lung damage. A new study has found that stem cell therapy can reduce lung inflammation in an animal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis. Although, still at a pre-clinical stage, these findings have important potential implications for the future treatment of  patients. (sciencedaily.com 27.3.2017).)

(Anm: Asthma vs. COPD: Differences and Similarities (medicalnewstoday.com 11.2.2017).)

(Anm: Inhalers for COPD: What Types Are There? What are the different types of COPD inhalers available and how do they affect the body? What are the possible risks and side effects? (medicalnewstoday.com 13.2.2017).)

(Anm: COPD and Pneumonia: What's the Connection? (medicalnewstoday.com 10.2.2017).)

(Anm: Kan rødbetjuice være bra for kolspasienter? (…) Nitrat reduserer oksygenforbruket. (…) Lavere oksygentrykk i blodet under søvn. Søvnrelaterte pusteforstyrrelser kan gi dårlig søvnkvalitet og symptomer som trøtthet og hodepine. Kolspasienter kan oppleve å sove ganske mye, men føler seg likevel ikke uthvilt, forteller avdelingsoverlege på Glittre Nils Henrik Holmedahl. Holmedahl er medisinsk ansvarlig for forskningsprosjektet. (aftenposten.no 20.2.2017).)

(Anm: Exacerbation of COPD: Causes, Warning Signs, and Treatment (medicalnewstoday.com 4.2.2017).)

(Anm: What is the Pathophysiology of COPD? Treatment and prevention (medicalnewstoday.com 8.2.2017).)

(Anm: Diet Tips for COPD. COPD is a chronic lung condition that includes two conditions: emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Together, these conditions damage the lungs and airways, making it more difficult to breathe. Common symptoms include shortness of breath, chronic cough with mucus, wheezing, and fatigue. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.2.2017).)

(Anm: - Flere hundre tusen nordmenn går rundt med lungesykdommer de ikke vet om. (…) Sykdommen er økende på verdensbasis, og siden 2010 har det i Norge blitt 40% økning i antall sykhusinnleggelser for kolsbehandling, ifølge Dagens Medisin. (lommelegen.no 23.1.2017).)

(Anm: Incidence of GOLD-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a general adult population. (…) CONCLUSION: Approximately 6% developed COPD over 9 years. Smoking and aging were important incidence predictors. Our study suggests a substantial underdiagnosis of COPD among adults in this community.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005 Aug;9(8):926-32.)

(Anm: COPD and Life Expectancy: What's the Outlook? (…) When a person has COPD, the damage to their lungs cannot be reversed, and the condition therefore tends to worsen with time. Currently, there is no cure for COPD. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.1.2017).)

(Anm: COPD vs. Emphysema: What's the Difference? (medicalnewstoday.com 23.12.2016).)

(Anm: COPD - what causes the lungs to lose their ability to heal? (medicalnewstoday.com 19.12.2016).)

(Anm: Key Facts and Common Myths About COPD (medicalnewstoday.com 1.2.2017).)

(Anm: Breathing Exercises for People with COPD (medicalnewstoday.com 7.1.2017).)

(Anm: Antipsykotika kan øke risiko for respirasjonssvikt ved KOLS. Risiko var doseavhengig; ingen trygg dose påvist. (Antipsychotics May Boost Respiratory Failure Risk in COPD. Risk was dose-dependent; no safe dose found. (medpagetoday.com 8.1.2017).)

(Anm: ACAAI: Asthma-COPD Overlap Studies Needed. Proliferation of ACOS papers, but, as yet, no clinical trials. It is very difficult to know what to do in asthma-COPD overlap syndrome because we don't have randomized trials looking specifically at this patient population," said R. Stokes Peebles, MD, of Vanderbilt University in Nashville, speaking at the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 2016 Annual Scientific Meeting. (medpagetoday.com 18.11.2016).)

(Anm: COPD patients with moderately low oxygen deficiencies don't benefit from long-term oxygen.- (…) The findings, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, are based on research examining oxygen treatment outcomes in 738 COPD patients with moderately low blood oxygen levels at 42 clinical centers in the United States. The study began in 2009 and ended in 2015. Patients who received supplemental oxygen over the course of the study showed no significant differences in rate of hospitalizations, time to death after diagnosis, exercise capacity or quality of life when compared to patients who did not receive supplemental oxygen. (medicalnewstoday.com 28.10.2016).)

(Anm: Mange ignorerer symptomer på KOL. (…) Hoste, slim fra lungerne og åndenød i mere end to måneder kan være symptomer på den kroniske lungesygdom KOL, som hvert år er medvirkende til op mod 5.500 dødsfald. Sygdommen kan bremses, hvis den opdages i tide. (sundhedsstyrelsen.dk 19.9.2016).)

(Anm: Ekstreme klimaforandringer er allerede et faktum i Europa. Uanset hvor meget, der diskuteres – ekstrem tørke, hedebølger og voldsom regn er allerede et faktum i Europa, konkluderer rapport fra EU’s Miljøagentur, EEA. Dansk professor advarer om nye sygdomme og hårde vilkår for landbruget i Østeuropa. Professor Jørgen E. Olesen fra Aarhus Universitet er én af forfatterne bag rapporten ”Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016”, der udsendes hvert fjerde år, og han er ikke i tvivl: »Vi har allered... (jyllands-posten.dk 24.1.2017).)

(Anm: CDC: COPD-Related Deaths Down in Men, Less So in Women. —COPD death rates continue to climb among black women. (…) From 2000 through 2014, age-adjusted COPD-related deaths decreased by 22.5% in men, versus just 3.8% among women. These decreases were mainly in the 65-84 age group. Still, the death rate remained higher for men than women, although this gender gap has decreased, the report noted. (medpagetoday.com 9.9.2016).)

(Anm: Forskning giver nyt håb for KOL-patienter. Lungesygdommen KOL dræber hvert år tusindvis af danskere. Men det skal forskning fra SDU være med til at forhindre. Nøglen er særlige bio-markører. (…) Kronisk obstruktiv lungesygdom, i daglig tale KOL, er den femte hyppigste dødsårsag i Danmark. Det skyldes ikke mindst, at sygdommen er svær at opdage i tide. (…) I Center for Kronisk Obstruktiv Lungesyndrom (CeKOL) arbejder man på at udvikle en teknik med såkaldte biomarkører – dvs. målbare stoffer i kroppen, der øges eller sænkes, i takt med at KOL udvikler sig. (sdu.dk 16.8.2016).)

(Anm: Opioids May Up Mortality Risk in COPD Patients. —Increased risk for adverse outcomes in older adults regardless of dose (medpagetoday.com 19.7.2016).)

(Anm:  Svakelighet er vanlig hos pasienter med KOLS. — Kan gå utover tiltak for å forlenge overlevelse. (Frailty Is Common in Patients With COPD. — May compromise interventions to prolong survival. The rate of frailty in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) referred for pulmonary rehabilitation is over twice that of the general population of older people, and these patients have a high risk for discontinuing the exercise therapy. (…) He added that pulmonary rehabilitation exercise programs tailored to frail patients with COPD would help more people access the treatment.) (medpagetoday.com 18.6.2016).)

(Anm: Sleep Quality Tied to COPD Exacerbation Risk. —Causality direction still uncertain. SAN FRANCISCO -- Poor sleep quality was strongly associated with an increased risk for COPD exacerbations over 18 months of follow up in an analysis of data from a Canadian prospective cohort study reported here. (…) Shorofsky presented the analysis of data from the Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease (CanCOLD) in poster presentation at the American Thoracic Society annual meeting. "Our finding suggest that poor sleep and COPD are strongly related, but it is a chicken-egg issue," Shorofsky told MedPage Today. (medpagetoday.com 20.5.2016).)

(Anm: Cardiac dysfunction during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Summary. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular disease often coexist, and acute cardiac events frequently occur during COPD exacerbations. Even when cardiac complications are not clinically apparent, biochemical evidence of cardiac dysfunction is often noted during exacerbations and portends poor prognosis. Diagnosis of cardiac disease in COPD can be difficult and necessitates a high degree of clinical suspicion. However, the additional strain of an exacerbation could be a pivotal moment, during which previously unsuspected cardiac dysfunction is exposed. In this Review, we present evidence about cardiac involvement in exacerbations of COPD, and discuss diagnostic challenges and treatment opportunities. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2016;4(2):138–148 (February 2016).)

En kanadisk gjennomgang av 9000 pasienter viste at de som hadde tatt et benzodiazepin i mer enn seks måneder økte sin risiko for å utvikle Alzheimers med svimlende 84 prosent.

Xanax, Valium are Ineffective and Increase Dementia Risk Xanax, Valium er ineffektive og øker demensrisikoen
thescienceexplorer.com 15.10.2015
A recent study finds the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease skyrocketed a whopping 84 percent among patients who had taken the anti-anxiety drugs for more than six months.

New research finds that benzodiazepines, a popular class of anti-anxiety medications including Xanax, Valium, Klonopin, and Ativan, are not only ineffective, but they’re actually dangerous in a number of ways. The drugs are highly addictive, and clinicians from the American College of Osteopathic Neurologists and Psychiatrists say that research findings make it painstakingly clear that benzos highly increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia.

En kanadisk gjennomgang av 9000 pasienter viste at de som hadde tatt et benzodiazepin i mer enn seks måneder økte sin risiko for å utvikle Alzheimers med svimlende 84 prosent. De som hadde brukt narkotika i tre til seks måneder økte risikoen med 32 prosent, mens de som brukte narkotika i tre måneder eller mindre hadde samme sjanse for å utvikle Alzheimer som andre som aldri hadde tatt benzodiazepiner. In fact, a Canadian review of 9,000 patients found that those who had taken a benzodiazepine for more than six months jacked up their chance of developing Alzheimer’s by a staggering 84 percent. Those who had used the drugs for three to six months increased their risk by 32 percent, while those who used the drugs for three months or less had the same chance of developing Alzheimer’s as others who had never taken benzodiazepines. (…)

(Anm: - Antipsykotika (og antidepressiva?) nærmere tredobler risikoen for demens. (aftenposten.no 24.8.2013).)

(Anm: Antidepressants & Alzheimer’s Diagnosis. Antidepressants are frequently initiated in persons with Alzheimer's disease already before the diagnosis, shows a recent study from the University of Eastern Finland. Among persons with Alzheimer’s disease, the initiation of antidepressant use was most common during the six months after the Alzheimer’s diagnosis, and more frequent than among comparison persons without Alzheimer’s disease even 4 years after the diagnosis. The results were published in International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (pharmpro.com 4.3.2016).)

(Anm: New Link Found Between Diabetes, Alzheimer’s Disease. LONDON -- June 21, 2016 --Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes are so closely related that drugs currently used to control glucose levels in diabetes may also alleviate the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study published in the journal Diabetologia. Researchers found for the first time that dementia-related complications within the brain can also lead to changes in glucose handling and ultimately diabetes. This is contrary to what was previously thought -- that diabetes begins with a malfunction in the pancreas or a high-fat, high-sugar diet. (dgnews.docguide.com 21.6.2016).)

(Anm: New link found between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. The study reports that Alzheimer's Disease and type 2 diabetes are so closely related that drugs currently used to control glucose levels in diabetes may also alleviate the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer's disease. The paper, published in the journal Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes), found for the first time that dementia-related complications within the brain can also lead to changes in glucose handling and ultimately diabetes. This is contrary to what was previously thought - that diabetes begins with a malfunction in the pancreas or a high fat, high sugar diet. (medicalnewstoday.com 23.6.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressants Impact Connexin 43 Channel Functions in Astrocytes. Glial cells, and in particular astrocytes, are crucial to maintain neuronal microenvironment by regulating energy metabolism, neurotransmitter uptake, gliotransmission, and synaptic development. (…) Based on these criterions all molecules were tested at concentrations between 5 and 20 μM (24 h) for toxicity; we observed that fluoxetine at 20 μM, paroxetine 10 μM, and duloxetine 20 μM were toxic at these indicated doses, consequently these molecules were tested at lower doses. Front. Cell. Neurosci., 2016 (07 January 2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressant use begins years before Alzheimer's diagnosis. (…) During the 13-year follow-up period, 42% of persons with Alzheimer's disease and 22% of persons not diagnosed with the disease initiated antidepressant use. The most commonly used antidepressant group was selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs, followed by mirtazapine. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.3.2016).)

- 26-åringen ble pågrepet i mars i fjor etter at å ha gitt tre Xanor-tabletter

Mor møter i retten for å ha dopet ned toåring.
aftenposten.no 22.3.2015
En 26 år gammel kvinne møter mandag i Asker og Bærum tingrett, tiltalt for legemsbeskadigelse etter at hun dopet ned sin to år gamle sønn på et toalett.

26-åringen ble pågrepet i mars i fjor etter at å ha gitt tre Xanor-tabletter, som inneholder et narkotisk virkestoff, til sin to år gamle sønn på et toalett på Sandvika Storsenter.

Gutten var bevisstløst da han ble hentet av ambulanse på Nationaltheatret stasjon i Oslo, dit kvinnen kom med toget etter å ha gitt ham tablettene.

Toåringen falt inn i en bevisstløs tilstand, men våknet senere samme dag på Ullevål sykehus.

Moren ble pågrepet og siktet for drapsforsøk etter hendelsen. Hun slapp drapstiltale, og er nå tiltalt for legemsbeskadigelse. Det har en strafferamme på inntil tre års fengsel.

Kvinnen erkjenner straffskyld, opplyser hennes forsvarer Tore Ihlebæk.

– De tablettene hun ga sønnen sin, var ikke egnet til å ta livet av noen. Dosen var ikke stor nok, sier han til NTB.

Politiadvokat Børge Enoksen i Asker og Bærum politidistrikt uttalte til Budstikka etter hendelsen at kvinnens motiv skal ha vært at hun fryktet at barnevernet ville ta fra henne sønnen.

Asker og Bærum tingrett har satt av to dager til rettssaken. (…)

- Selger piller utenfor apoteket (- Kommunelegen mener tabletten, som er svært vanedannende, burde forbys)

Selger piller utenfor apoteket
nrk.no 23.3.2006
Tabletten Xanor selges fra pasienter til rusmisbrukere utenfor apotek i Kristiansand. Kommunelegen mener tabletten, som er svært vanedannende, burde forbys.

Den svært vanedannende tabletten Xanor, selges direkte fra pasient til kriminelle utenfor apotek i Kristiansand. Tabletten, som gir hurtig rus, selges videre til rusmisbrukere.

Medisinen brukes opprinnelig mot panikkangst og depresjoner, men kan føre til både aggressivitet og hukommelsetap.

Kommunelegen ønsker at tablettene trekkes fra markedet, og politiet er bekymret over utviklingen.

Populær i rusmiljøet
Tabletten er på god vei inn i rusmiljøet. Det sier Dag Tallaksen, leder av uro- og narkotikaavsnittet ved sentrum politistasjon i Kristiansand. Han er ikke lenger overrasket over omsetningsmåter av tabletten.

- I de siste ukene har vi avdekket flere forhold. Folk som får lovlig foreskrevet Xanor, får betaling for å hente sine tabletter og leverer til betaleren, altså til misbrukeren, sier Tallaksen.

Farlige bivirkninger
Kommunelege Dagfinn Haar kan bekrefte at tabletten Xanor er populær, men svært farlig.

- Den gir en del gufne bivirkninger. Først og fremst er det mange som får personlighetsforvandlinger, og blir ekle. Og der gir hukommelsestap, sier Haarr.

Bør forbys
Kommunelegen går så langt at han mener tabletten Xanor bør forbys.

- Den har ingen viktige medisinske virkninger, og den har definitivt så mye bivirkninger på den enkelte og på samfunnet, at det ikke er noen grunn til å ha det kjemikaliet i omløp, sier Haar. (...)

- Myndigheterna har ingen kontroll över förskrivningen av det ångestdämpande läkemedlet Xanor, anser en distriktsläkare.

Myndigheterna har ingen kontroll över förskrivningen av det ångestdämpande läkemedlet Xanor, anser en distriktsläkare.
dagensmedicin.se 10.6.2014
”På min senaste jour träffade jag en patient som ville ha hjälp med att sluta missbruka Xanor. Han köpte varje dag 12-15 st á 30 kronor av en okänd person. Dessa tabletter, uppgav han, vara förskrivna på recept. Tillgången verkar vara obegränsad.”

Så skriver en distriktsläkare i norra Sverige i ett brev till Inspektionen för vård och omsorg, Ivo. I brevet står också att de kollegor som skriver recepten är ”sannolikt högst medvetna om hur medicinen kommer att användas” och att läkemedlets adekvata användningsområde är litet.

Distriktsläkaren nämner också att internetforumet Flashback har gott om tips om hur läkemedlet ska användas och att det mest graverande exemplet på missbruk av Xanor är fallet Thomas Quick som fick konsekvensen att” 7 mördare nu går fria”.

Brevet avslutas med:

”Jag anmäler härmed IVO/Socialstyrelsen för bristande kontroll av förskrivningen av läkemedlet Xanor/alprozalom.” (…)

Diverse artikler

America's Most Popular Mind Medicines
forbes.com 17.9.2010
A 30-year-old anxiety drug is the most prescribed mental health drug.

When Xanax hit the U.S. market in 1981, it wasn't clear it would be a hit. It was a me-too successor to Valium, the anxiety drug that was the most popular drug in America for most of the 1970s. Maker Upjohn figured out a clever way to market its drug: by testing it to treat panic attacks as well as anxiety. (...)

In the 1990s the antidepressant Prozac did for depression what Valium had done for anxiety: destigmatizing a mood disorder into a treatable illness that might be dealt with using a single pill. Listening To Prozac was a bestseller, popularizing the idea that this new pill could allow depressed patients to "remake the self." Another book, Prozac Nation, turned moody, sexy author Elizabeth Wurtzel into a generational spokeswoman, a sad ingenue staring out from the cover of her bestselling memoir.

Prozac and its various descendents are a huge presence on our most-popular list, with Lexapro, Zoloft (No. 7), Cymbalta (No. 8) and Effexor (No. 10) all making appearances. In fact, IMS says antidepressants were prescribed 169 million times in 2009, twice as much as anti-anxiety drugs like Valium and Xanax. Prozac itself ranks 15th, having been replaced by more effective options with fewer side effects.

Many have argued that the SSRI drugs are overused, in part due to hyped-up marketing that emphasizes positive studies while downplaying negative ones. (...)

Livsfarlig ape gikk på beroligende
nettavisen.no 15.5.2009
Medisinen hjalp tydeligvis ikke. Se video om apen her.

Sjimpansen Travis gikk amok 16. februar og rev av ansiktet til Charla Nash. Apen var i privat eierskap. Nå har politiet etterforsket saken og funnet ut at apen gikk på det beroligende middelet xanax, men det er uklart hvilken rolle dette spilte i angrepet, skriver AP. (...)

Sjimpansen ble matet med biff, hummer, iskrem, vin og Xanax
dagbladet.no 18.2.2009
Mandag rev han av et ansikt. (...)

Herold skal ha pleid å gi Travis det angstdempende medikamentet Xanax. Før Travis angrep eierens venninne skal den ifølge politiet ha fått Xanax i teen.

- Xanax kan ha gjort ham verre, sier Emil Coccaro, psykolog ved University of Chicago Medical Center, til AP.

Sykehuset opplyser ifølge New York Post at de groteske skadene primaten påførte Nash «vil forandre livet hennes» - dersom hun overlever. (...)

Cocaine, prescription drugs often found in autopsies
japantimes.co.jp 1.11.2008
(...) The three most frequently occurring drugs found during autopsies around Florida were alcohol, all benzodiazepines and cocaine, according to the statewide report.

Benzodiazepines are among the most commonly prescribed depressant medications in the United States, according to the Center for Substance Abuse Research. Among these drugs are Xanax and Valium. (...)

(Anm: Cocaine, amphetamine users more likely to take their own lives (medicalnewstoday.com 23.12.2014).)

(Anm: Cocaine addiction leads to build-up of iron in brain. Cocaine addiction may affect how the body processes iron, leading to a build-up of the mineral in the brain, according to new research from the University of Cambridge. The study, published in Translational Psychiatry, raises hopes that there may be a biomarker - a biological measure of addiction - that could be used as a target for future treatments.  (medicalnewstoday.com 23.2.2017).)

(Anm: Amphetamine use may 'speed up' heart aging. Amphetamine abuse is increasing internationally. While common sides effects of the drug include increased heart rate, headache, stomach pain, and mood changes, little is known about the drug's effect on the heart. Now, new research published in Heart Asia reports that using amphetamines recreationally may accelerate aging of the heart. (medicinenet.com 11.2.2017).)

(Anm: Simultaneous cocaine, alcohol use linked to suicide risk (medicalnewstoday.com 11.4.2016).)

(Anm: Psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption among older adults in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008–2011. Objectives The use and combined use of psychotropic drugs and alcohol among older adults is a growing public health concern and should be constantly monitored. Relevant studies are scarce in Germany. Using data of the most recent national health survey, we analyse prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug and alcohol use among this population. (…) Conclusions Despite the high risk of synergetic effects of psychotropic drugs and alcohol, a substantial part of older psychotropic drug users consume alcohol riskily and daily. Health professionals should talk about the additional health risks of alcohol consumption when prescribing psychotropic drugs to older adults. BMJ Open 2016;6:e012182.)

(Anm: Rat study reveals long-term effects of adolescent amphetamine abuse on the brain. A study of rats given regular, high doses of amphetamine finds that those exposed to the drug at an age corresponding to human adolescence experience long-term changes in brain function that persist into adulthood. The study, reported in the journal Neuroscience, found that amphetamine leads to changes in dopamine signaling. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in memory, attention, learning and feelings of pleasure. (medicalnewstoday.com 31.3.2016).)

(Anm: Tandsjukdom efter implantat. Nästan var sjätte person som fått tandimplantat drabbas av en allvarlig inflammation i angränsande vävnader, peri-implantit. Det visar en studie vid Sahlgrenska akademin i Göteborg. Studien omfattar 4 716 personer som fick tandimplantat 2003-2004. Nio år efteråt hade 14,5 procent drabbats av peri-implantit, som liknar tandlossning men har ett snabbare och aggressivare förlopp, skriver Dagens Nyheter. De som drabbas behöver ytterligare behandling, vilket kan bli ekonomiskt kännbart. Över 30 000 patienter i Sverige fick förra året nya tänder som skruvas fast i käkbenet. (dagensmedisin.no 28.10.2015).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva er ifølge ny studie knyttet til mislykkede tannimplantater. (Antidepressants linked to tooth implant failure, new study finds.) (- Forskning viser at bruk av antidepressiva firedobler risikoen for implantat svikt. For hvert år dobler antidepressiva risikoen for svikt.) (medicalnewstoday.com 10.3.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva ökar risken för benbrott hos äldre. (…) Den förhöjda risken för höftfraktur gällde alla de vanliga antidepressiva läkemedlen, SSRI-preparat, mirtazapin och SNRI-preparat (selektiva serotonin- och noradrenalinåterupptagshämmare. Sambandet gällde även då det kontrollerats för andra faktorer som ålder, annan medicinering som ökar fallrisken, benskörhet, socioekonomisk status, kroniska sjukdomar och psykiatriska diagnoser.) (lakemedelsvarlden.se 12.1.2017).)

(Anm: Heart disease risk higher with latent tooth infection. If you missed your last dental checkup, a new study might encourage you to book that appointment right away; researchers have identified a higher risk of heart disease for individuals who have hidden tooth infections. (…) Last year, for example, a study published in Infection and Immunity suggested that the bacterium involved in gum disease may also raise the risk of heart disease. Now, researchers from the University of Helsinki in Finland have uncovered a link between dental root tip infection, known as apical periodontitis, and greater risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) - an umbrella term for conditions that involve blocked blood flow to the coronary arteries. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.8.2016).)

(Anm: Munhälsan bättre än på 80-talet – men tandlossning ökar igjen. De två största tandsjukdomarna karies och parodontit (tandlossning) minskade fram till 2008. Därefter ökade antalet individer med parodontit och den positiva utvecklingen för karies stannade av. – Även om munhälsan har förbättras under denna 30-årsperiod ser vi en försämring mellan 2008 och 2013 då det gäller främst tandlossning, säger Kristina Edman vid Uppsala universitet har undersökt munhälsans utveckling över en trettioårsperiod. (forskning.se 3.5.2016).)

(Anm: Stimulant Medications Linked to Bone Mass Reductions in Children, Adolescents. BOSTON -- April 6, 2016 -- Use of stimulant medications in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adolescence is associated with significant reductions in bone mass, according to a study presented here at the 98th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society (ENDO). (…) “We suggest that stimulant medications, which release and block reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, may affect bone mass,” said the researchers. (dgnews.docguide.com 6.4.2016).)

(Anm: Anbefalte kokain mot onani, menssmerter, blodmangel og nerveforstyrrelser. Kokainen gikk fra å være legenes vidundermiddel til å bli storbysynden dødsengel. (dagbladet.no 19.2.2016).)

(Anm: New insights on how cocaine changes the brain. (…) The researchers used tracer molecules to follow electrical activity in the brain in rats exposed to cocaine. (…) Over time, increasing activation of a key part of the extended amygdala--the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis produces a long-lasting increase in signal transmission onto neurons that produce dopamine so that the rats became desensitized to the cocaine. Since this change happens within the amygdala, it may explain some of the long-term effects on behavior and motivation that occur after prolonged cocaine use. (medicalnewstoday.com 26.11.2015).)

(Anm: Cocaine users present alterations in the function and structures of the brain (medicalnewstoday.com 9.2.2016).)

(Anm: KRIMINOLOGI Test kan påvise kokainbruk gjennom fingeravtrykk Hva hvis kokainbruk kunne påvises og ikke krevde urin-, spytt- eller blodprøver? En ny metode gjør det mulig å finne ut om noen har tatt kokain, og ikke bare tatt i det. Testen gjøres via fingertuppene med en spray som reagerer på ørsmå spor av stoffene bensoylekgonin og methylekgonin i fingeravtrykk. (aftenposten.no 19.5.2015).)

(Anm: Your brain on drugs: Functional differences in brain communication in cocaine users. (…) The brain function of people addicted to cocaine is different from that of people who are not addicted and often linked to highly impulsive behavior, according to a new scientific study. (…) People who are addicted to cocaine are often highly impulsive and are prone to acting quickly, without regard to negative consequences. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.5.2015).)

(Anm: Functional brain organization of newborns altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. A new study by UNC researchers, based on MRI brain scans of 152 infants, found disruptions in functional connectivity within part of the amygdala-prefrontal network - a pathway thought to play an important role in arousal regulation. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.4.2015).)

Heath Ledger’s pharma brands of choice, from Ambien to Zoloft
blogs.thetimes.co.za 27.1.2008
One of the more intriguing aspects of Heath Ledger’s tragic death last week are the drugs involved. Ledger appears to have died surrounded by some of America’s favourite prescription medication: Ambien (insomnia), Valium (anxiety), Zoloft (anti-depressant), Xanax (anxiety), Zoplicone (insomnia) and antihistamine Donormyl. Clearly Ledger was having problems. (...)

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