Medfødte misdannelser (BMJ 2009;339:b3569 (23.9.2009))

Antidepressiva og erstatningssak (nrk 10.11.2003)

Flere spørsmål om Seroxats (Paxils) sideeffekter) (lawyersandsettlements.com 29.5.2010)

Thalidomid gjenoplives (commonground.ca (December 2006))

Antidepressiva kan skade menns sædceller (DNA) (American Society for Reproductive Medicine 2009)

Glaxo hevdes å ha betalt 1 milliard dollar i forbindelse med Seroxat-søksmål (Bloomberg.com 14.12.2009)

I strid med pillegigant (dn.no 25.8.2005) (Dn.no 25.8.2005)

Forståelsen av Seroxat (Paxil)-søksmål blir bedre (bestsyndication.com 8.8.2008) (ABC PRIMETIME LIVE)

GlaxoSmithKlines er saksøkt i Storbritannia (bloomberg.com 8.1.2008)

Senator stiller spørsmål om GlaxoSmithKlines (GSK) bivirkningsinformasjon (finance.senate.gov)

Serotonin syndrom (SS), Nevroleptisk malignant syndrom (NMS), kramper, parkinsonisme osv. (fda.gov Label) (fda.gov Approval History) (Letter 17.7.2009) (mintankesmie.no)

The SSRi Scandal (paxilprogress.org)

Seroxat witdrawal can (...). (fiddaman.blogspot.com)

- Det amerikanske justisdepartementet skriver i sin kunngjøring at GlaxoSmithKline skjulte studier som hadde negative funn

GlaxoSmithKline is fined record $3bn in US (GlaxoSmithKline er ilagt rekordbot på 3 milliarder dollar i USA)
BMJ 2012;345:e4568 (3 July)
GlaxoSmithKline har inngått avtale om å erkjenne skyld og betale 3 milliarder dollar (£ 2 milliarder, € 2,4 mrd) i straff for ulovlig markedsføring av reseptbelagte legemidler, unnlatelse av å rapportere sikkerhetsdata og falsk prisrapportering. (GlaxoSmithKline has agreed to plead guilty and pay $3bn (£2bn; €2.4bn) in penalties for unlawful promotion of prescription drugs, failure to report safety data, and false price reporting.)

Det er også inngått en 123 siders avtale om bedriftens integritet med det amerikanske justisdepartementet som regulerer firmaets aktiviteter de neste fem årene.1 (...) (It also signed a 123 page corporate integrity agreement with the US Department of Justice that regulates its activity for the next five years.1)

GSKs avtale omfatter flere av dets ledende legemidler. De markedsførte ulovlig antidepressivaet Seroxat (paroxetine / fornorsket paroksetin) for behandling av pasienter under 18 år, selv om Food and Drug Administration (legemiddelkontrollen) aldri godkjent legemiddel for denne aldersgruppen. Firmaet har også utarbeidet "villedende" tidsskriftartikler som hevder Seroxat hadde effekt for denne befolkningsgruppen når "studien ikke viste effekt,« Det amerikanske justisdepartementet sa i sin kunngjøring at de skjulte studier som hadde negative funn.3 (GSK’s agreement covers several of the its leading drugs. It illegally promoted the antidepressant paroxetine for treating patients under the age of 18, even though the Food and Drug Administration never approved the drug for that age group. The company also created “misleading” journal articles claiming efficacy of paroxetine in that population, when in fact “the study failed to demonstrate efficacy,” the justice department said in its statement, and it hid trials that had negative findings.3)

GSK markedsførte ulovlig bupropion for vekttap, seksuell dysfunksjon, substansavhengighet, og ADHD (oppmerksomhetssvikt-hyperaktivitets-syndromet) og annen bruk utenfor preparatomtale. De brukte også "falske rådgivende styrer, og tilsynelatende uavhengig medisinsk etterutdanning, (CME) programmer," og store bestikkelser i forbindelse med reiser for å fremme uautorisert bruk av legemidler. (...) (GSK illegally promoted bupropion for weight loss, sexual dysfunction, substance addictions, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other off-label uses. It also used “sham advisory boards, and supposedly independent continuing medical education (CME) programs,” and lavish travel inducements to promote unauthorised uses of the drug.)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (nytteverdi) (mintankesmie.no).)

- Selvmordsdata feilrapportert i legemiddelforsøk ifølge søksmål. I mange år markedsførte GlaxoSmithKline og dets forgjenger, SmithKline Beecham, Seroxat (Paxil; paroxetine; paroksetin) som et antidepressiva som ville redusere risikoen for selvmord hos deprimerte pasienter. (- I mai 2006, etter ytterligere analyser av et bredere sett med data inkluderte Glaxo en advarsel i Seroxats (Paxils) innleggsseddel og skrev et brev til helsepersonell, som advarte om at hyppigheten av selvmordsatferd blant voksne i alle aldre med alvorlig depressiv lidelse var høyere blant pasienter behandlet med paroksetin (Seroxat/Paxil) sammenlignet med placebo "- statistisk signifikant 6,7 ganger høyere.)

(Anm: Suicide Data Incorrectly Reported in Drug Trials, Suit Claimed. For many years GlaxoSmithKline and its predecessor, SmithKline Beecham, marketed Paxil as an antidepressant that would reduce the risk of suicide in depressed patients. The results of the company’s clinical trials, presented to the Food and Drug Administration in 1989, suggested Paxil was far safer than a placebo. Back then, the company reported that among nearly 3,000 patients treated with Paxil in the worldwide clinical trials, five committed suicide — a rate of about one in 600. By contrast, there were two suicides in a much smaller group of 554 patients randomly assigned to take a placebo pill — a rate of about one in 275, more than double that of the Paxil group. But documents made public in the course of the lawsuit filed against Glaxo by Wendy Dolin, who alleges that paroxetine, a generic form of Paxil, contributed to the suicide of her husband, Stewart, suggest an alternate view. (…) In 1999, when the safety of Paxil was under scrutiny, an F.D.A. medical reviewer, Michael Seika, told the drug company as much, according to a Glaxo memo presented as part of the lawsuit. Dr. Seika had told company officials that if a patient were to die during the run-in, before randomization, “such a person should not be counted in our analyses.” F.D.A. officials declined to comment on what difference, if any, this might have made in the drug’s approval. In May 2006, after further analyses of a broader set of data, Glaxo added a warning to Paxil’s label and wrote a letter to health care providers cautioning that among adults of all ages with major depressive disorder, “the frequency of suicidal behavior was higher in patients treated with paroxetine compared with placebo” — a statistically significant 6.7 times higher. A little over a year later, in June 2007, that warning was replaced by the standard black box warning label that the F.D.A. now requires all antidepressants to carry, which says the risk of suicidal behavior affects only those under age 25. Glaxo officials testified that they had approached the F.D.A. four times about adding Paxil-specific information to the label, which might have included cautions about suicide in adult populations, but that the agency did not require any additional warnings. “Drugs play an important role in so many people’s lives and can be lifesaving, but people need to know about the side effects,” Ms. Dolin said. “We want transparency.” (nytimes.com 11.9.2017).)

(Anm: IMPORT ANT PRESCRIBING INFORMATION. (baumhedlundlaw.com)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (SSRI-selvmord) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Statlig legemiddelkontroll (Statens legemiddelverk etc.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Statlig hvitvasking av legemiddelinformasjon (Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2010; 130:368 (25.2.2010).)

(Anm: Forskning bliver farlig, når de negative resultater glemmes. (…) Nyt dansk studie viser problemet. (...) For få negative resultater leder til falske konklusioner. (…) Manglende negative resultater har kostet liv. (…) Vores model viser, at vi er nødt til at få publiceret mindst 20 procent af de negative resultater, der produceres inden for hvert forskningsfelt, hvis vi skal undgå at lave falske antagelser om videnskabelig fakta. (videnskab.dk 5.1.2017).)

- GSK dømt til å betale 3 millioner dollar grunnet advokats selvmord i Chicago mens han gikk på generisk Seroxat (Paxil)

GSK told to pay $3M for Chicago attorney's suicide while on generic Paxil
fiercepharma.com 21.4.2017
GlaxoSmithKline came up short in efforts to convince a jury that it shouldn’t be liable for a Chicago lawyer’s 2010 suicide while he was on generic Paxil. On Thursday, jurors sided with the man’s widow, Wendy Dolin, and awarded a $3 million verdict against the drugmaker.

Throughout the trial, Dolin’s attorneys argued that Paxil’s label indicating suicide risks stop at age 24 is flawed, and that Glaxo held a responsibility to inform of the risks. Since generic drugmakers duplicate drug labels for their copycats, Glaxo was at fault in this case, they argued. And the jury agreed.

A spokesperson for GSK said the company is “disappointed” with the verdict and will appeal.

“GSK maintains that because it did not manufacture or market the medicine ingested by Mr. Dolin, it should not be liable,” the company’s spokesperson said. “Additionally, the Paxil label provided complete and adequate warnings during the time period relevant to this lawsuit.”

RELATED: Federal judge declines to toss Paxil suicide case, setting GSK up for September trial

The award fell far short of the $39 million that Dolin's lawyers sought in the case, which turned, in part, on the long debate over whether branded drugmakers should be held responsible in cases where patients took generics. (…)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

- Konklusjon: Dekonstruksjon av rettsdokumenter avslørte at protokollspesifikke resultater ikke viste statistisk signifikant forskjell mellom citalopram og placebo. Den publiserte artikkelen konkluderte imidlertid med at citalopram var trygt og betydelig mer effektivt enn placebo for barn og ungdom, med mulige bivirkninger mht. pasientsikkerhet.

(Anm: The citalopram CIT-MD-18 pediatric depression trial: Deconstruction of medical ghostwriting, data mischaracterisation and academic malfeasance. OBJECTIVE: Deconstruction of a ghostwritten report of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety trial of citalopram in depressed children and adolescents conducted in the United States. (…) CONCLUSION: Deconstruction of court documents revealed that protocol-specified outcome measures showed no statistically significant difference between citalopram and placebo. However, the published article concluded that citalopram was safe and significantly more efficacious than placebo for children and adolescents, with possible adverse effects on patient safety. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2016 Mar 16;28(1):33-43.)

(Anm: Cipralex (Lexapro) (escitalopram) - Cipramil (Celexa) (cipramil) (citalopram) - H. Lundbeck A/S (mintankesmie.no).)

- Studien finner stigende trend for selvmordsforsøk hos voksne amerikanere. (- Mellom 2004 og 2014 økte den årlige selvmordsraten fra 11 prosent til 13 prosent per 100 000 mennesker.)

(Anm: Study finds rising trend in suicide attempts among U.S. adults. New data confirm that suicide attempts among U.S. adults are on the rise, with a disproportional effect on younger, socioeconomically disadvantaged adults with a history of mental disorders. The study, by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and New York State Psychiatric Institute (NYSPI), was published today in JAMA Psychiatry. "Attempted suicide is the strongest risk factor for suicide, so it's important that clinicians know just who faces the highest risk so that we can do a better job of preventing suicides from happening," said Mark Olfson, MD, MPH, professor of psychiatry and epidemiology at CUMC and lead author of the study. Between 2004 and 2014, the annual suicide rate increased from 11 percent to 13 percent per 100,000 people. While the increase in suicide attempts mirrors this national trend, the study revealed some important differences in risk factors for attempted suicide versus completed suicide. For example, while middle-aged adults (aged 45-64 years) had the highest suicide rate, young adults (aged 21-34 years) had the biggest increase in suicide attempts. And while suicide attempts were higher among women than men, more men completed suicide. (news-medical.net 14.9.2017).)

(Anm: National Trends in Suicide Attempts Among Adults in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry. (Published online September 13, 2017).)

- Amerikansk legemiddelkontroll bør vurdere å legge til selvmordsadvarsel for SSRI for voksne, sier psykiater som ønsker endringer.

(Anm: US drug regulators should consider adding adults to SSRI suicide warning, says campaigner. A British doctor who campaigned for the public to be warned about increased suicide risk in young people taking antidepressants has said that US drug regulators should consider including adults in warnings. David Healy, a psychiatry professor at Bangor University, called for the warnings after GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) was ordered to pay $3m (£2.34m; €2.75m) to the widow of a US man who killed himself shortly after starting generic paroxetine. (…) When it becomes so clear cut that a jury finds there is a problem, it suggests the evidence is strong enough to look at the issue,” Healy told The BMJ. “If it’s that clear to the average man on the street, and the FDA [the US Food and Drug Administration] doesn’t do something about it, we have an odd situation.” BMJ 2017;357:j2050 (Published 25 April 2017).)

- GSK dømt til at betale i selvmordssag. (- Selvom der var tale om en generisk version af et lægemiddel, som var årsagen til et dødsfald, er det alligevel GlaxoSmithKline, der som originalproducenten af det oprindelige lægemiddel, skal betale i sagen.) (- Den forurettedes advokater havde krævet en erstatning på 39 mio. dollars med henvisning til, at der på indlægssedlen kun var advaret om forøget selvmordsrisiko for unge mennesker under 25, men at risikoen er langt højere for ældre mennesker.)

GSK dømt til at betale i selvmordssag
medwatch 21.4.2017
Selvom der var tale om en generisk version af et lægemiddel, som var årsagen til et dødsfald, er det alligevel GlaxoSmithKline, der som originalproducenten af det oprindelige lægemiddel, skal betale i sagen.

Britiske GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) skal betale 3 mio. dollars – næsten 21 mio. kr. – i erstatning til en kvinde, hvis mand begik selvmord efter brug af en generisk version af selskabets antidepressive middel Paxil.

Det har en jury bestemt, skriver Reuters.

Dødsfaldet skete tilbage i 2010, hvor den afdøde mand, advokaten Stewart Dolin, tog sig af dage ved at springe ud foran et tog, og sagen har været behandlet i retten i Chicago.

GSK er skuffet over juryens kendelse.

”GSK hævder fortsat, at fordi vi ikke har fremstillet eller markedsført lægemidlet indtaget af Mr. Dolin, bør vi ikke være ansvarlige,” lød det fra GSK i en udtalelse efter afgørelsen, som også påpegede, at der var advarsler om selvmordsrisiko påhæftet lægemidlet.

Den generiske version af Paxil kommer fra Mylan, men en dommer dømte i 2014, at de ikke havde noget at gøre med sagen. Det var i stedet GSK der var part i sagen, fordi selskabet stod bag lægemidlets design og indlægsseddel, som også blev brugt i den generiske version.

Den forurettedes advokater havde krævet en erstatning på 39 mio. dollars med henvisning til, at der på indlægssedlen kun var advaret om forøget selvmordsrisiko for unge mennesker under 25, men at risikoen er langt højere for ældre mennesker. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

(Anm: Legemiddelerstatninger (søksmål) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva - søksmål (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Norsk pasientskadeerstatning (NPE). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Diverse skadeerstatninger (skadeserstatninger) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (nytteverdi) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Ny forskning: Lykkepiller gør mere skade end gavn. Folk med depression får intet ud af at tage antidepressivet SSRI, bedre kendt som lykkepiller, viser nyt dansk studie. (jyllands-posten.dk 13.2.2017).)

- Vi har funnet at paroxetine (paroksetin; Seroxat; Paxil etc.) har cytotoksisk aktivitet mot tumorceller, både av murine eller human opprinnelse i det mikromolarer konsentrasjonsområdet.. (- We found that paroxetine has cytotoxic activity against tumor cells, both of murine or human origin in the micromolar concentration range.)

(Anm: Ulike selektive serotonin reopptakshemmeres (SSRI-er) cytotoksisitet mot kreftceller. (Cytotoxicity of different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against cancer cells.) (…) Vi har funnet at paroxetine (paroksetin; Seroxat; Paxil etc.) har cytotoksisk aktivitet mot tumorceller, både av murine eller human opprinnelse i det mikromolarer konsentrasjonsområdet.. (- We found that paroxetine has cytotoxic activity against tumor cells, both of murine or human origin in the micromolar concentration range.) J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006;6(1):23-9.)

(Anm: Akutt toksisitet for 8 antidepressiva: hva er deres virkningsmekanismer? (Acute toxicity of 8 antidepressants: what are their modes of action? Currently, the hazard posed by pharmaceutical residues is a major concern of ecotoxicology. Most of the antidepressants belong to a family named the Cationic Amphipathic Drugs known to have specific interactions with cell membranes. The present study assessed the impact of eight antidepressants belonging to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.) Chemosphere. 2014 Aug;108:314-9. Epub 2014 Feb 14. (PDF).)

(Anm: Cytotoksisk, om et stoff eller påvirkning som skader en celle, eventuelt så alvorlig at cellen dør (i noen tilfeller ved at cellen løses opp; cytolyse). Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are an immune cell or some types of venom, e.g. from the puff adder (Bitis arietans) or brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa). (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Forskere finner link mellom bruk av antidepressiva, medfødte misdannelser eller dødfødsler. (Researchers Find Link Between Antidepressant Use, Congenital Anomalies or Stillbirths) (…) "Mens denne ekstra risikoen kan virke liten er resultatene etter mitt syn så alvorlig som de kan være." (“While this extra risk may seem small, in my view, the outcomes are as serious as they can be.”) (dgnews.docguide.com 5.12.2016).)

- Eksponering av foster for antidepressiva kan endre Corpus Callosums mikrostruktur: Presentert ved PAS / ASPN.

(Anm: Eksponering av foster for antidepressiva kan endre Corpus Callosums mikrostruktur: Presentert ved PAS / ASPN. (…) Fordi "den neonate (nyfødtes) corpus callosum mikrostruktur er assosiert med utero (livmor) SSRI-eksponering og prenatal (før fødsel) mødredepresjon, er tidlige modningsprosesser i denne regionen følsomme for endret 5-hydroksytryptamin (5-HT) signalering under tiden i utero (livmor)," bemerket Campbell. "Disse resultatene - sammen med forstyrret hvit substans’ mikrostruktur i genu hos premature spedbarn - tyder dette på at utviklingen av [corpus callosum] kan være følsom for tidlige uheldige påvirkninger. (Fetal Exposure to Antidepressants May Alter Corpus Callosum Microstructure.) (dgnews.docguide.com 10.5.2017).)

(Anm: Unormal sæd med SSRI antidepressiva. Flere studier har funnet endrede sædparametere etter eksponering for SSRI-antidepressiva. Selv om SSRIs rolle er usikker, er det berettiget å ta hensyn til de observerte effektene på sædkvalitet og informere eksponerte pasienter. (Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants. Several studies have found altered semen parameters after exposure to SSRI antidepressants. Although the role of SSRIs is uncertain, it is justified to take into account the observed effects on sperm quality and to inform exposed patients.) Prescrire Int 2015; 24 (156): 16-17.)

- Gravide kvinner som tar antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å få barn med autisme, ifølge studie.

(Anm: Gravide kvinner som tar antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å få barn med autisme, ifølge studie. Pregnant women who take antidepressants more likely to have a child with autism, study finds. Research data published in the BMJ reveal that antidepressant use during pregnancy increases the risk of autism in children, as reported The Independent Thursday. (firstwordpharma.com 20.7.2017).)

- Venlafaksin-indusert cytotoksisitet mot isolerte hepatocytte r fra rotter innebærer oksidativt stress og mitokondrie/lysosomal dysfunksjon. (- Venlafaxine-Induced Cytotoxicity Towards Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Involves Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial/Lysosomal Dysfunction.)

Venlafaxine-Induced Cytotoxicity Towards Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Involves Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial/Lysosomal Dysfunction.
Adv Pharm Bull. 2016 Dec;6(4):521-530. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
Abstract Purpose: Depression is a public disorder worldwide. Despite the widespread use of venlafaxine in the treatment of depression, it has been associated with the incidence of toxicities. Hence, the goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms of venlafaxine-induced cell death in the model of the freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Methods: Collagenase-perfused rat hepatocytes were treated with venlafaxine and other agents. Cell damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal damage, glutathione (GSH) level were analyzed. Moreover, rat liver mitochondria were isolated through differential centrifugation to assess respiratory chain functionality. Results: Our results demonstrated that venlafaxine could induce ROS formation followed by lipid peroxidation, cellular GSH content depletion, elevated GSSG level, loss of lysosmal membrane integrity, MMP collapse and finally cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. N-acetyl cysteine, taurine and quercetine significantly decreased the aforementioned venlafaxine-induced cellular events. Also, radical scavenger (butylatedhydroxytoluene and α-tocopherol), CYP2E1 inhibitor (4-methylpyrazole), lysosomotropic agents (methylamine and chloroquine), ATP generators (L-gluthamine and fructose) and mitochondrial pore sealing agents (trifluoperazine and L-carnitine) considerably reduced cytotoxicity, ROS generation and lysosomal leakage following venlafaxine treatment. Mitochondrion dysfunction was concomitant with the blockade of the electron transfer complexes II and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory system. Conclusion: Therefore, our data indicate that venlafaxine induces oxidative stress towards hepatocytes and our findings provide evidence to propose that mitochondria and lysosomes are of the primary targets in venlafaxine-mediated cell damage. (…)

(Anm: Cytotoksisk, om et stoff eller påvirkning som skader en celle, eventuelt så alvorlig at cellen dør (i noen tilfeller ved at cellen løses opp; cytolyse). Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are an immune cell or some types of venom, e.g. from the puff adder (Bitis arietans) or brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa). (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: - Nye data viser økt risiko for misdannelser når antidepressiva brukes under graviditet. (…) En studie publisert i British Medical Journal (BMJ) avslører at antidepressiva forskrevet til gravide kan øke sjansen for å få en baby med misdannelser.) (New Data Show Heightened Risk of Birth Defects When Antidepressants Are Used During Pregnancy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 19.1.2017).)

(Anm: - Utviklingen av et potensielt livstruende serotonergt syndrom eller nevroleptisk malignt syndrom (NMS)-lignende reaksjoner er rapportert for SNRI-er og SSRI-er alene, inkludert Celexa-behandling, men spesielt ved samtidig bruk av serotonerge legemidler (inklusive triptaner) og legemidler som svekker metabolisme av serotonin (inklusive MAO-hemmere), eller med antipsykotika eller andre dopaminantagonister (fda.gov 6.3.2009).)

- En FDA-godkjent endring av preparatomtalen for antidepressiva i 2007 gikk ikke langt nok for å varsle leger om den økte risikoen for selvmord hos pasienter som inntar GlaxoSmithKlines Seroxat (Paxil), fortalte enken til avdøde partner Reed Smith til en føderal dommer i Illinois torsdag, som gir et kort innblikk i av hva som kommer opp i en jury-rettssak neste uke.

GSK, Reed Smith Partner's Widow Preview Paxil Jury Trial
law360.com 9.3.2017
Law360, Chicago (March 9, 2017, 9:27 PM EST) -- An FDA-endorsed label change for antidepressants in 2007 didn’t go far enough to alert doctors about the increased risk of suicidality in patients taking GlaxoSmithKline’s Paxil, the widow of a deceased Reed Smith partner told an Illinois federal judge Thursday, offering a brief glance of what is to come at a jury trial next week.

U.S. District Judge William T. Hart asked counsel for GSK and Wendy Dolin to explain their liability theories surrounding the Paxil label that was available to prescribing physicians at the time... (…)

(Anm: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed pregnant women: an updated analysis of the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort. (…) Conclusions Antidepressants with effects on serotonin reuptake during embryogenesis increased the risk of some organ-specific malformations in a cohort of pregnant women with depression. BMJ Open 2017;7:e013372.)

(Anm: Forskere finner link mellom bruk av antidepressiva, medfødte misdannelser eller dødfødsler. (Researchers Find Link Between Antidepressant Use, Congenital Anomalies or Stillbirths) (…) "Mens denne ekstra risikoen kan virke liten er resultatene etter mitt syn så alvorlig som de kan være." (“While this extra risk may seem small, in my view, the outcomes are as serious as they can be.”) (dgnews.docguide.com 5.12.2016).)

(Anm: Eksponering av foster for antidepressiva kan endre Corpus Callosums mikrostruktur: Presentert ved PAS / ASPN. (…) Fordi "den neonate (nyfødtes) corpus callosum mikrostruktur er assosiert med utero (livmor) SSRI-eksponering og prenatal (før fødsel) mødredepresjon, er tidlige modningsprosesser i denne regionen følsomme for endret 5-hydroksytryptamin (5-HT) signalering under tiden i utero (livmor)," bemerket Campbell. "Disse resultatene - sammen med forstyrret hvit substans’ mikrostruktur i genu hos premature spedbarn - tyder dette på at utviklingen av [corpus callosum] kan være følsom for tidlige uheldige påvirkninger. (Fetal Exposure to Antidepressants May Alter Corpus Callosum Microstructure.) (dgnews.docguide.com 10.5.2017).)

(Anm: Unormal sæd med SSRI antidepressiva. Flere studier har funnet endrede sædparametere etter eksponering for SSRI-antidepressiva. Selv om SSRIs rolle er usikker, er det berettiget å ta hensyn til de observerte effektene på sædkvalitet og informere eksponerte pasienter. (Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants. Several studies have found altered semen parameters after exposure to SSRI antidepressants. Although the role of SSRIs is uncertain, it is justified to take into account the observed effects on sperm quality and to inform exposed patients.) Prescrire Int 2015; 24 (156): 16-17.)

(Anm: Gravide kvinner som tar antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å få barn med autisme, ifølge studie. Pregnant women who take antidepressants more likely to have a child with autism, study finds. Research data published in the BMJ reveal that antidepressant use during pregnancy increases the risk of autism in children, as reported The Independent Thursday. (firstwordpharma.com 20.7.2017).)

(Anm: Bruk av antipsykotika er assosiert med en 60 % økt risiko for dødelighet hos pasienter med Alzheimers sykdom. (…) Bruk av to eller flere antipsykotika samtidig ble knyttet til nesten doblet dødsrisiko (200 %) enn ved monoterapi.) (Antipsychotic Drug Use Increases Risk of Mortality Among Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease. JOENSUU, Finland -- December 12, 2016 -- Antipsychotic drug use is associated with a 60% increased risk of mortality among patients with Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. The risk was highest at the beginning of drug use and remained increased in long-term use. Use of 2 or more antipsychotic drugs concomitantly was associated with almost 2 times higher risk of mortality than monotherapy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 12.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antipsykotika dobler dødsrisiko allerede etter 180 dagers bruk. Greater Mortality Risk With Antipsychotics in Parkinson's (Større dødsrisiko med antipsykotika ved Parkinsons) (medicalnewstoday.com 21.6.2015).)

(Anm: (...) For ytterligere å illustrere problemet kan nevnes at antipsykotika forårsaker parkinsonisme (5), og en studie fant at mennesker med Parkinsons sykdom og psykose hadde fire ganger større sannsynlighet for å dø etter tre til seks måneders behandling enn de som ikke fikk antipsykotika. (6) De var også mer utsatt for kognitiv svikt, forverring av parkinsonsymptomer, hjerneslag, infeksjoner og fall. RE: Psykisk syke lever kortere. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 10.11.2015.)

(Anm: Legemidler som kan gi delirium hos eldre. Delirium ses særlig hos eldre ved akutte sykdommer og skader eller som følge av toksisk eller farmakologisk påvirkning. Eldre personer har mange sykdommer og bruken av legemidler er høy. Mange legemidler, og særlig de med antikolinerg eller dopaminerg effekt, kan gi delirium. Kjennskap til legemidler og kombinasjoner av legemidler som kan gi delirium, er viktig for å kunne forebygge og behandle tilstanden. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2005; 125:2366-7 (8.9.2005).)

(Anm: Delirium in hospitalized patients: Risks and benefits of antipsychotics. ABSTRACT Consensus panel guidelines advocate for the judicious use of antipsychotic drugs to manage delirium in hospitalized patients when nonpharmacologic measures fail and the patient is in significant distress from symptoms, poses a safety risk to self or others, or is impeding essential aspects of his or her medical care. Here, we review the use of haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole for this purpose. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2017 August;84(8):616-622.)

(Anm: Post injektionssyndrom. (…) De fleste af disse patienter udviklede symptomer på sedation (fra mild sedation til koma) og/eller delirium (herunder forvirring, desorientering, ophidselse/ uro, angst og anden kognitiv svækkelse). Andre symptomer inkluderede ekstrapyramidale symptomer, dysartri, ataksi, aggression, svimmelhed, svaghed, hypertension eller krampe.) (sundhedsstyrelsen.dk 29.6.2014).)

(Anm: Mødre til børn med misdannelser har øget dødelighed. (…) Bivirkninger har ført til to dødsfald. Den største del af bivirkningerne (42 procent) af de 429 blev indberettet for såkaldte psykostimulerende lægemidler - eksempelvis til behandling af ADHD - efterfulgt af 31 procent for antidepressiver og 24 procent for antipsykotiske lægemidler. (videnskab.dk 20.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antikolinerge effekter av vanlige legemidler knyttet til økt dødelighet hos mennesker over 65. De kombinerte antikolinerge effektene av mange vanlige legemidler øker risikoen for kognitiv svekkelse og død hos personer over 65 år, ifølge resultater fra en storskala studie på den langsiktige helseeffekten av legemidler.(Anticholinergic effects of common drugs are associated with increased mortality in over 65s. The combined anticholinergic effects of many common drugs increase the risk of cognitive impairment and death in people aged over 65, a large scale study of the long term effect of drugs on health has found.) BMJ 2011; 342:d4037 (28 June).)

(Anm: Men experience greater cognitive impairment and increased risk of death following hip surgery. In a study of hip fracture patients, men displayed greater levels of cognitive impairment within the first 22 days of fracture than women, and cognitive limitations increased the risk of dying within six months in both men and women. "While men make up only about 25 percent of all hip fractures, the number of men who fracture their hip is increasing and we know men are more likely to die than women after a hip fracture," said Dr. Ann Gruber-Baldini, lead author of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society study. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.2.2017).)

(Anm: Det autonome nervesystemet. Det autonome nervesystemets hovedoppgave er å bidra til likevekt i kroppens basale funksjoner. Det vil blant annet si kroppstemperatur, blodtrykk, åndedrett og fordøyelse. (nhi.no 4.3.2015).)

(Anm: Ulike selektive serotonin reopptakshemmeres (SSRI-er) cytotoksisitet mot kreftceller. (Cytotoxicity of different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against cancer cells.) (…) Vi har funnet at paroxetine (paroksetin; Seroxat; Paxil etc.) har cytotoksisk aktivitet mot tumorceller. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006;6(1):23-9.)

(Anm: Could antidepressants stop prostate cancer from spreading? In almost all cases where prostate cancer spreads to other areas of the body, the disease spreads to the bone first. In a new study, researchers reveal the discovery of an enzyme that helps prostate cancer cells to invade bone. Furthermore, certain antidepressant medications may have the potential to block this enzyme. Study co-author Jason Wu, of Washington State University-Spokane, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Cancer Cell. (medicalnewstoday.com 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: Classic cytotoxic drugs: a narrow path for regulatory approval. Several classic cytotoxic drugs have shown encouraging activity in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.1–3 However, only a few have received an overwhelming welcome from regulatory authorities and succeeded in obtaining widespread regulatory approval for routine use. For example eribulin was approved for treatment of metastatic breast cancer in several countries including Japan, USA, and Europe, based on data that showed longer overall survival in patients treated with eribulin compared with patients treated with physician's choice of treatment. In contrast ixabcpilone with capecitabine gained approval from the US Food and Drug Agency based on data showing longer progression-free survival compared with capccitabine alone, but did not obtain rcgulatory authorisation in Europc because it is associated with a high incidence of nevropathy.5 Lancet Oncol. 2017 Feb 10. pii: S1470-2045(17)30089-X. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Ødelagt cellulær "klokke" linket til hjerneskade (Broken Cellular 'Clock' Linked to Brain Damage) (sciencedaily.com 25.11.2013).)

(Anm: Signaling Pathways Linked to Serotonin-Induced Superoxide Anion Production: A Physiological Role for Mitochondria in Pulmonary Arteries. Abstract. Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) is commonly associated to cellular damages due to [Formula: see text] overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, [Formula: see text] also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). Front Physiol. 2017 Feb 9;8:76. eCollection 2017.)

(Anm: Bruk av antidepressiva ble assosiert med et betydelig eldre utseende og forskere fant også ut at vekten spilte en viktig faktor. I de sett med tvillinger som var yngre enn 40 år ble tyngre tvillinger oppfattet som eldre. (…) I tillegg mistenker forskerne at den vedvarende avslapping av ansiktsmuskler som antidepressiva forårsaker kan forklare årsaken til at ansiktet faller sammen (henger). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Minislag (ministroke: transient ischemic attack (TIA)) linket til lavere forventet levetid. (- Minislag kan forårsake demens.) (- Enkelte psykofarmaka kan øke risiko for minislag / demens.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Stumme infarkt rammer oftere folk med høy smertetoleranse. Stumme hjerteinfarkt gir ikke de klassiske brystsmertene som ved vanlige infarkt. - Denne pasientgruppen tar enten ikke kontakt med lege, eller de har ikke fått riktig diagnose, sier lege og forsker Andrea Milde Øhrn. (…) Det er vanlig å tenke sterke brystsmerter og akutt behandling når det er snakk om hjerteinfarkt. Det mange kanskje ikke vet, er at man kan ha hatt et hjerteinfarkt uten å vite det. Dette kalles et stumt infarkt, et hjerteinfarkt med få eller ingen symptomer. - Et stumt hjerteinfarkt er et hjerteinfarkt som ikke er erkjent. (nhi.no 3.2.2017).)

(Anm: Sannsynlig karotidyni forårsaket av fluoxetine (Prozac; SSRI-er). (Probable fluoxetine-induced carotidynia.)  Karotidyni er en fokal nakkesmerte (bestemt, avgrenset område), som involverer anatomiske områder til den berørte arteria carotis, og stråler ofte ut i den ipsilateral side (samme side) av ansiktet eller øret. På grunnlag av medisinsk historie og alder har karotidyni konvensjonelt vært klassifisert i klassisk (ikke-migrenøs), migrenøs, og vaskulære varianter. The Lancet 2009;374(9695):1061-1062 (26 September).)

(Anm: Nakkesmerter sætter forskerne skakmat. Kroniske nakkesmerter koster samfundet milliarder og er en af de hyppigste årsager til, at danskere melder sig syge fra job. Forskerne er i vildrede: Ingen behandling er effektiv. (videnskab.dk 22.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva linket til hjerterisiko: tvillingstudie. (Antidepressants linked to heart risk: twins study) - Middelaldrende menn som bruker antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å ha en innsnevring av blodårer, noe som øker risikoen for hjerteinfarkt og slag, enn de som ikke bruker legemidlene, ifølge en studie presentert på lørdag. (Reuters) - Middle-age men who use antidepressants are more likely to have a narrowing of blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes, than those who do not use the medications, according to a study presented on Saturday.) (reuters.com 2.4.2011).)

(Anm: - Pfizers Zyvoxid (Zyvox) og antidepressiva kan være en dødelig kombinasjon. (- Det antas at når linezolid gis til pasienter, som behandles med serotonerge psykofarmaka, kan forhøyede nivåer av serotonin bygge seg opp i hjernen og forårsake toksisitet (giftighet). Dette er referert til som Serotonin syndrom - tegn og symptomer inkluderer mentale endringer (forvirring, hyperaktivitet, minneproblemer), muskelrykninger, overdreven svetting, skjelving eller risting, diaré, problemer med koordinasjon og / eller feber.) (fda.gov 21.10.2011).)

(Anm: Hva er det forskrivere og pasienter ikke vet om bivirkninger av antidepressiva? (What do prescribers and patients not know about the side effects of antidepressant drugs?) (medicalnewstoday.com 15.9.2016).)

(Anm: Forskere: Alvorlige bivirkninger, når antidepressiver droppes. Angst, depression og selvmordstanker er nogle af de bivirkninger, som tit forekommer, når man holder op med at tage antidepressiv medicin. Bivirkningerne kan i nogle tilfælde være langvarige og kroniske, viser et nyt studie. (videnskab.dk 16.3.2015).)

(Anm: Bruk av visse smertestillende midler (og antidepressiva (+ 31 %)) forbundet med økt risiko for drap (Use of certain painkillers linked with increased risk of homicide) Enkelte legemidler som påvirker sentralnervesystemet - som smertestillende og beroligende benzodiazepiner - er assosiert med økt risiko for å begå et drap, finner en ny studie publisert i tidsskriftet World Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 1.6.2015).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. Drab og vold har de seneste år fyldt debatten om de danske bosteder for patienter med psykiske problemer. (…) Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. (…) Mens Folketinget kæmper for en løsning på problemet med vold på offentlige bosteder, vælger flere kommuner at sende tunge patienter til private tilbud. (politiken.dk 18.3.2017.)

(Anm: Aggresjon knyttet til økt risiko for substansmisbruk. Aggression disorder linked to greater risk of substance abuse. (…) In the study, published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Coccaro, MD, and colleagues analyzed data from more than 9,200 subjects in the National Comorbidity Survey, a national survey of mental health in the United States. They found that as the severity of aggressive behavior increased, so did levels of daily and weekly substance use. The findings suggest that a history of frequent, aggressive behavior is a risk factor for later substance abuse, and effective treatment of aggression could delay or even prevent substance abuse in young people. (medicalnewstoday.com 2.3.2017).)

(Anm: Halvparten av norske drap begått av rusede. (…) I 125 av drapene – eller 54 prosent – er det beskrevet i dommen at gjerningspersonen var påvirket av rusmidler under drapet. (nrk.no 13.12.2016).)

- En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn.

(Anm: En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn. (- Pasienten døde etter kort tid, og dødsårsaken var nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning), heter det i tilsynets rapport. (nrk.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body, frequently a response of the immune system to infection. (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Sepsis. Definisjon: SIRS + påvist/mistenkt infeksjon (f. eks. positiv blodkultur). SIRS- kriteriene er: - Feber > 38 ºC eller hypotermi < 36 ºC - Puls > 90/minutt - Respirasjonsfrekvens > 20/minutt eller hypokapni med pCO2 < 4,3 kPa i blodgass - Leukocytose ≥ 12 × 109/l eller leukopeni < 4 × 109/l eller > 10 % umodne leukocytter. (helsebiblioteket.no - Metodebok for indremedisinere, 2012).)

(Anm: Rollen til mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) ved sepsis (blodforgiftning)-indusert multiorgansvikt. (The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure). (Virulence. 2013 Nov 1;5(1).)

- Diagnostisering av sepsis. Sepsis, også kjent som blodforgiftning, er kroppens hyperaktive respons på en infeksjon som kan føre til betennelse, vevskader, organsvikt etc.

(Anm: Diagnosing Sepsis. Sepsis, also known as blood poisoning, is the body’s hyperactive response to an infection that can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, organ failure etc. It is a very dangerous state in which the immune system stops fighting with the invading agents  and turns to itself. Around one-third of patients who are affected with sepsis die every year. (news-medical.net 7.9.2017).)

- Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon.

(Anm: Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon. Recognizing Sepsis as a Global Health Priority — A WHO Resolution. “Some very important clinical issues, some of them affecting life and death, stay largely in a backwater which is inhabited by academics and professionals and enthusiasts, dealt with very well at the clinical and scientific level but not visible to the public, political leaders, leaders of healthcare systems... The public and political space is the space in which [sepsis] needs to be in order for things to change.” NEJM (June 28, 2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis – den dödliga sjukdomen som glöms bort. Trots att infektionssjukdomen sepsis förekommer oftare än de vanligaste formerna av cancer och att upp emot hälften som drabbas av den allvarligaste formen dör, så har många knappt hört talas om sjukdomen. Sepsis som är den medicinska termen på blodförgiftning, drabbar omkring 40 000 svenskar varje år. (netdoktor.se 7.6.2017).)

- Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod.

(Anm: Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod. (- Sepsis, en potensielt livstruende komplikasjon av en infeksjon, har den høyeste byrde mht. død og medisinske utgifter på sykehus over hele verden.) (- Quick test finds signs of sepsis in a single drop of blood. (…) Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, has the highest burden of death and medical expenses in hospitals worldwide. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.7.2017).)

(Anm: Nye sepsiskriterier kan føre til forsinket behandling. (…) Sepsis er en svært alvorlig tilstand med høy morbiditet og mortalitet (2). Den totale insidensen er ukjent, men man regner med at sepsis er en av de viktigste årsakene til alvorlig, akutt sykdom på verdensbasis (1). (…) Sepsis har inntil nylig vært definert som mistenkt infeksjon med samtidig tilstedeværelse av to eller flere SIRS-kriterier (1). Endringer i hjertefrekvens, kroppstemperatur, respirasjonsfrekvens og leukocytter er kroppens tegn på inflammasjon, og de indikerer ikke nødvendigvis en livstruende, dysregulert vertsrespons på infeksjon. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2017; :609-10 (20.4.2017).)

(Anm: LEGENE FORSTO IKKE AT HAN VAR DØDSSYK: Stian (19) døde etter 18 timer på sykehus uten legetilsyn. (…) Helsetilsynet konkluderer med at sykehusets behandling var uforsvarlig. (…) Fikk ikke beskjed. (…) Fastlegen sendte med dem papirer som foreldrene leverte på Akuttmottaket ved Ahus, der sto det; «Diagnose: Obs sepsis».  (tv2.no 29.4.2017).)

(Anm: Svikt i behandlingen av akutt syk ung mann i akuttmottaket – brudd på helselovgivningen. (…) Pasienten ble lagt på observasjonsposten (Akutt 24) ved akuttmottaket frem til neste morgen. I løpet av tiden på observasjonsposten ble han ikke tilsett av lege. På morgenen var han betydelig verre og han fikk tegn på fullt utviklet blodforgiftning. Behandling med antibiotika ble iverksatt, men han døde kort tid etter som følge av meningokokksepsis og hjerneødem. (helsetilsynet.no 2.5.2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis; grunnleggende kliniske observasjoner. Sepsis= En systemisk inflammatorisk respons (SIRS) pga. en infeksjon Tre alvorlighetsgrader: 1) Sepsis (to eller flere symptomer på SIRS som følge av infeksjon) 2) Alvorlig sepsis (sepsis med akutt organdysfunksjon, hypoperfusjon eller hypotensjon) 3) Septisk sjokk (hypotensjon til tross for adekvat væsketerapi, samt forekomst av perfusjonsforstyrrelser og organdysfunksjon) (hnt.no 5.11.2013).)

- Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting (sepsis) blir undersøkt av lege for seint.

(Anm: Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting blir undersøkt av lege for seint. Helsetilsynet fann brot ved 24 akuttmottak over heile landet. – Svært alvorleg. – Dette er svært alvorleg, for det dreier seg om ein alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som i verste fall kan medføra død dersom behandlinga ikkje blir igangsett til riktig tid, seier avdelingsdirektør i Helsetilsynet, Ragnar Hermstad. OVER EIN TIME: Pasientar som kjem inn med teikn på alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som blodforgifting skal ifølge nasjonale retningslinjer få anitibiotikabehandling innan maks ein time. Alle dei 24 akuttmottaka hadde svikt på dette området. (nrk.no 16.6.2017).)

(Anm: Lege sier improvisert «kur» for sepsis har hatt bemerkelsesverdige resultater. (…) Spesialist i intensivbehandling Paul Marik sier at enkel behandling med infusjon av vitamin C og steroider har bemerkelsesverdig effekt på pasienter med potensielt dødelig tilstand. (independent.co.uk 24.3.2017).)

(Anm: Bivirkninger underrapporteres i videnskabelige tidsskrifter. (...) Mellem 43 og 100 procent af de bivirkninger, der, ifølge det ikke-publicerede materiale, er fundet ved de testede lægemidler, er ikke lagt frem i de videnskabelige artikler, viser Yoon Loke og kollegernes gennemgang. (videnskab.dk 5.10.2016).)

(Anm: Dødsfall på grunn av nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning) etter behandling med legemiddelet klozapin – uforsvarlig oppfølging – mangelfull samhandling og informasjon. (…)  Manglende informasjon fra spesialisthelsetjenesten og mangelfull samhandling mellom kommunehelsetjenesten, fastlegen, pasienten og pårørende bidro til hendelsen. Helseforetaket skal gjennomgå hendelsen for å redusere risikoen ved lignende tilfeller. (helsetilsynet.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter. De ønsker psykologhjelp. I stedet blir de fôret med piller fra fastlegen. Unge jenter har aldri brukt mer antidepressiver. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Gjennomgang av forsøksdata bekrefter at vanlig antidepressiva "ikke er sikkert og ineffektivt" for tenåringer. Det mye foreskrevne antidepressive legemidlet paroksetin (Seroxat) til amerikanske tenåringer siden 2001 er hverken sikkert, effektivt eller bedre enn placebo, ifølge en banebrytende ny analyse av de opprinnelige studiedata. (Trial review confirms common antidepressant is 'unsafe and ineffective' for teens. Widely prescribed to American teenagers since 2001, the antidepressant drug paroxetine is not safe or effective and is no better than placebo, according to a groundbreaking reanalysis of the original trial data.) (medicalnewstoday.com 17.9.2015).)

(Anm: Editor's Choice. Study 329. (...) From this immense task they concluded that there is no advantage of paroxetine or imipramine over placebo. They also uncovered "serious, severe, and suicide related adverse events" that had been overlooked or hidden. BMJ 2015;351:h4973 (Published 17 September 2015).)

(Anm: The paroxetine controversy: lessons for ketamine trials. In 2001, a trial of paroxetine and imipramine (Study 329) led to paroxetine being recommended for adolescents with major depressive disorder. In 2015, a reanalysis of this trial1 expressed grave concerns about the original results and recommendations. The finding that paroxetine was clinically efficacious is now established to be a fallacy, more than 14 years after the initial results were published and after hundreds of thousands of adolescents have been treated with the drug.1 The Lancet Psychiatry 2015;2(12):1057–1058 (December 2015).)

(Anm: Depresjonsstudie på Ketamin- trukket tilbake etter granskning ved Yale. Ketamine-depression paper retracted following investigation at Yale. A psychiatry journal has retracted a 2011 paper exploring the use of ketamine to treat patients with severe depression following an investigation at Yale University. According to the retraction notice, Yale determined that the paper, published in the International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, did not accurately describe the research. But the study’s lead author, Gregory Larkin, says he believes the retraction “is wholly unnecessary, serving neither patients nor science.” (retractionwatch.com 28.8.2017).)

(Anm: Frequency of discrepancies in retracted clinical trial reports versus unretracted reports: blinded case-control study. (…) Conclusions Discrepancies in published trial reports should no longer be assumed to be unimportant. Scientists, blinded to retraction status and with no specialist skill in the field, identify significantly more discrepancies in retracted than unretracted reports of clinical trials. Discrepancies could be an early and accessible signal of unreliability in clinical trial reports. BMJ 2015;351:h4708. (Published 20 September 2015).)

(Anm: Pilot i dødelig krasj brukte forbudt legemiddel. (Pilot in fatal crash was using banned drug.) The Chilkat Valley News. (28.02.2002).)

(Anm: Final Report. Accident on 24 March 2015 at Prads-Haute-Bléone (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France) to the Airbus A320-211 registered D-AIPX operated by Germanwings (bea.aero D-AIPX - 24 March 2015).)

(Anm: Gåten Lubitz (...) Kan antidepressiva ha forårsaket Germanwings-tragedien (- Could antidepressants have caused the Germanwings tragedy?) (forbes.com 29.3.2015).)

(Anm: More Than 1 in 10 Pilots Suffer From Depression, Survey Finds. THURSDAY, Dec. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- More than one-tenth of professional airline pilots may suffer from depression, and a small percentage might experience suicidal thoughts, a new survey reveals. The findings come in the wake of the Germanwings air crash in 2015. In that tragedy, a co-pilot with depression deliberately crashed an airliner in the French Alps, killing all 150 people onboard. (medicinenet.com 15.12.2016).)

- Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat) Side Effects (Bivirkninger fra Seroxat)

Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat) Side Effects (Bivirkninger fra Seroxat)

depression.about.com 21.8.2013
Most Common Side Effects (Mest vanlige bivirkninger)
The following side effects were most commonly reported by people who participated in clinical trials testing paroxetine as a depression treatment:

  • Weakness
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Decreased appetite
  • Sleepiness
  • Dizziness
  • Insomnia
  • Involuntary shaking
  • Nervousness
  • Problems with ejaculation (in men)
  • Other male genital disorders

This is not a complete list of all possible side effects. Please talk with your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions.

More Serious Side Effects (More Serious Side Effects)
In order to protect your life and health, please talk with a medical professional immediately if you experience any of these more serious side effects:

  • Signs of increased risk for suicide, such as suicidal thoughts or behaviors, worsening depression, impulsivity, aggression, increases in anxiety, irritability, agitation, restlessness or sleep problems
  • Signs of serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, such as agitation, hallucinations, changes in mental status, coordination problems, muscle twitching, racing heartbeat, high or low blood pressure, sweating, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or muscle rigidity
  • Signs of a severe allergic reaction, such as swelling of the face, tongue, eyes or mouth; itchy rash, hives or blisters, alone or with joint pain; or difficulty breathing
  • Abnormal bleeding

Seizures (Anfall)

  • Signs of a manic episode, such as increased energy, difficulty sleeping, racing thoughts, risky behavior, unusually grand ideas, extreme elation or irritability or talking more and faster than usual.
  • Signs of low salt in the blood, such as headache; weakness; confusion; problems with thinking, concentration and memory (…)

(Anm: RE: Studier som stikkes under stol Minileder Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2015; 135:617 (25.5.2015).)

(Anm: RE: Psykisk syke lever kortere. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2015; 135:246 – 8 (8.09.2015).)

(Anm: RE: Psykisk syke lever kortere. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2015; 135:1534 – 5 (22.9.2015).)

(Anm: RE: Psykisk syke lever kortere. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2015; 135:1923-4 (17.11.2015).)

(Anm: Uriktig fremstilling av skader i studier på antidepressiva. Nye bevis fra kliniske studierapporter avdekker feilklassifisering, feiltolkning, og underrapportering av alvorlige skader. BMJ 2016;352:i217 (Published 28 January 2016).)

(Anm: Offentligt betalte forskere pynter på resultater af forsøg på mennesker. (videnskab.dk 14.3.2016).)

(Anm: Helsevesenet bruker ikke ny forskning. Norske pasienter får medisiner og behandling de ikke har bruk for fordi nye forskningsresultater ikke tas i bruk. Større problem enn unyttig forskning, mener eksperter. (forskning.no 2.1.2016).)

(Anm: Forvaltningsmakt og kunnskapspolitikk. Sammendrag. Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet benekter at de ønsker å styre forskninga i underliggende etater, og ser ingen problemer med at forskninga ligger under forvaltninga. Rus & Samfunn 05 / 2016 (Volum 9) Side: 33-35.)

(Anm: Frie forskere eller maktens lakeier? Abstrakt. Det går et skisma gjennom den samfunnsvitenskapelige rusforskningen. Ved første øyekast er det vanskelig å forstå hvorfor. Rus & Samfunn 05 / 2016 (Volum 9) Side: 36-40.)

(Anm: Lederartikler (Editorials) Tid for kunnskapsbasert forskningspolitikk Og offentlig finansierte forskere må være åpne om den sannsynlige betydningen av forskningen. (Time for evidence based research policy. And publicly funded researchers need to be candid about the likely impact of research). BMJ 2016;353:i3146 (Published 13 June 2016).)

(Anm: Kronikk: Kari Sollien, leder i allmennlegeforeningen. Hvorfor bruker ikke kommunene legenes kunnskap? Kunnskap skal redde velferdsstaten. I kommunene har ledelsen en lang vei å gå for å involvere helsepersonell i arbeidet med å utvikle helsetjenesten. (dagensmedisin.no 15.8.2016).)

(Anm: Leger ivaretar din mentale helse, men hvem ivaretas deres? (Doctors look after our mental health but who looks after theirs?) (theconversation.com 26.4.2016).)

(Anm: Dorothea Dix: Redefining mental illness. During the 19th century, mental health disorders were not recognized as treatable conditions. They were perceived as a sign of madness, warranting imprisonment in merciless conditions. One woman set out to change such perceptions: Dorothea Lynde Dix. (…) Dix - a teacher and nurse during the American Civil War - tirelessly campaigned for the fair treatment of patients with mental health disorders, after being appalled by the conditions in which they were confined. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.5.2017).)

(Anm: Tor K. Larsen, professor i psykiatri, Stavanger universitetssykehus: - Den valgfriheten som helseministeren nå ønsker å påtvinge helsevesenet vil føre til at mange svært alvorlig syke mennesker i praksis fratas retten til best mulig behandling. Innføring av medikamentfrie poster i psykiatrien er et gigantisk feilgrep. (dagensmedisin.no 29.7.2016).)

(Anm: Tre av 60.000 studenter ble tvunget til å slutte. Medstudenter og lærere varsler for sjelden om personer som ikke egner seg til yrket de utdanner seg til, mener fagfolk. Studenter som skal jobbe med mennesker og sårbare grupper, bør ikke ha rusproblemer, psykiske problemer, dårlige kommunikasjonsevner eller holdninger som ikke er forenlig med yrket. (aftenposten.no 18.8.2016).)

(Anm: - Hvorfor legers mentale helse bør være en bekymring for oss alle. (- Noen av de mer alarmerende resultater av å ha stressede og deprimerte leger er patologisk kynisme, en uvilje mot å ta vare på kronisk syke og redusert empati.)  (newstatesman.com 16.4.2016).)

(Anm: 27% of Medical Students Are Depressed. In the new research published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, researchers analyzed nearly 200 studies of 129,000 medical students in 47 countries. They found that 27% of medical students had depression or symptoms of it, and 11% reported suicidal thoughts during medical school. (time.com 10.12.2016).)

(Anm: LEDER. Ville du like å gå til en lege som er psykopat? Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2008; 128:1805 (28.8. 2008).)

(Anm: Psychopathy of 1,800 prisoners leads to novel diagnostic tool for criminals and non-criminals alike (medicalnewstoday.com 12.8.2016).)

(Anm: Introduction and validation of Psychopathic Personality Traits Scale (PPTS) in a large prison sample. Conclusion. This brief measure of psychopathic traits uncontaminated with behavioral items can be used in the same way among participants with and without criminal history. Journal of Criminal Justice 2016;46: 9–17 (September 2016).)

(Anm: Kronikk av anonym far: Min datter ble et offer for pillepsykiatrien. (aftenposten.no 25.8.2015).)

(Anm: Medisinering av psykisk utviklingshemmede (Lørdagsrevyen 12.11.2011).)

(Anm: Tror psykose­medisin tok livet av Renate. Da søsteren til Anniken Hoel døde brått, sto familien uten svar. Til det viste seg at «plutselig død» var en mulig bivirkning av medisinene hun tok. (nrk.no 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: Overmedisinering av eldre (NRK Dagsrevyen) (…) Flere eldre dør av overmedisinering. (...) Vi er kommet dit at vi aksepterer lettere at pasienter dør av bivirkninger av medisiner enn av selve sykdommen. (nrk.no 10.2.2017).)

(Anm: Moren (85) ble syk av behandlingen på sykehjem: – Hadde ikke forventet at de skulle ødelegge et menneske med medisiner. Beboere på norske sykehjem bruker i gjennomsnitt syv medikamenter hver, viser tall fra Regjeringens demensplan 2020. Ofte er tallet mye høyere. (tv2.no 18.5.2017.)

(Anm: Han blei medisinert til døde (nrk.no 12.11.2011).)

(Anm: Havarikommisjoner (undersøkelseskommisjoner) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Bruk av annengenerasjons antipsykotiske legemidler øker parametre for metabolsk syndrom. (dgnews.docguide.com 17.3.2016).)

- Studien viser sammenhengen mellom metabolsk syndrom og risiko for kognitive sykdommer.

(Anm: Study shows link between metabolic syndrome and risk of cognitive disorders. A study presented at the European Academy of Neurology Congress in Amsterdam has shown that obesity alone is not a risk factor for cognitive disorders, but commonly associated co-morbidities such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and metabolic disorders are. Dementia diseases in patients who suffer from diabetes are often treated inadequately, a new research paper reveals. It has long been supposed that patients with metabolic syndrome are more likely to suffer from cognitive impairment - and to a greater extent. Reasons are thought to include chronic inflammatory processes which can induce neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative changes. Whether obese individuals without risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic disorders and the presence of albumin in the urine have an increased risk of cognitive impairment is still little researched. (news-medical.net 27.6.2017).)

(Anm: Metabolic Syndrome Components Are Associated With Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Independent of Glycemic Status. Diabetes Care 2016 (Published online before print March 10, 2016).)

(Anm: Patients With Polyneuropathy Receive Long-Term Opioid Therapy, No Clear Benefit. CHICAGO -- May 23, 2017 -- Polyneuropathy is associated with an increased likelihood of long-term opioid therapy, but therapy does not appear to improve functional status, according to a study published online by JAMA Neurology. Polyneuropathy is a common painful condition, especially among older patients, which can result in functional impairment. (dgnews.docguide.com 23.5.2017).)

(Anm: Prepsychosis links with elevated metabolic syndrome. MADRID – Untreated people at high risk for developing psychosis also showed an increased prevalence of certain components of metabolic syndrome in data collected from 163 German study participants, a finding that gives new insight into the well-documented but poorly delineated link between schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome. (...) He also suggested prescribing antipsychotic medications that pose the lowest risk for causing further metabolic derangements in patients. (clinicalpsychiatrynews.com.com 2.4.2016).)

(Anm: Joachim Raese, MD. Metabolic syndrome is defined by the aggregation of hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, elevated fasting glucose, hypertension, and increased waist circumference. Metabolic syndrome confers an increased risk of developing diabetes and of dying from coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among patients with schizophrenia, who have a life expectancy about 20 years shorter than the general population. (…) For a more detailed discussion, I suggest watching a YouTube video that we have prepared. (cmeinstitute.com 27.4.2016).)

(Anm: Video Lecture 8: Metabolic Syndrome Lectures 1 (By Dr. Joachim Raese) (youtube.com).)

(Anm: - Lege får 30 år til livstid for drap i sak i L.A. knyttet til pasienters overdoser. (Doctor gets 30 years to life for murders in L.A. case tied to patients' overdoses.) (…) En dommer dømte fredag en lege i Rowland Height til 30 år til livstid i fengsel for drapene på tre av sine pasienter som følge av dødelig overdose, en dom som satte sluttstrek i en "landmark"-sak som enkelte medisinske eksperter sier kan endre hvordan leger i hele landet håndterer forskrivningen av reseptbelagte legemidler. (latimes.com 5.2.2016).)

(Anm: Diskriminering, feilmedisineringer hos mennesker med utviklingshemming og utfordrende atferd (psykofarmaka; antidepressiva, antipsykotika, sovemedisiner) etc. (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: På tide å revurdere? (Time to rethink?) Legemiddelbehandlinger hos mennesker med utviklingshemming og utfordrende atferd (Drug treatments in people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour disabilities) Editorials (Lederartikkel) BMJ 2014;349:g4323 (Published 04 July 2014).)

(Anm: - Slår sovepiller os ihjel? (- Studiet er det største af sin slags på globalt plan og har også undersøgt sammenhængen mellem brug af antidepressiver og antipsykotika og dødelighed. Også her fandt forskerne en overdødelighed.) (videnskab.dk 21.3.2016).)

- Dommer kan gjenåpne sak mot GSK/Seroxat

Judge might reopen GSK paroxetine case
BMJ 2016;352:i800(Published 08 February 2016)
A High Court compensation claim against the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) over its antidepressant paroxetine may be revived, five years after the withdrawal of legal aid funding put it on hold shortly before the trial was due to start on 1 February 2011.

At the High Court in London, Mr Justice Foskett refused GSK an order, bringing the case to a permanent halt.

The 103 claimants, whose new solicitors, Fortitude Law, had arranged commercial litigation funding, said that withdrawal problems with paroxetine—known in the UK as Seroxat and in the US as Paxil—were worse than for other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. If proved, the drug could be deemed a defective product under the Consumer Protection Act 1987.

Alternatively, the claimants argued that the drug was defective because it was marketed without warnings that withdrawal side effects were worse than for other drugs in its class. GSK denied the allegations. (…)

(Anm: This Really Common Antidepressant Could Cause Life-Threatening Side Effects. Experts are calling B.S. on research that made this drug (and others) so mainstream. (cosmopolitan.com 17.9.2015).)

(Anm: Paradoks: De raskeste diabetikere dør tidligst. De raskeste type 2-diabetikere har dobbelt så høj dødelighed som de sygeste, og manglende forebyggende medicin synes at være synderen. Derfor skal den kommende nationale handleplan, Diabetesplan 2, sikre, at alle med diabetes får den optimale forebyggende behandling. Det mener Diabetesforeningen. Det lyder umiddelbart paradoksalt, men de raskeste type 2-diabetikere er faktisk dem, der dør tidligst. En dansk undersøgelse viser, at 12,4 procent af de diabetikere, der har mindst problemer med blodsukkeret, dør syv år efter, de får stillet diagnosen diabetes, mens tallet ligger helt nede på 6,5 procent for de sygeste diabetikere. (diabetes.dk 21.11.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva og antipsykotika gir økt risiko for diabetes hos barn og voksne (50 til 700 %) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Diabetes: Risiko for hjerteinfarkt på grunn av tap av små blodårene rundt hjertet. (Diabetes: Heart attack risk due to loss of small blood vessels around the heart.) (medicalnewstoday.com 24.3.2017).)

(Anm: Pasienter behandlet med antipsykotika (nevroleptika) har signifikant senket platelet complex I aktivitet i mitokondrier i likhet med det som er observert ved idiopatisk Parkinsons sykdom. (...) Antipsykotika (nevroleptika) hemmer kompleks I i elektrontransportkjeden. (Neuroleptic medications inhibit complex I of the electron transport chain. (...) Neuroleptic treated patients have significant depression of platelet complex I activity similar to that seen in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Complex I inhibition may be associated with the extrapyramidal side effects of these drugs.) Ann Neurol. 1993;33:512-7).)

(Anm: Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I exhibits aberrant hyperactivity in diabetes. (…) Highlights • Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I shows hyperactivity in diabetes. • Complex I hyperactivity is associated with increased NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance. • Complex I hyperactivity is associated with increased oxidative stress and cell death. • Complex I hyperactivity is linked with compromised cellular anti-oxidative stress capacity such as decreased sirt3 and NQO1 expressions. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2017 Sep;11:119-129.)

(Anm: Effekter av MPTP på serotonerge nevronale systemer og mitokondrie Complex I aktiviteten i den levende hjernen: En PET-studie på bevisste rhesusaper. (Effects of MPTP on Serotonergic Neuronal Systems and Mitochondrial Complex I Activity in the Living Brain: A PET Study on Conscious Rhesus Monkeys. (Effects of MPTP on Serotonergic Neuronal Systems and Mitochondrial Complex I Activity in the Living Brain: A PET Study on Conscious Rhesus Monkeys.) J Nucl Med. 2017 Mar 9. pii: jnumed.116.189159.)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (inkl. SSRI-preparater) og antipsykotika har skadelige effekter på mitokondrier (Mol Cell Biochem 1999;199:103-9).)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon ligger bak kognitive defekter som et resultat av nevral stamcelleutarmning og nedsatt neurogenese. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies cognitive defects as a result of neural stem cell depletion and impaired neurogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jun 8.)

(Anm: Adenosintrifosfat (ATP) er en energirik kjemisk forbindelse som er involvert i alle energikrevende prosesser i menneskekroppen, som muskelsammentrekning, overføring av signaler i nerver, oppbygging av proteiner, kopiering av arvestoffer med mer. (…) ATP kan oppfattes som en universell energileverandør i alle celler og vev. Livet ville ikke vært mulig uten ATP. Forbindelsen er blitt kalt «livets molekyl». Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: Mitokondriell energimangel fører til hyperproliferasjon av skjelettmuskel-mitokondrier og økt insulinfølsomhet. (...) Vi fremlegger bevis på at mitokondrier bidrar til etiologien (sykdomsårsaken) til metabolsk sykdom. (…) Diabetes er assosiert med svekket glukosemetabolisme i nærvær av overskudd av insulin. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) 2017;114(8) (February 21, 2017).)

(Anm: Forskrivninger av midler til behandling av diabetes øker med en tredjedel i løpet av fem år. (Diabetes prescribing rises by a third over five years. The number of prescriptions for drugs that treat type 2 diabetes that were dispensed by pharmacies in England has risen by one third (33%) in five years, according to research carried out by analytic database provider EXASOL.) BMJ 2016;355:i5484 (Published 10 October 2016).)

(Anm: Yngre med type 2-diabetes rammes hårdt. Er man under 45 år, når man får type 2-diabetes, har man ofte allerede tidlige tegn på øjen- og nyreskader, viser nyt dansk studie. (diabetes.dk 14.9.2016).)

(Anm: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Decrease Pancreatic Insulin Secretion in Older Adults and Increase the Risk of Insulin Dependence in Type 2 Diabetes Patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Aug 2.)

(Anm: Antidepressiva og antipsykotika øker risikoen for hoftebrudd, benskjørhet etc. (- Blant mennesker i alderen 60 år og eldre i Norge hadde de som brukte et antipsykotika hadde dobbelt så stor risiko for å lide av et hoftebrudd enn de som ikke brukte dem.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Tanntap (tannløshet) linkes til økt risiko for demens. (Tooth loss linked to an increased risk of dementia.) Våre funn understreker den kliniske betydningen av tannpleie og behandling, spesielt når det gjelder vedlikehold av tenner fra en tidlig alder for å kunne redusere fremtidig risiko for demens. (…) Personer med 10-19, 1-9 og ingen tenner hadde hhv. 62 %, 81 % og 63 % høyere risiko for demens enn personer med > 20 tenner. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.3.2017).)

(Anm: Derfor kan du få demens av diabetes. Diabetes øker risikoen for alzheimer. Den gode nyheten er at du i stor grad kan påvirke risikoen selv. (dagbladet.no 2.7.2016).)

(Anm: FDA advarer om nye impulskontrollproblemer knyttet til legemidlet aripiprazol (Abilify) for psykisk helse (Abilify, Abilify vedlikeh, Aristada) (FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA warns about new impulse-control problems associated with mental health drug aripiprazole (Abilify, Abilify Maintena, Aristada). (fda.gov 5.5.2016).)

(Anm: Role of mitochondrial DNA variation in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Mitochondria are crucial intracellular organelles where ATP and reactive oxygen species are generated via the electron transport chain. They are also where cellular fate is determined. There is a growing body of evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. (…)  Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2016 Jun 1;21:1151-67.)

(Anm: Antidepressiva er ifølge ny studie knyttet til mislykkede tannimplantater. (Antidepressants linked to tooth implant failure, new study finds.) (- Forskning viser at bruk av antidepressiva firedobler risikoen for implantat svikt. For hvert år dobler antidepressiva risikoen for svikt.) (medicalnewstoday.com 10.3.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva ökar risken för benbrott hos äldre. (…) Den förhöjda risken för höftfraktur gällde alla de vanliga antidepressiva läkemedlen, SSRI-preparat, mirtazapin och SNRI-preparat (selektiva serotonin- och noradrenalinåterupptagshämmare. Sambandet gällde även då det kontrollerats för andra faktorer som ålder, annan medicinering som ökar fallrisken, benskörhet, socioekonomisk status, kroniska sjukdomar och psykiatriska diagnoser.) (lakemedelsvarlden.se 12.1.2017).)

(Anm: Heart disease risk higher with latent tooth infection. If you missed your last dental checkup, a new study might encourage you to book that appointment right away; researchers have identified a higher risk of heart disease for individuals who have hidden tooth infections. (…) Last year, for example, a study published in Infection and Immunity suggested that the bacterium involved in gum disease may also raise the risk of heart disease. Now, researchers from the University of Helsinki in Finland have uncovered a link between dental root tip infection, known as apical periodontitis, and greater risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) - an umbrella term for conditions that involve blocked blood flow to the coronary arteries. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.8.2016).)

(Anm: Munhälsan bättre än på 80-talet – men tandlossning ökar igjen. De två största tandsjukdomarna karies och parodontit (tandlossning) minskade fram till 2008. Därefter ökade antalet individer med parodontit och den positiva utvecklingen för karies stannade av. – Även om munhälsan har förbättras under denna 30-årsperiod ser vi en försämring mellan 2008 och 2013 då det gäller främst tandlossning, säger Kristina Edman vid Uppsala universitet har undersökt munhälsans utveckling över en trettioårsperiod. (forskning.se 3.5.2016).)

(Anm: Experts of the University of Cadiz create a new model shedding light on the relationship between Alzheimer and diabetes. In recent time, many epidemiological studies have proved very close links existing between diabetes and Alzheimer´s disease. In fact, it has been stated that diabetes is a significant risk factor for suffering from Alzheimer and vascular dementia, the two main causes of dementia. (medicalnewstoday.com 11.1.2016).)

(Anm: Konklusjon: Resultatene fra denne studien viste at pasienter med diabetes mellitus vanligvis klager på gastrointestinale symptomer (som har med mage og tarm å gjøre), og gastrointestinale problemer som forringer trivsel og livskvalitet. (…) Utbredelse av gastrointestinale symptomer og dens effekt på livskvalitet blant pasienter med diabetes mellitus American Journal of Nursing Research 2015;3(3):48-53.)

(Anm: Effect of age, family history of diabetes, and antipsychotic drug treatment on risk of diabetes in people with psychosis: a population-based cross-sectional study.Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Oct 13. pii: S2215-0366(15)00276-X. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Young women with diabetes 'have six-fold higher heart attack risk' (medicalnewstoday.com 1.9.2015).)

(Anm: Forskere finner ny link mellom diabetes og Alzheimers (Scientists find new link between diabetes and Alzheimer's) (medicalnewstoday.com 6.5.2015).)

(Anm: Antidepressants & Alzheimer’s Diagnosis. Antidepressants are frequently initiated in persons with Alzheimer's disease already before the diagnosis, shows a recent study from the University of Eastern Finland. Among persons with Alzheimer’s disease, the initiation of antidepressant use was most common during the six months after the Alzheimer’s diagnosis, and more frequent than among comparison persons without Alzheimer’s disease even 4 years after the diagnosis. The results were published in International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (pharmpro.com 4.3.2016).)

(Anm: New Link Found Between Diabetes, Alzheimer’s Disease. LONDON -- June 21, 2016 --Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes are so closely related that drugs currently used to control glucose levels in diabetes may also alleviate the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study published in the journal Diabetologia. Researchers found for the first time that dementia-related complications within the brain can also lead to changes in glucose handling and ultimately diabetes. This is contrary to what was previously thought -- that diabetes begins with a malfunction in the pancreas or a high-fat, high-sugar diet. (dgnews.docguide.com 21.6.2016).)

(Anm: New link found between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. The study reports that Alzheimer's Disease and type 2 diabetes are so closely related that drugs currently used to control glucose levels in diabetes may also alleviate the symptoms and progression of Alzheimer's disease. The paper, published in the journal Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes), found for the first time that dementia-related complications within the brain can also lead to changes in glucose handling and ultimately diabetes. This is contrary to what was previously thought - that diabetes begins with a malfunction in the pancreas or a high fat, high sugar diet. (medicalnewstoday.com 23.6.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressants Impact Connexin 43 Channel Functions in Astrocytes. Glial cells, and in particular astrocytes, are crucial to maintain neuronal microenvironment by regulating energy metabolism, neurotransmitter uptake, gliotransmission, and synaptic development. (…) Based on these criterions all molecules were tested at concentrations between 5 and 20 μM (24 h) for toxicity; we observed that fluoxetine at 20 μM, paroxetine 10 μM, and duloxetine 20 μM were toxic at these indicated doses, consequently these molecules were tested at lower doses. Front. Cell. Neurosci., 2016 (07 January 2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressant use begins years before Alzheimer's diagnosis. (…) During the 13-year follow-up period, 42% of persons with Alzheimer's disease and 22% of persons not diagnosed with the disease initiated antidepressant use. The most commonly used antidepressant group was selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs, followed by mirtazapine. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.3.2016).)

(Anm: Hyperglycemia modulates extracellular amyloid-β concentrations and neuronal activity in vivo. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2015 (First published May 4, 2015).)

- Seroxat (Paroksetin; paroxetine) linket til økt risiko for misdannelser ved bruk tidlig i svangerskapet

Paroxetine Linked With Increased Risk of Birth Defects When Taken in Early Pregnancy (Seroxat (Paroksetin; paroxetine) linket til økt risiko for misdannelser ved bruk tidlig i svangerskapet)
dgnews.docguide.com 5.1.2016
HOBOKEN, NJ -- January 5, 2016 -- Bruk av paroksetin (Seroxat; paroxetine) i første trimester av svangerskapet kan øke nyfødtes risiko for medfødte (kongenital) misdannelser og hjertemisdannelser, ifølge en studie publisert i British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. (- Using paroxetine during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase newborns’ risk of congenital malformations and cardiac malformations, according to a study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.)

En liten upublisert studie utført av produsenten av paroksetin antyder en økt risiko for hjertemisdannelser hos spedbarn eksponert for paroksetin før fødselen. Senere studier ved hjelp av ulike studiedesign i ulike populasjoner i Europa og Nord-Amerika har generert motstridende resultater i form av statistisk signifikans, men en trend heller mot økt risiko. (A small unpublished study conducted by the manufacturer of paroxetine suggested an increased risk of cardiac malformations in infants exposed to paroxetine before birth. Subsequent studies using various study designs in different populations across Europe and North America generated conflicting results in terms of statistical significance, although a trend remained towards an increased risk.)

For å gi en helhetlig vurdering av effektene av paroksetin på nyfødte gjennomførte Anick Bérard, PhD, CHU Sainte-Justine og University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, en litteraturgjennomgang og metaanalyse av alle relevante studier publisert i perioden 1966-2015. Forskerne fant 23 egnede studier. (To provide a comprehensive assessment of the effects of paroxetine on newborns, Anick Bérard, PhD, CHU Sainte-Justine and the University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, conducted a literature review and meta-analysis of all relevant studies published from 1966 to 2015. The investigators uncovered 23 eligible studies.)

Sammenlignet med ingen bruk av paroksetin ble bruk av paroksetin i første trimester knyttet til 23 % økt risiko for noen store medfødte misdannelser og 28 % økning av risikoen for alvorlige hjertemisdannelser hos nyfødte. (Compared with no use of paroxetine, first trimester use of paroxetine was associated with a 23% increased risk of any major congenital malformations and a 28% increased risk of major cardiac malformations in newborns.)

Forskerne bemerket at baseline risiko for alvorlige misdannelser er 3 % og for hjertemisdannelser 1 %; imidlertid er all økning i risiko signifikant, spesielt når nytten ved å bruke selektive serotoninreopptakshemmere under svangerskapet - når endringer i stoffskiftet fører til at legemidler fjernes fra kroppen med en raskere hastighet – er diskutabel. (The investigators noted that the baseline risk of major malformations is 3% and of cardiac malformations is 1%; however, any increase in risk is significant, especially when considering that the benefit of using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy -- when changes in metabolism cause the drugs to be cleared from the body at a faster rate -- is debatable.)

"Nytten av antidepressiva samlet sett og selektive serotoninreopptakshemmere inkludert paroksetin spesielt, under graviditeten, er i beste fall er tvilsom, idet enhver økning i risiko - liten eller stor – er for høy," sier Dr. Bérard. "Risiko / nytte-forholdet ved ikke-bruk hos kvinner med milde til moderate depressive symptomer, som er 85 % hos gravide kvinner med depressive symptomer. Derfor er planlegging av graviditet viktig, hvor effektive behandlingstilbud som psykoterapi eller treningsregimer er berettiget i denne spesielle del av befolkningen." (“Given that the benefits of antidepressants overall, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors including paroxetine specifically, during pregnancy is questionable at best, any increase in risk -- small or large -- is too high,” said Dr. Bérard. "Indeed, the risk/benefit ratio suggests non-use in women with mild to moderately depressive symptoms, which is 85% of pregnant women with depressive symptoms. Therefore, planning of pregnancy is essential, and valid treatment options such as psychotherapy or exercise regimens are warranted in this special population.”)

(Anm: SSRI under graviditeten ökar risk för autism hos barnet. Barn till kvinnor som tog antidepressiva mediciner under slutet av graviditeten löper 87 procents högre risk att utveckla autism, enligt en ny studie. (…) Risken för att barnet diagnostiserades med autism var 87 procent högre om mamman använt antidepressiva medel under andra eller tredje trimestern. Högst var risken om mamman använt SSRI. (…) Andra klasser av antidepressiva medel än SSRI, så som serotonin- och noradrenalinåterupptagshämmare, SNRI, och monoaminooxidashämmare, MAOI, var inte statistiskt associerade med ökad risk för autism. (lakemedelsvarlden.se 18.12.2015).)

- Paroksetin/paroxetine (Seroxat, Paxil etc.) funnet verken trygt eller effektivt mot depresjon hos ungdom

Paroxetine found neither safe nor effective for adolescent depression (Paroksetin/paroxetine (Seroxat, Paxil etc.) funnet verken trygt eller effektivt mot depresjon hos ungdom)
clinicalpsychiatrynews.com 16.9.2015
Vitals
Key clinical point: A reanalysis of original trial data found that paroxetine was neither safe nor effective in the treatment of adolescent major depression.

Major finding: Neither paroxetine nor high-dose imipramine outperformed placebo. Both drugs yielded major safety signals.

Data source: Reanalysis of SmithKline Beecham’s controversial Study 329, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 275 adolescents with major depression.

Disclosures: SmithKline Beecham was the manufacturer of Paxil, the trade name for paroxetine. The company merged with Glaxo Wellcome in 2000 and became GlaxoSmithKline. The investigators received no specific funding to conduct the analysis. One coauthor reported having served as an expert witness for plaintiffs in lawsuits involving paroxetine, and as a witness for plaintiffs in lawsuits involving antidepressants that have the same mechanism of action. Another coauthor reported receiving fees to provide expert analysis and opinion for a class action over Study 329 and another lawsuit over pediatric use of citalopram. (…)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (nytteverdi) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Ny forskning: Lykkepiller gør mere skade end gavn. Folk med depression får intet ud af at tage antidepressivet SSRI, bedre kendt som lykkepiller, viser nyt dansk studie. (jyllands-posten.dk 13.2.2017).)

(Anm: Forskere finner link mellom bruk av antidepressiva, medfødte misdannelser eller dødfødsler. (Researchers Find Link Between Antidepressant Use, Congenital Anomalies or Stillbirths) (…) "Mens denne ekstra risikoen kan virke liten er resultatene etter mitt syn så alvorlig som de kan være." (“While this extra risk may seem small, in my view, the outcomes are as serious as they can be.”) (dgnews.docguide.com 5.12.2016).)

(Anm: Eksponering av foster for antidepressiva kan endre Corpus Callosums mikrostruktur: Presentert ved PAS / ASPN. (…) Fordi "den neonate (nyfødtes) corpus callosum mikrostruktur er assosiert med utero (livmor) SSRI-eksponering og prenatal (før fødsel) mødredepresjon, er tidlige modningsprosesser i denne regionen følsomme for endret 5-hydroksytryptamin (5-HT) signalering under tiden i utero (livmor)," bemerket Campbell. "Disse resultatene - sammen med forstyrret hvit substans’ mikrostruktur i genu hos premature spedbarn - tyder dette på at utviklingen av [corpus callosum] kan være følsom for tidlige uheldige påvirkninger. (Fetal Exposure to Antidepressants May Alter Corpus Callosum Microstructure.) (dgnews.docguide.com 10.5.2017).)

(Anm: Unormal sæd med SSRI antidepressiva. Flere studier har funnet endrede sædparametere etter eksponering for SSRI-antidepressiva. Selv om SSRIs rolle er usikker, er det berettiget å ta hensyn til de observerte effektene på sædkvalitet og informere eksponerte pasienter. (Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants. Several studies have found altered semen parameters after exposure to SSRI antidepressants. Although the role of SSRIs is uncertain, it is justified to take into account the observed effects on sperm quality and to inform exposed patients.) Prescrire Int 2015; 24 (156): 16-17.)

(Anm: Gravide kvinner som tar antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å få barn med autisme, ifølge studie. Pregnant women who take antidepressants more likely to have a child with autism, study finds. Research data published in the BMJ reveal that antidepressant use during pregnancy increases the risk of autism in children, as reported The Independent Thursday. (firstwordpharma.com 20.7.2017).)

(Anm: - Nye data viser økt risiko for misdannelser når antidepressiva brukes under graviditet. (…) En studie publisert i British Medical Journal (BMJ) avslører at antidepressiva forskrevet til gravide kan øke sjansen for å få en baby med misdannelser.) (New Data Show Heightened Risk of Birth Defects When Antidepressants Are Used During Pregnancy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 19.1.2017).)

(Anm: - Utviklingen av et potensielt livstruende serotonergt syndrom eller nevroleptisk malignt syndrom (NMS)-lignende reaksjoner er rapportert for SNRI-er og SSRI-er alene, inkludert Celexa-behandling, men spesielt ved samtidig bruk av serotonerge legemidler (inklusive triptaner) og legemidler som svekker metabolisme av serotonin (inklusive MAO-hemmere), eller med antipsykotika eller andre dopaminantagonister (fda.gov 6.3.2009).)

(Anm: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed pregnant women: an updated analysis of the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort. (…) Conclusions Antidepressants with effects on serotonin reuptake during embryogenesis increased the risk of some organ-specific malformations in a cohort of pregnant women with depression. BMJ Open 2017;7:e013372.)

(Anm: Bruk av antipsykotika er assosiert med en 60 % økt risiko for dødelighet hos pasienter med Alzheimers sykdom. (…) Bruk av to eller flere antipsykotika samtidig ble knyttet til nesten doblet dødsrisiko (200 %) enn ved monoterapi.) (Antipsychotic Drug Use Increases Risk of Mortality Among Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease. JOENSUU, Finland -- December 12, 2016 -- Antipsychotic drug use is associated with a 60% increased risk of mortality among patients with Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. The risk was highest at the beginning of drug use and remained increased in long-term use. Use of 2 or more antipsychotic drugs concomitantly was associated with almost 2 times higher risk of mortality than monotherapy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 12.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antipsykotika dobler dødsrisiko allerede etter 180 dagers bruk. Greater Mortality Risk With Antipsychotics in Parkinson's (Større dødsrisiko med antipsykotika ved Parkinsons) (medicalnewstoday.com 21.6.2015).)

(Anm: (...) For ytterligere å illustrere problemet kan nevnes at antipsykotika forårsaker parkinsonisme (5), og en studie fant at mennesker med Parkinsons sykdom og psykose hadde fire ganger større sannsynlighet for å dø etter tre til seks måneders behandling enn de som ikke fikk antipsykotika. (6) De var også mer utsatt for kognitiv svikt, forverring av parkinsonsymptomer, hjerneslag, infeksjoner og fall. RE: Psykisk syke lever kortere. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 10.11.2015.)

(Anm: Legemidler som kan gi delirium hos eldre. Delirium ses særlig hos eldre ved akutte sykdommer og skader eller som følge av toksisk eller farmakologisk påvirkning. Eldre personer har mange sykdommer og bruken av legemidler er høy. Mange legemidler, og særlig de med antikolinerg eller dopaminerg effekt, kan gi delirium. Kjennskap til legemidler og kombinasjoner av legemidler som kan gi delirium, er viktig for å kunne forebygge og behandle tilstanden. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2005; 125:2366-7 (8.9.2005).)

(Anm: Delirium in hospitalized patients: Risks and benefits of antipsychotics. ABSTRACT Consensus panel guidelines advocate for the judicious use of antipsychotic drugs to manage delirium in hospitalized patients when nonpharmacologic measures fail and the patient is in significant distress from symptoms, poses a safety risk to self or others, or is impeding essential aspects of his or her medical care. Here, we review the use of haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole for this purpose. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2017 August;84(8):616-622.)

(Anm: Post injektionssyndrom. (…) De fleste af disse patienter udviklede symptomer på sedation (fra mild sedation til koma) og/eller delirium (herunder forvirring, desorientering, ophidselse/ uro, angst og anden kognitiv svækkelse). Andre symptomer inkluderede ekstrapyramidale symptomer, dysartri, ataksi, aggression, svimmelhed, svaghed, hypertension eller krampe.) (sundhedsstyrelsen.dk 29.6.2014).)

(Anm: Mødre til børn med misdannelser har øget dødelighed. (…) Bivirkninger har ført til to dødsfald. Den største del af bivirkningerne (42 procent) af de 429 blev indberettet for såkaldte psykostimulerende lægemidler - eksempelvis til behandling af ADHD - efterfulgt af 31 procent for antidepressiver og 24 procent for antipsykotiske lægemidler. (videnskab.dk 20.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antikolinerge effekter av vanlige legemidler knyttet til økt dødelighet hos mennesker over 65. De kombinerte antikolinerge effektene av mange vanlige legemidler øker risikoen for kognitiv svekkelse og død hos personer over 65 år, ifølge resultater fra en storskala studie på den langsiktige helseeffekten av legemidler.(Anticholinergic effects of common drugs are associated with increased mortality in over 65s. The combined anticholinergic effects of many common drugs increase the risk of cognitive impairment and death in people aged over 65, a large scale study of the long term effect of drugs on health has found.) BMJ 2011; 342:d4037 (28 June).)

(Anm: Men experience greater cognitive impairment and increased risk of death following hip surgery. In a study of hip fracture patients, men displayed greater levels of cognitive impairment within the first 22 days of fracture than women, and cognitive limitations increased the risk of dying within six months in both men and women. "While men make up only about 25 percent of all hip fractures, the number of men who fracture their hip is increasing and we know men are more likely to die than women after a hip fracture," said Dr. Ann Gruber-Baldini, lead author of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society study. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.2.2017).)

(Anm: Det autonome nervesystemet. Det autonome nervesystemets hovedoppgave er å bidra til likevekt i kroppens basale funksjoner. Det vil blant annet si kroppstemperatur, blodtrykk, åndedrett og fordøyelse. (nhi.no 4.3.2015).)

(Anm: Ulike selektive serotonin reopptakshemmeres (SSRI-er) cytotoksisitet mot kreftceller. (Cytotoxicity of different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against cancer cells.) (…) Vi har funnet at paroxetine (paroksetin; Seroxat; Paxil etc.) har cytotoksisk aktivitet mot tumorceller. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006;6(1):23-9.)

(Anm: Could antidepressants stop prostate cancer from spreading? In almost all cases where prostate cancer spreads to other areas of the body, the disease spreads to the bone first. In a new study, researchers reveal the discovery of an enzyme that helps prostate cancer cells to invade bone. Furthermore, certain antidepressant medications may have the potential to block this enzyme. Study co-author Jason Wu, of Washington State University-Spokane, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Cancer Cell. (medicalnewstoday.com 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: Classic cytotoxic drugs: a narrow path for regulatory approval. Several classic cytotoxic drugs have shown encouraging activity in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.1–3 However, only a few have received an overwhelming welcome from regulatory authorities and succeeded in obtaining widespread regulatory approval for routine use. For example eribulin was approved for treatment of metastatic breast cancer in several countries including Japan, USA, and Europe, based on data that showed longer overall survival in patients treated with eribulin compared with patients treated with physician's choice of treatment. In contrast ixabcpilone with capecitabine gained approval from the US Food and Drug Agency based on data showing longer progression-free survival compared with capccitabine alone, but did not obtain rcgulatory authorisation in Europc because it is associated with a high incidence of nevropathy.5 Lancet Oncol. 2017 Feb 10. pii: S1470-2045(17)30089-X. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Ødelagt cellulær "klokke" linket til hjerneskade (Broken Cellular 'Clock' Linked to Brain Damage) (sciencedaily.com 25.11.2013).)

(Anm: Signaling Pathways Linked to Serotonin-Induced Superoxide Anion Production: A Physiological Role for Mitochondria in Pulmonary Arteries. Abstract. Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) is commonly associated to cellular damages due to [Formula: see text] overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, [Formula: see text] also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). Front Physiol. 2017 Feb 9;8:76. eCollection 2017.)

(Anm: Bruk av antidepressiva ble assosiert med et betydelig eldre utseende og forskere fant også ut at vekten spilte en viktig faktor. I de sett med tvillinger som var yngre enn 40 år ble tyngre tvillinger oppfattet som eldre. (…) I tillegg mistenker forskerne at den vedvarende avslapping av ansiktsmuskler som antidepressiva forårsaker kan forklare årsaken til at ansiktet faller sammen (henger). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Minislag (ministroke: transient ischemic attack (TIA)) linket til lavere forventet levetid. (- Minislag kan forårsake demens.) (- Enkelte psykofarmaka kan øke risiko for minislag / demens.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Stumme infarkt rammer oftere folk med høy smertetoleranse. Stumme hjerteinfarkt gir ikke de klassiske brystsmertene som ved vanlige infarkt. - Denne pasientgruppen tar enten ikke kontakt med lege, eller de har ikke fått riktig diagnose, sier lege og forsker Andrea Milde Øhrn. (…) Det er vanlig å tenke sterke brystsmerter og akutt behandling når det er snakk om hjerteinfarkt. Det mange kanskje ikke vet, er at man kan ha hatt et hjerteinfarkt uten å vite det. Dette kalles et stumt infarkt, et hjerteinfarkt med få eller ingen symptomer. - Et stumt hjerteinfarkt er et hjerteinfarkt som ikke er erkjent. (nhi.no 3.2.2017).)

(Anm: Sannsynlig karotidyni forårsaket av fluoxetine (Prozac; SSRI-er). (Probable fluoxetine-induced carotidynia.)  Karotidyni er en fokal nakkesmerte (bestemt, avgrenset område), som involverer anatomiske områder til den berørte arteria carotis, og stråler ofte ut i den ipsilateral side (samme side) av ansiktet eller øret. På grunnlag av medisinsk historie og alder har karotidyni konvensjonelt vært klassifisert i klassisk (ikke-migrenøs), migrenøs, og vaskulære varianter. The Lancet 2009;374(9695):1061-1062 (26 September).)

(Anm: Nakkesmerter sætter forskerne skakmat. Kroniske nakkesmerter koster samfundet milliarder og er en af de hyppigste årsager til, at danskere melder sig syge fra job. Forskerne er i vildrede: Ingen behandling er effektiv. (videnskab.dk 22.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva linket til hjerterisiko: tvillingstudie. (Antidepressants linked to heart risk: twins study) - Middelaldrende menn som bruker antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å ha en innsnevring av blodårer, noe som øker risikoen for hjerteinfarkt og slag, enn de som ikke bruker legemidlene, ifølge en studie presentert på lørdag. (Reuters) - Middle-age men who use antidepressants are more likely to have a narrowing of blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes, than those who do not use the medications, according to a study presented on Saturday.) (reuters.com 2.4.2011).)

(Anm: - Pfizers Zyvoxid (Zyvox) og antidepressiva kan være en dødelig kombinasjon. (- Det antas at når linezolid gis til pasienter, som behandles med serotonerge psykofarmaka, kan forhøyede nivåer av serotonin bygge seg opp i hjernen og forårsake toksisitet (giftighet). Dette er referert til som Serotonin syndrom - tegn og symptomer inkluderer mentale endringer (forvirring, hyperaktivitet, minneproblemer), muskelrykninger, overdreven svetting, skjelving eller risting, diaré, problemer med koordinasjon og / eller feber.) (fda.gov 21.10.2011).)

(Anm: Hva er det forskrivere og pasienter ikke vet om bivirkninger av antidepressiva? (What do prescribers and patients not know about the side effects of antidepressant drugs?) (medicalnewstoday.com 15.9.2016).)

(Anm: Forskere: Alvorlige bivirkninger, når antidepressiver droppes. Angst, depression og selvmordstanker er nogle af de bivirkninger, som tit forekommer, når man holder op med at tage antidepressiv medicin. Bivirkningerne kan i nogle tilfælde være langvarige og kroniske, viser et nyt studie. (videnskab.dk 16.3.2015).)

(Anm: Bruk av visse smertestillende midler (og antidepressiva (+ 31 %)) forbundet med økt risiko for drap (Use of certain painkillers linked with increased risk of homicide) Enkelte legemidler som påvirker sentralnervesystemet - som smertestillende og beroligende benzodiazepiner - er assosiert med økt risiko for å begå et drap, finner en ny studie publisert i tidsskriftet World Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 1.6.2015).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. Drab og vold har de seneste år fyldt debatten om de danske bosteder for patienter med psykiske problemer. (…) Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. (…) Mens Folketinget kæmper for en løsning på problemet med vold på offentlige bosteder, vælger flere kommuner at sende tunge patienter til private tilbud. (politiken.dk 18.3.2017.)

(Anm: Aggresjon knyttet til økt risiko for substansmisbruk. Aggression disorder linked to greater risk of substance abuse. (…) In the study, published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Coccaro, MD, and colleagues analyzed data from more than 9,200 subjects in the National Comorbidity Survey, a national survey of mental health in the United States. They found that as the severity of aggressive behavior increased, so did levels of daily and weekly substance use. The findings suggest that a history of frequent, aggressive behavior is a risk factor for later substance abuse, and effective treatment of aggression could delay or even prevent substance abuse in young people. (medicalnewstoday.com 2.3.2017).)

(Anm: Halvparten av norske drap begått av rusede. (…) I 125 av drapene – eller 54 prosent – er det beskrevet i dommen at gjerningspersonen var påvirket av rusmidler under drapet. (nrk.no 13.12.2016).)

- En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn.

(Anm: En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn. (- Pasienten døde etter kort tid, og dødsårsaken var nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning), heter det i tilsynets rapport. (nrk.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body, frequently a response of the immune system to infection. (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Sepsis. Definisjon: SIRS + påvist/mistenkt infeksjon (f. eks. positiv blodkultur). SIRS- kriteriene er: - Feber > 38 ºC eller hypotermi < 36 ºC - Puls > 90/minutt - Respirasjonsfrekvens > 20/minutt eller hypokapni med pCO2 < 4,3 kPa i blodgass - Leukocytose ≥ 12 × 109/l eller leukopeni < 4 × 109/l eller > 10 % umodne leukocytter. (helsebiblioteket.no - Metodebok for indremedisinere, 2012).)

(Anm: Rollen til mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) ved sepsis (blodforgiftning)-indusert multiorgansvikt. (The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure). (Virulence. 2013 Nov 1;5(1).)

- Diagnostisering av sepsis. Sepsis, også kjent som blodforgiftning, er kroppens hyperaktive respons på en infeksjon som kan føre til betennelse, vevskader, organsvikt etc.

(Anm: Diagnosing Sepsis. Sepsis, also known as blood poisoning, is the body’s hyperactive response to an infection that can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, organ failure etc. It is a very dangerous state in which the immune system stops fighting with the invading agents  and turns to itself. Around one-third of patients who are affected with sepsis die every year. (news-medical.net 7.9.2017).)

- Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon.

(Anm: Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon. Recognizing Sepsis as a Global Health Priority — A WHO Resolution. “Some very important clinical issues, some of them affecting life and death, stay largely in a backwater which is inhabited by academics and professionals and enthusiasts, dealt with very well at the clinical and scientific level but not visible to the public, political leaders, leaders of healthcare systems... The public and political space is the space in which [sepsis] needs to be in order for things to change.” NEJM (June 28, 2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis – den dödliga sjukdomen som glöms bort. Trots att infektionssjukdomen sepsis förekommer oftare än de vanligaste formerna av cancer och att upp emot hälften som drabbas av den allvarligaste formen dör, så har många knappt hört talas om sjukdomen. Sepsis som är den medicinska termen på blodförgiftning, drabbar omkring 40 000 svenskar varje år. (netdoktor.se 7.6.2017).)

- Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod.

(Anm: Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod. (- Sepsis, en potensielt livstruende komplikasjon av en infeksjon, har den høyeste byrde mht. død og medisinske utgifter på sykehus over hele verden.) (- Quick test finds signs of sepsis in a single drop of blood. (…) Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, has the highest burden of death and medical expenses in hospitals worldwide. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.7.2017).)

(Anm: Nye sepsiskriterier kan føre til forsinket behandling. (…) Sepsis er en svært alvorlig tilstand med høy morbiditet og mortalitet (2). Den totale insidensen er ukjent, men man regner med at sepsis er en av de viktigste årsakene til alvorlig, akutt sykdom på verdensbasis (1). (…) Sepsis har inntil nylig vært definert som mistenkt infeksjon med samtidig tilstedeværelse av to eller flere SIRS-kriterier (1). Endringer i hjertefrekvens, kroppstemperatur, respirasjonsfrekvens og leukocytter er kroppens tegn på inflammasjon, og de indikerer ikke nødvendigvis en livstruende, dysregulert vertsrespons på infeksjon. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2017; :609-10 (20.4.2017).)

(Anm: LEGENE FORSTO IKKE AT HAN VAR DØDSSYK: Stian (19) døde etter 18 timer på sykehus uten legetilsyn. (…) Helsetilsynet konkluderer med at sykehusets behandling var uforsvarlig. (…) Fikk ikke beskjed. (…) Fastlegen sendte med dem papirer som foreldrene leverte på Akuttmottaket ved Ahus, der sto det; «Diagnose: Obs sepsis».  (tv2.no 29.4.2017).)

(Anm: Svikt i behandlingen av akutt syk ung mann i akuttmottaket – brudd på helselovgivningen. (…) Pasienten ble lagt på observasjonsposten (Akutt 24) ved akuttmottaket frem til neste morgen. I løpet av tiden på observasjonsposten ble han ikke tilsett av lege. På morgenen var han betydelig verre og han fikk tegn på fullt utviklet blodforgiftning. Behandling med antibiotika ble iverksatt, men han døde kort tid etter som følge av meningokokksepsis og hjerneødem. (helsetilsynet.no 2.5.2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis; grunnleggende kliniske observasjoner. Sepsis= En systemisk inflammatorisk respons (SIRS) pga. en infeksjon Tre alvorlighetsgrader: 1) Sepsis (to eller flere symptomer på SIRS som følge av infeksjon) 2) Alvorlig sepsis (sepsis med akutt organdysfunksjon, hypoperfusjon eller hypotensjon) 3) Septisk sjokk (hypotensjon til tross for adekvat væsketerapi, samt forekomst av perfusjonsforstyrrelser og organdysfunksjon) (hnt.no 5.11.2013).)

- Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting (sepsis) blir undersøkt av lege for seint.

(Anm: Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting blir undersøkt av lege for seint. Helsetilsynet fann brot ved 24 akuttmottak over heile landet. – Svært alvorleg. – Dette er svært alvorleg, for det dreier seg om ein alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som i verste fall kan medføra død dersom behandlinga ikkje blir igangsett til riktig tid, seier avdelingsdirektør i Helsetilsynet, Ragnar Hermstad. OVER EIN TIME: Pasientar som kjem inn med teikn på alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som blodforgifting skal ifølge nasjonale retningslinjer få anitibiotikabehandling innan maks ein time. Alle dei 24 akuttmottaka hadde svikt på dette området. (nrk.no 16.6.2017).)

(Anm: Lege sier improvisert «kur» for sepsis har hatt bemerkelsesverdige resultater. (…) Spesialist i intensivbehandling Paul Marik sier at enkel behandling med infusjon av vitamin C og steroider har bemerkelsesverdig effekt på pasienter med potensielt dødelig tilstand. (independent.co.uk 24.3.2017).)

(Anm: Bivirkninger underrapporteres i videnskabelige tidsskrifter. (...) Mellem 43 og 100 procent af de bivirkninger, der, ifølge det ikke-publicerede materiale, er fundet ved de testede lægemidler, er ikke lagt frem i de videnskabelige artikler, viser Yoon Loke og kollegernes gennemgang. (videnskab.dk 5.10.2016).)

(Anm: Dødsfall på grunn av nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning) etter behandling med legemiddelet klozapin – uforsvarlig oppfølging – mangelfull samhandling og informasjon. (…)  Manglende informasjon fra spesialisthelsetjenesten og mangelfull samhandling mellom kommunehelsetjenesten, fastlegen, pasienten og pårørende bidro til hendelsen. Helseforetaket skal gjennomgå hendelsen for å redusere risikoen ved lignende tilfeller. (helsetilsynet.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter. De ønsker psykologhjelp. I stedet blir de fôret med piller fra fastlegen. Unge jenter har aldri brukt mer antidepressiver. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Flere barn og unge akuttinnlegges for psykisk sykdom. I fjor utgjorde andelen øyeblikkelig hjelp innleggelser 61 prosent av alle innleggelser. Det er en økning fra 47 prosent i 2012. (dagensmedisin.no 19.9.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter: Lykkepillegenerasjonen. «Lykkepillen» gjorde Sandra så dårlig at hun ble innlagt på psykiatrisk avdeling. På ti år har bruken av antidepressiver blant unge jenter økt med 83 prosent. Mange får pillene uten en gang å ha snakket med psykolog.  (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Helseminister Bent Høie reagerer på «lykkepille»-praksis: – Veldig urovekkende. ** Kraftig økning i antidepressiva til unge jenter. Helseminister Bent Høie reagerer på den sterke økningen i lykkepillebruk blant unge jenter. Han mener manglende ressurser og fastlegers holdninger er årsaker. Lørdag dokumenterte VG Helg og VG+ konsekvensene av den økende lykkepille-bruken blant unge jenter. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: LO advarer mot trygdebombe. En stadig større del av nordmenn i arbeidsfør alder er uten jobb. LO mener dette er en potensiell trygdebombe. (…) Det trengs 180.000 nye jobber for å få yrkesdeltakelsen opp på samme nivå som i 2008, viser en rapport fra samfunnsøkonomene i LO. I 2008 var 70 prosent av befolkningen mellom 15 og 74 år i jobb. Nå er yrkesdeltakelsen nede i 67,3 prosent., og det er nedgang i alle fylker. (hegnar.no 6.10.2016).)

(Anm: Rekordmange søger akut psykisk hjælp. (- Mens kun 12.099 danskere i 1995 besøgte de psykiatriske akutmodtagelser og skadestuer, er det steget til hele 33.333 i 2015, viser opgørelse fra Sundhedsdatastyrelsen og Danske Regioner, der for kort tid siden blev sendt til Folketinget. (politiken.dk 9.7.2016).)

(Anm: Har vi blitt psykisk sykere? (- Vi vet også at stadig flere får uførepensjon på grunn av psykiske lidelser og at sykefraværet på grunn av psykiske plager og lidelser har økt. Vi tror alle disse forholdene bidrar til vår oppfatning om at stadig flere får en psykisk lidelse eller plage.) (Folkehelseinstituttet fhi.no 10.10.2013).)

(Anm: Høyt fravær på grunn av ME. Minst 270 elever var borte fra skolen i fjor fordi de hadde ME. (aftenposten.no 6.2.2017).)

(Anm: Psykisk ohälsa fortsätter att öka. Antalet svenskar som sjukskrivs på grund av psykisk ohälsa ökar kontinuerligt sedan 2010. Den vanligaste diagnosen är stressrelaterad psykisk ohälsa som till mångt och mycket är arbetsrelaterad. Då evidensbaserad behandling saknas står förebyggande arbete i fokus. (netdoktor.se 14.9.2016).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske skadestuer kan ikke klare presset. Psykiske lidelser hører til nogle af de største sygdomsbyrder, som hvert år koster samfundet et svimlende milliardbeløb i tabt arbejdsfortjeneste og sociale ydelser. (politiken.dk 11.7.2016).)

(Anm: - 9 ting som skjer i hjernen og kroppen på MDMA (Ecstasy). (- 9 Things That Happen in the Brain and Body on MDMA.) (- Derfor, når substansen avsluttes, sitter mennesker igjen med mindre serotonin enn vanlig, noe som kan føre til følelser av depresjon, irritabilitet og tretthet.) (- Siden MDMA frigir så mye serotonin, ødelegger kroppen deretter mer serotonin enn vanlig, ifølge AsapSCIENCE.) (thescienceexplorer.com 24.6.2016).)

- Antidepressiva som Seroxat (paroxetine; Paxil) kan påvirke personlighet

Antidepressants Like Paxil May Affect Personality (Antidepressiva som Seroxat (Paxil) kan påvirke personlighet)
mentalhealthnews.org 27.7.2010
Antidepressants may do more than just treat depression; certain drugs may also directly impact personality traits. There are five main traits that are used to determine personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. For years, it has been assumed that the changes people experience in neuroticism and extraversion were a result of the antidepressant’s affect on their depression, but a new twin study has determined that the antidepressant may be acting directly on the personality traits. (...)

(Anm: neuroticism; nevrotisisme; personlighetstrekk kjennetegnet ved tendens til å bli lett bekymret, til å gruble, til å bli sårbar overfor kritikk fra andre og usikker på seg selv. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.).)

(Anm: Leukoaraiosis is associated with short- and long-term mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 Oct;22(7):919-25. Epub 2013 Feb 21.)

(Anm: Personality traits linked to differences in brain structure. Our personality may be shaped by how our brain works, but in fact the shape of our brain can itself provide surprising clues about how we behave - and our risk of developing mental health disorders - suggests a study published in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.  (medicalnewstoday.com 26.1.2017).)

(Anm: Sleep Disordered Breathing and White Matter Hyperintensities in Community-Dwelling Elders. To examine the association between markers of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume in an elderly, multiethnic, community-dwelling cohort. (…) Conclusions: In community-dwelling older adults, self-reported measures of SDB are associated with larger WMH volumes. The cognitive effects of SDB that are increasingly being recognized may be mediated at the small vessel level.Sleep. 2016;39(4):785–791).)

- Ingen korreksjon, ingen tilbaketrekking, ingen unnskyldning, ingen kommentar: reanalyse av forsøksdata for Seroxat (paroksetin) reiser spørsmål om institusjonelt ansvar.

No correction, no retraction, no apology, no comment: paroxetine trial reanalysis raises questions about institutional responsibility.
BMJ 2015;351:h4629 (Published 16 September 2015)
As a new data analysis adds weight to calls for retraction of a paper on paroxetine in adolescents, Peter Doshi examines the resistance to action of a professional society, its journal, and an Ivy League university

A major reanalysis just published in The BMJ of tens of thousands of pages of original trial documents from GlaxoSmithKline’s infamous Study 329, has concluded that the antidepressant paroxetine is neither safe nor effective in adolescents with depression.1 This conclusion, drawn by independent researchers, is in direct contrast to that of the trial’s original journal publication in 2001, which had proclaimed paroxetine “generally well tolerated and effective.” 2 The new paper, published under the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative,3 has reignited calls for retraction of the original study, putting additional pressure on academic and professional institutions to publicly address the many allegations of wrongdoing. (…)

(Anm: - Disse funnene tyder på at akutt alvorlig serotonin/serotonerg toksisitet kan indusere strukturelle og langvarige funksjonelle endringer i flere kortikale og subkortikale hjerneregioner som er forbundet med kognitive og ekstrapyramidale syndromer. (J Neuroradiol. 2012 Oct;39(4):254-7 Epub 2011 Dec 22.).)

(Anm: Middle-aged women on antidepressants like Prozac 'face stroke risk' (Middelaldrende kvinner på antidepressiva som Prozac "mer utsatt for hjerneslag") (bbc.co.uk 12.8.2011).)

(Anm: Relationships between personality traits, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and white matter lesion in subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Front. Aging Neurosci 2014 (29 July 2014).)

(Anm: Ekstrapyramidale systemet. (...) Til det ekstrapyramidale systemet hører først og fremst kjerner i dypet av storehjernen og hjernestammen og deres mange forbindelser med hjernebarken, hjernestammen, lillehjernen og ryggmargen. Det ekstrapyramidale systemet omfatter autonome nervesystem (SML-artikkel)basalgangliene, svarte kjerner, substantia nigra, pluss en del andre kjerner i hjernestammen. Systemets hovedoppgave er å delta i kontrollen av muskelbevegelser og spenningen i musklene, muskeltonus. Den motoriske funksjonen til det ekstrapyramidale systemet, som all annen virksomhet i sentralnervesystemet, utøves gjennom et komplisert samarbeid preget av mange koblinger mellom hjernebarken og forskjellige nivåer i hjernestamme og ryggmarg, særlig det sensoriske systemet og lillehjernen. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: GlaxoSmithKline anklages for at skjule farer ved antidepressiv medicin. De antidepressive midler Aropax, Paxil og Seroxat er hverken sikre eller effektive for unge, som producenten GlaxoSmithKline har påstået. Det viser en reanalyse af studie fra 2001. De antidepressive lægemidler, Seroxat, Paxil og Aropax (paroxine), er hverken sikkert eller effektivt unge, som producenten GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) tidligere har proklameret. Det viser en reanalyse af en international forskergruppe under ledelse af professor Jon Jureidinbi ved Robinson Research Institute ved det australske University of Adelaide. Forskerne har sammen revurderet ‘studie 329’ – et randomiseret kontrolleret […] (dagpharmatimes.com 17.9.2015).)

- Bruk av pupillometri og pupillreaksjonar i medisinsk forsking

Bruk av pupillometri og pupillreaksjonar i medisinsk forsking
Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2005; 125:29-32 (6.1.2005)
Bakgrunn. Regnbogehinna er eit dynamisk organ som vert regulert av aktiviteten i det autonome nervesystemet, noko ein lenge har utnytta innan medisinen. Aktiviteten til regnbogehinna reflekterer fysiologiske reaksjonar på ulike sensoriske stimuli, som til dømes smerte. Ein finn stadig meir avanserte verktøy for å vurdere pupillen, og vi ønskjer å presentere nokre av desse. (...)

Den glatte muskulaturen i regnbogehinna endrar storleiken på pupillen, gjennom aktivering av anten m. constrictor pupillae eller m. dilatator pupillae. Det er likevekta mellom aktiviteten i desse to musklane som til ei kvar tid avgjer storleiken på pupillen. (...)

Det autonome nervesystemet kan bli påverka av fleire ulike sjukdomstilstandar, mellom anna multippel sklerose, Alzheimers sjukdom og diabetes mellitus (6, 15 - 17). de Seze fann ein avvikande pupillreaksjon hos 60 % av pasienter med multippel sklerose (n = 45) i høve til hos friske kontrollpersonar (n = 30), mellom anna redusert konstriksjonsamplitude og forlenga latenstid for lysrefleksen.

Innhaldet av nevrotransmitteren acetylkolin i hjernen er redusert hos pasientar med Alzheimers sjukdom. Fotiou gjennomførte ein pilotstudie med fem friske frivillige, fem pasientar med Alzheimers sjukdom som var medisinerte med ein antikolinesterase og fem pasientar med Alzheimers sjukdom som ikkje var medisinerte. Han fann at latenstida til maksimal miose var redusert både hos pasientar med Alzheimers sjukdom som ikkje fekk behandling (0,53 s) og hos pasientar med denne sjukdomen som fekk behandling (0,62 s) i høve til hos friske (0,81 s) (16). (...)

(Anm: Det autonome nervesystemet. Det autonome nervesystemets hovedoppgave er å bidra til likevekt i kroppens basale funksjoner. Det vil blant annet si kroppstemperatur, blodtrykk, åndedrett og fordøyelse. (nhi.no 4.3.2015).)

(Anm: Ulike selektive serotonin reopptakshemmeres (SSRI-er) cytotoksisitet mot kreftceller. (Cytotoxicity of different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against cancer cells.) (…) Vi har funnet at paroxetine (paroksetin; Seroxat; Paxil etc.) har cytotoksisk aktivitet mot tumorceller. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006;6(1):23-9.)

(Anm: Could antidepressants stop prostate cancer from spreading? In almost all cases where prostate cancer spreads to other areas of the body, the disease spreads to the bone first. In a new study, researchers reveal the discovery of an enzyme that helps prostate cancer cells to invade bone. Furthermore, certain antidepressant medications may have the potential to block this enzyme. Study co-author Jason Wu, of Washington State University-Spokane, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Cancer Cell. (medicalnewstoday.com 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: Classic cytotoxic drugs: a narrow path for regulatory approval. Several classic cytotoxic drugs have shown encouraging activity in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.1–3 However, only a few have received an overwhelming welcome from regulatory authorities and succeeded in obtaining widespread regulatory approval for routine use. For example eribulin was approved for treatment of metastatic breast cancer in several countries including Japan, USA, and Europe, based on data that showed longer overall survival in patients treated with eribulin compared with patients treated with physician's choice of treatment. In contrast ixabcpilone with capecitabine gained approval from the US Food and Drug Agency based on data showing longer progression-free survival compared with capccitabine alone, but did not obtain rcgulatory authorisation in Europc because it is associated with a high incidence of nevropathy.5 Lancet Oncol. 2017 Feb 10. pii: S1470-2045(17)30089-X. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Ødelagt cellulær "klokke" linket til hjerneskade (Broken Cellular 'Clock' Linked to Brain Damage) (sciencedaily.com 25.11.2013).)

(Anm: Signaling Pathways Linked to Serotonin-Induced Superoxide Anion Production: A Physiological Role for Mitochondria in Pulmonary Arteries. Abstract. Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) is commonly associated to cellular damages due to [Formula: see text] overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, [Formula: see text] also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). Front Physiol. 2017 Feb 9;8:76. eCollection 2017.)

(Anm: Hva er det forskrivere og pasienter ikke vet om bivirkninger av antidepressiva? (What do prescribers and patients not know about the side effects of antidepressant drugs?) (medicalnewstoday.com 15.9.2016).)

(Anm: Forskere: Alvorlige bivirkninger, når antidepressiver droppes. Angst, depression og selvmordstanker er nogle af de bivirkninger, som tit forekommer, når man holder op med at tage antidepressiv medicin. Bivirkningerne kan i nogle tilfælde være langvarige og kroniske, viser et nyt studie. (videnskab.dk 16.3.2015).)

- Offentliggjøring av data fra kliniske studier

Liberating the data from clinical trials.
Editorials.
BMJ 2015;351:h4601 (Published 16 September 2015)
Liberated trial data have enduring potential to benefit patients, prevent harm, and correct misleading research.

Despite the importance of reproducibility in research, clinical trials are rarely subject to independent reanalysis. In a linked paper, Le Noury and colleagues (doi:10.1136/bmj.h4320) have restored and reanalysed the controversial “study 329,” which incorrectly portrayed paroxetine as an effective and acceptably safe treatment for children and adolescents with major depression.1 2 The accompanying article by Doshi (doi:10.1136/bmj.h4629) details the mis-steps of the investigators, staff from the sponsoring drug company, the lead author’s home academic institution, and the publication journal. 3 Study 329 is a model example for the movement to restore invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT), which calls on investigators to publish unreported trials and republish and correct misleading reports.4 (…)

(Anm: No correction, no retraction, no apology, no comment: paroxetine trial reanalysis raises questions about institutional responsibility. BMJ 2015;351:h4629 (Published 16 September 2015).)

(Anm: Restoring Study 329. Scientific Integrity Through Data Based Medicine (study329.org).)

(Anm: Study 329 continuation phase: Safety and efficacy of paroxetine and imipramine in extended treatment of adolescent major depression. (…) CONCLUSIONS: The continuation phase did not offer support for longer-term efficacy of either paroxetine or imipramine. Relapse and adverse events on both active drugs open up the risks of a prescribing cascade. The previously largely unrecognised hazards of the taper phase have implications for prescribing practice and need further exploration.Int J Risk Saf Med. 2016 Sep 17;28(3):143-61.)

(Anm: Study 329: Big Risk. Study 329 seems to fit the classic picture. It has Big Pharma ghostwriting articles, hiding data, corrupting the scientific process and leaving a trail of death, disability and grieving relatives in its wake. (davidhealy.org 16.11.2015).)

(Anm: Letters. Restoring Study 329. Retraction of biased journal articles. Study 329 may be the most infamous example of biased reporting within psychiatry, but this practice is widespread. (…) For example, our analysis included trial STL-N/S-95-003 (sertraline for social phobia). A memo in the FDA review stated: “Since the sponsor acknowledged that this was a negative study . . . they needed to submit only a summary report.” However, this trial was published as a success. (…) Although our papers clearly identified biased articles, none has since been retracted. BMJ 2015;351:h5497 (Published 21 October 2015).)

(Anm: Restoring Study 329. Paroxetine and Study 329: what we already knew and when. (…) More disturbing than the results of the Study 329 re-analysis is the continued prescribing of drugs such as paroxetine in populations for which there is no evidence of benefit. BMJ 2015;351:h5411 (Published 14 October 2015).)

(Anm: Study 329: The Timelines (davidhealy.org).)

(Anm: Legemiddelindustrien (Big Pharma) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: USAs mest beundrede lovbryter. (America's Most Admired Lawbreaker ) I løpet av 20 år utviklet Johnson & Johnson et kraftig legemiddel, promoterte det ulovlig overfor barn og eldre, skjulte bivirkninger og tjente milliarder av dollar. Dette er innsidehistorien. (Over the course of 20 years, Johnson & Johnson created a powerful drug, promoted it illegally to children and the elderly, covered up the side effects and made billions of dollars. This is the inside story.) (huffingtonpost.com 8.10.2015).)

(Anm: Tjenestemenn anklaget også firmaene for at de i markedsføringen av legemidler til barn hadde unnlatt å opplyse om at Risperdal (risperidone) kan føre til hormonelle ubalanser som kan føre til brystvevutvikling og infertilitet (barnløshet) hos gutter og jenter. I markedsføringen av legemidlet for behandling av eldre mennesker med demens hadde firmaet opprettet et salgsteam for omsorg for eldre, til tross for at data fra en studie finansiert av Janssen som viste at risperidon doblet risikoen for dødsfall blant eldre mennesker, ifølge statlige tjenestemenn. BMJ 2015;351:h7018 (Published 31 December 2015).)

(Anm: - Således ble bruk av antipsykotika knyttet til en doblet risiko for lungebetennelse hos pasienter med AD (Alzheimers sykdom), og til og med en høyere relativ risikoøkning (3,43 ganger) blant dem uten AD. (…) Resultatene indikerer at bruk antipsykotika er knyttet til en høyere risiko for lungebetennelse uavhengig av alder, anvendt studiedesign, behandlingsvarighet, valg av legemidler eller samtidige sykdommer. (dgnews.docguide.com 30.8.2016).)

(Anm: Among antidementia drugs, memantine is associated with the highest risk of pneumonia. A recent study from the University of Eastern Finland shows that among users of antidementia drugs, persons using memantine have the highest risk of pneumonia. The use of rivastigmine patches is associated with an increased risk as well. (medicalnewstoday.com 24.11.2016).)

(Anm: Publikum ønsker tøffere straffetiltak mot uansvarlig atferd i næringslivet. (- Resultatene viste en sterk offentlig bekymring for skjevhet i rettssystemet) (theconversation.com 25.7.2016).)

(Anm: Superrike skattesnytarar. (…) Denne verksemda vil ikkje ta slutt før dei som legg til rette for hemmeleghald og skatteunndraging – bankar, advokatar og rådgjevarar – opplever ein reell risiko for å bli straffa for å utføre slike tenester.) (dn.no 3.7.2017).)

(Anm: EU-kommissionen visste om VW-fusket. (- Misstankarna inom kommissionen väcktes till liv när dess experter insåg att luftkvaliteten i städer inte förbättrades som förväntat efter de strängare utsläppskraven för bilar som infördes 2007, enligt Der Spiegel.) (nyteknik.se 15.7.2016).)

(Anm: Volkswagen mistenkt for å ha villedet EUs investeringsbank. Volkswagen er mistenkt for å ha brukt et lån fra Den europeiske investeringsbanken (EIB) til å utvikle teknologi som åpnet for juks med utslippstester. Sjefen for den europeiske investeringsbanken (EIB) Werner Hoyer er skuffet over Volkswagen. (dn.no 2.8.2017).)

(Anm: VW-chef erkänner bedrägeri. En högt uppsatt chef på tyska Volkswagen (VW) i USA, inblandad i avgasskandalen, erkänner bedrägeri, meddelade en talesperson för domstolen i Detroit på tisdagen. (nyteknik.se 26.7.2017).)

(Anm: VW-topp sier seg skyldig – risikerer 169 år i fengsel. Den tidligere VW-toppen i USA, Oliver Schmidt, innrømmer å ha forsøkt å dekke over utslippsjukset. Nå risikerer han mange år bak murene. (tv2.no 28.7.2017).)

(Anm: Tidligere Volkswagen-ingeniør dømt til fengsel. En tidligere ingeniør i Volkswagen får 40 måneders fengsel etter Volkswagen-skandalen. (vg.no 25.8.2017).)

(Anm: Dieselskandalen truer tysk økonomi. Den tyske dieselskandalen utgjør en risiko for landets økonomi, opplyser Tysklands finansdepartement i en rapport mandag. Dieselskandalen oppsto for nesten to år siden, da det ble kjent at Volkswagen jukset med utslippstallene. Her monterer tyske arbeidere dieselmotorer på en Volkswagen-fabrikk i Chemnitz i Tyskland. (dn.no 21.8.2017).)

(Anm: -1200 vil dø av utslipp fra Volkswagens «juksebiler». Amerikanske forskere har undersøkt konsekvensene av utslippsjuks. (…) Det er forskere ved universitetet MIT i USA som har sett nærmere på konsekvensene av Volkswagens utslippsjuks. (dagbladet.no 3.3.2017).)

(Anm: Dieseljuks. Forskere har funnet den skjulte koden i juksebilene til Volkswagen. Gikk langt for å hindre at det var mulig å teste det virkelige utslippet. (…) Nå har de funnet svaret, gjemt i programvaren til bilene, melder University of California San Diego. (…) Resultatene er publisert i en rapport (PDF), som blir lagt frem frem under IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy i San Francisco denne uken. Under vanlig bruk, slipper bilene ut inntil 40 ganger mer NOx enn tillatt. Utslippsavsløring: Skrur av eksosrensingen allerede ved 17 grader (tu.no 23.5.2017).)

(Anm: Research. The Volkswagen Emissions Scandal Could Shorten Thousands of Lives, Study Says (time.com 3.3.2017).)

(Anm: VW-sjef pågrepet i USA En høytstående sjef i Volkswagen i USA har i kjølvannet av dieselskandalen blitt pågrepet av FBI, mistenkt for bedrageri, ifølge The New York Times. Oliver Schmidt ble ifølge den amerikanske avisa pågrepet lørdag. (nrk.no 9.1.2017).)

(Anm: Volkswagen må betale 36 milliarder kroner etter utslippsjukset. (aftenposten.no 11.1.2017).)

(Anm: Volkswagen trolig spart for milliarder i USA. En dommer i USA har avvist et søksmål mot Volkswagen, noe som kan spare den tyske bilprodusenten for milliarder av dollar i utbetalinger. Avgjørelsen kan avskrekke en rekke amerikanske stater fra å saksøke Volkswagen etter utslippsskandalen som har fulgt bilprodusenten i nesten to år. Den føderale dommeren Charles Breyer avviste søksmålet fra delstaten Wyoming med henvisning til at den aktuelle forurensningsloven må reguleres sentralt og ikke av de amerikanske delstatene. (dn.no 1.9.2017).)

(Anm: Tysk avis: VW-sjefen godkjente dekkoperasjon. Martin Winterkorn, avgått konsernsjef i Volkswagen, godkjente en plan om å holde tilbake informasjon fra amerikanske myndigheter, skriver Bild. (e24.no 26.9.2016).)

(Anm: VW må betale 2,8 milliarder dollar i bot for dieseljuks. Beløpet tilsvarer over 24 milliarder kroner. (dagbladet.no 21.4.2017).)

(Anm: Nobelprisvinner trekker seg fra Panama-gransking. (…) Begrunnelsen er at granskingen vanskeliggjøres av hemmelighold og manglende åpenhet.) (…) Pieth sier det blant annet finnes beviser for hvitvasking av penger fra barneprostitusjon i Panama-dokumentene. (dn.no 6.8.2016).)

(Anm: Margaret McCartney: Valgfri offentliggjøring av utbetalinger er meningsløst. (Margaret McCartney: Optional disclosure of payments is pointless.) (- Og åpenhet anskueliggjør problemene: bør de som mottar tusenvis av pund fra industrien som "påtenkte ledere" sitte i paneler for utarbeidelse av nasjonale retningslinjer eller hjelpe til med å stake ut regjeringens politikk?) BMJ 2016;354:i3692 (Published 01 July 2016).)

(Anm: For mange retningslinjer for behandlinger er skrevet av eksperter med finansielle konflikter, viser studien. (statnews.com 22.8.2016).)

(Anm: Naturlig at dette er offentlig. OUS-lege Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius samtykket til offentliggjøring av honorarer. Hun er kritisk til kolleger som ikke har gjort det samme. – Det kan reise spørsmål om det er bindinger som ikke tåler dagens lys. (dagensmedisin.no 12.8.2016).)

(Anm: Resultater publisert i JAMA Internal Medicine antyder at ett enkelt gratis måltid kan øke sannsynligheten for at en lege vil foreskrive et bestemt legemiddel. (Findings published by JAMA Internal Medicine suggest that even a single free meal can boost the likelihood a doctor will prescribe a certain drug) (online.wsj.com 20.6.2016).)

(Anm: FDAs rådgivere på opioider sparket grunnet bånd til industrien, ifølge AP. (FDA's advisers on opioids booted for ties to industry, AP learns. Having been buffeted by controversy over its approval of addictive opioid drugs, the FDA is calling on a panel of experts to help it sort through the thorny issue. But even before the new panel met, it has been tinged by controversy itself, dismissing four advisers because of perceived ties to drugmakers.) (fiercepharma.com 8.7.2016).)

(Anm: Offentliggjøring av verdioverføringer. Legemiddelindustrien offentliggjør i dag alle verdioverføringer til helsepersonell og helseforetak. (lmi.no 30.6.2016).)

(Anm: Leder. Disclosure UK: åpenhet (offentliggjøring) bør ikke lenger være valgfritt BMJ. (Editorials. Disclosure UK: transparency should no longer be an optional extra) BMJ 2016;354:i3730 (Published 06 July 2016).)

(Anm: Disclosure UKs nettsted gir en "illusjon av åpenhet", sier Goldacre (Disclosure UKs nettsted gir en "illusjon av åpenhet", sier Goldacre) (Disclosure UK website gives “illusion of transparency,” says Goldacre) BMJ 2016;354:i3760BMJ 2016; 354 (Published 06 July 2016).)

(Anm: Reporting of financial and non-financial conflicts of interest by authors of systematic reviews: a methodological survey. (…) Conclusions Although close to half of the published systematic reviews report that authors (typically many) have conflicts of interest, more than half report that they do not. Authors reported individual conflicts of interest more frequently than institutional and non-financial conflicts of interest. BMJ Open 2016;6:e011997.)

(Anm: - Legene som deklarerte de høyeste inntektene fra legemiddelfirmaer i Storbritannias nye database uttaler at åpenhet om utbetalingene bør være obligatorisk. (The doctors who declared the most earnings from drug companies in the United Kingdom’s new database have said that being transparent about payments should be mandatory.) BMJ 2016;354:i3716 (Published 04 July 2016).)

(Anm: Leger som mottar de største utbetalingene fra legemiddelfirmaer deklarerer dem ikke på nytt nettsted. (Doctors getting biggest payments from drug companies don’t declare them on new website. BMJ 2016;354:i3679 (Published 01 July 2016).)

(Anm: Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study. BMJ 2016;354:i4189 (Published 18 August 2016).)

(Anm: Medisinsk utstyr (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Legemiddelprodusenter og medisinske utstyrsprodusenter betalte i fjor 6,5 milliarder dollar til leger og undervisningssykehus. (Drug and device makers paid $6.5 billion to docs and teaching hospitals last year.) (statnews.com 30.6.2016).)

(Anm: A Milestone in the Battle for Truth in Drug Safety. Study 329: The final chapter coming soon. Arguably the most controversial drug study ever, Study 329, published in July 2001: (davidhealy.org 17.8.015).)

(Anm: Restoring Study 329. Scientific Integrity Through Data Based Medicine (study329.org).)

(Anm: Study 329 continuation phase: Safety and efficacy of paroxetine and imipramine in extended treatment of adolescent major depression. (…) CONCLUSIONS: The continuation phase did not offer support for longer-term efficacy of either paroxetine or imipramine. Relapse and adverse events on both active drugs open up the risks of a prescribing cascade. The previously largely unrecognised hazards of the taper phase have implications for prescribing practice and need further exploration.Int J Risk Saf Med. 2016 Sep 17;28(3):143-61.)

(Anm: Study 329: Big Risk. Study 329 seems to fit the classic picture. It has Big Pharma ghostwriting articles, hiding data, corrupting the scientific process and leaving a trail of death, disability and grieving relatives in its wake. (davidhealy.org 16.11.2015).)

(Anm: Letters. Restoring Study 329. Retraction of biased journal articles. Study 329 may be the most infamous example of biased reporting within psychiatry, but this practice is widespread. (…) For example, our analysis included trial STL-N/S-95-003 (sertraline for social phobia). A memo in the FDA review stated: “Since the sponsor acknowledged that this was a negative study . . . they needed to submit only a summary report.” However, this trial was published as a success. (…) Although our papers clearly identified biased articles, none has since been retracted. BMJ 2015;351:h5497 (Published 21 October 2015).)

(Anm: Restoring Study 329. Paroxetine and Study 329: what we already knew and when. (…) More disturbing than the results of the Study 329 re-analysis is the continued prescribing of drugs such as paroxetine in populations for which there is no evidence of benefit. BMJ 2015;351:h5411 (Published 14 October 2015).)

(Anm: Study 329: The Timelines (davidhealy.org).)

- Seroxat utløser tilfeller av aggresjon ("aggression er iagttaget efter markedsføring")

4. Paroxetin – Aggression (EPITT nr. 18089)
ema.europa.eu (22. januar 2015 EMA/PRAC/63323/2015 Udvalget for Risikovurdering inden for Lægemiddelovervågning)
PRAC's anbefalinger om signaler til ajourføring af produktinformationen Vedtaget den 6.-9. januar 2015, PRAC

På grundlag af alle foreliggende data vedtog PRAC, at indehavere af markedsføringstilladelse for lægemidler indeholdende paroxetin inden 2 måneder skal indsende en ansøgning om ændring af produktinformationen (punkt 4.8 i produktresuméet og indlægssedlen) som beskrevet i det følgende (ny tekst er understreget).

Produktresumé:
Punkt 4.8 – Bivirkninger: Psykiske lidelser
Hyppighed “ikke kendt”: aggression

Fodnote - Tilfælde af aggression er iagttaget efter markedsføring
Indlægsseddel:
Punkt 4 Bivirkninger:
Hyppighed “ikke kendt”: aggression (…)

(Anm: Paroxetin; paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA etc..)

(Anm: The European Medicines Agency (EMA) (tidligere EMEA) (den europeiske legemiddelkontrollen) (mintankesmie.no).)

- Suicidalitet og aggresjon under behandling med antidepressiva. Alkohol og alvorlige skader under behandling med antidepressiva.

Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment. Alcohol and serious harms of antidepressant treatment (Suicidalitet og aggresjon under behandling med antidepressiva. Alkohol og alvorlige skader under behandling med antidepressiva.)
BMJ 2016;352:i892 (Published 17 February 2016)
Sharma og kolleger 'rapport bekrefter at bruk av antidepressiva er assosiert med aggresjon og vold, særlig hos unge mennesker.1 Andre har bagatellisert en årsakssammenheng , og foreslår på grunnlag av svenske epidemiologiske data at depresjon i seg selv kan være årsaken.2 Men denne studien var mangelfull fordi den ikke klarte å kontrollere for de høye rater av antidepressiva på resept i Sverige.3 (Sharma and colleagues’ report confirms that antidepressant treatment is associated with aggression and violence, especially in young people.1 Others have downplayed a causal link, proposing—on the basis of Swedish epidemiological data—that depression itself may be the cause.2 However, that study was flawed because it failed to control for the high rates of antidepressant prescription in Sweden.3)

En annen svensk kohortstudie sitert av Sharma og kolleger viseren økning i voldelig kriminalitet hos unge voksne, men pekte også på økt forekomst av alkoholrelatert kriminalitet og akutt helsehjelp.4 Disse resultatene er på linje med våre funn om at antidepressiva kan både stimulere drikking og føre til patologisk rus, noen ganger med katastrofale resultater.5 Alkoholbruk blant de som tar antidepressiva er vanlig, men dårlig gransket; dette problemet må raskt bli undersøkt som medvirkende til både grov vold og selvmord. (…) (Another Swedish cohort study cited by Sharma and colleagues indicated increases in violent crime in young adults, but also pointed to increased rates of alcohol related crime and presentation to emergency care.4 These results align with our finding that antidepressants can both stimulate drinking and cause pathological intoxication, sometimes with catastrophic results.5 Alcohol use in people taking antidepressants is common but poorly studied; this problem needs to be urgently investigated as a contributor to both serious violence and suicide.)

(Anm: Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment: systematic review and meta-analyses based on clinical study reports. (...) Conclusions Because of the shortcomings identified and having only partial access to appendices with no access to case report forms, the harms could not be estimated accurately. In adults there was no significant increase in all four outcomes, but in children and adolescents the risk of suicidality and aggression doubled. To elucidate the harms reliably, access to anonymised individual patient data is needed. BMJ 2016;352:i65 (Published 27 January 2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva kan doble risikoen for selvmord og aggresjon hos barn, ifølge studie (Antidepressants may double risk of suicide and aggression in children, study finds. Doctors should avoid prescribing antidepressants to children and teenagers wherever possible because they are associated with a doubling in the risk of aggression and suicide, Danish researchers have concluded in The BMJ.1 They recommend considering alternative treatments such as exercise or psychotherapy.) BMJ 2016;352:i545 (Published 28 January 2016).)

(Anm: Teen Depression Treatment Is an Increasingly Thorny Issue. And the most commonly prescribed antidepressants often don’t help. (…) Taken together, it can be hard for well-meaning psychiatrists to decide the best course of treatment for depressed teens. (time.com 8.6.2016).)

- Bruk av visse smertestillende midler og antidepressiva (+ 31 %) forbundet med økt risiko for drap

Use of certain painkillers linked with increased risk of homicide (Bruk av visse smertestillende midler forbundet med økt risiko for drap)
medicalnewstoday.com 1.6.2015
Enkelte legemidler som påvirker sentralnervesystemet - som smertestillende og beroligende benzodiazepiner - er assosiert med økt risiko for å begå et drap, finner en ny studie publisert i tidsskriftet World Psychiatry. (Certain drugs affecting the central nervous system - such as painkillers and tranquilizing benzodiazepines - are associated with increased risk of committing a murder, finds a new study published in the journal World Psychiatry.) (…)

Forskerne fant ingen signifikant sammenheng mellom bruk av antipsykotika og økt risiko for å begå et drap. Men en noe økt risiko for å begå et drap (31 % økt risiko) var assosiert med bruk av antidepressiva (…) (The researchers found no significant association between use of antipsychotics and increased risk of committing a homicide. However, a slightly increased risk of committing a homicide (31% increased risk) was associated with antidepressant use.)

(Anm: Straffesaker (fengselsstraff) (mintankesmie.no).)

- For to år siden gikk NRK gjennom dommene etter 231 norske drap over ti år fra 2003 til 2012. I 125 av drapene – eller 54 prosent – er det beskrevet i dommen at gjerningspersonen var påvirket av rusmidler under drapet.

Forsvarer: – Drapssiktet brukte medikamenter
nrk.no 13.12.2016
22-åringen som er siktet for å ha drept en 42 år gammel mann på Notodden forrige lørdag gikk på medikamenter. (…)

For to år siden gikk NRK gjennom dommene etter 231 norske drap over ti år fra 2003 til 2012. I 125 av drapene – eller 54 prosent – er det beskrevet i dommen at gjerningspersonen var påvirket av rusmidler under drapet.

– At et drap er begått i rus betyr ikke nødvendigvis at det er en direkte sammenheng mellom rusen og drapet. Ofte kan det være en bakenforliggende årsak til både rusbruken og drapet, sa voldsforsker Ragnhild Bjørnebekk ved Politihøyskolen til NRK i 2014. (…)

- Halvparten av norske drap begått av rusede

Halvparten av norske drap begått av rusede
nrk.no 10.6.2014
Over halvparten av drapene i Norge gjennom ti år er begått av rusede gjerningspersoner. Tallet både kunne og burde vært lavere hvis rusomsorgen hadde fungert bedre, sier forskere. Av Ståle HansenNRK Journalist Ståle Hansen Ellen Borge Kristoffersen

NRK har gjennomgått dommene etter 231 norske drap over ti år fra 2003 til 2012. I 125 av drapene - eller 54 prosent – er det beskrevet i dommen at gjerningspersonen var påvirket av rusmidler under drapet.

Drap som er begått i rus involverer ofte personer som kjenner hverandre fra før, eller har en familierelasjon. De er ofte vanskelig å finne et motiv eller drapene er tilsynelatende utløst av bagateller og småkrangler. (...)

- Antidepressiva kan forårsake vold. (- Bruk av antidepressiva (både totalt og for SSRI) var mer vanlig før voldelig kriminalitet blant de domfelte enn blant dem som ikke var domfelt.)

Research report. Antidepressant use and violent crimes among young people: a longitudinal examination of the Finnish 1987 birth cohort (Forskningsrapport. Bruk av antidepressiva og voldsforbrytelser blant ungdom: en longitudinell undersøkelse av den finske 1987 fødselskohort)
J Epidemiol Community Health 2016 (Published Online First 28 June 2016)
(…) Bakgrunn Det er blitt satt spørsmålstegn ved bruken av antidepressiva, spesielt selektive serotonin reopptakshemmere (SSRI), på grunn av dårlig effekt og sikkerhet. Vi undersøkte om unge voldsutøvere var mer sannsynlig å bruke antidepressiva før det første voldelige lovbrudd enn andre unge. (Background The use of antidepressants, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), has been questioned due to poor efficacy and safety. We examined whether young violent offenders were more likely antidepressant users prior to their first violent offence than other young persons.)

Metoder Studien er en oppfølging av barn født i Finland i 1987 (n = 59 120) hvor nasjonale registre er linket til hverandre ved hjelp av personlige identitetskoder. Data om psykotrope legemdler kom fra et register over refunderte legemidler og data om forbrytelser fra et register på domstolkjennelser (etter fylte 14 år). Deltakerne ble fulgt til fylte 18 år, og for noen analyser til slutten av oppfølgingen (gjennomsnitt 21 år). For å justere for forskjeller i bakgrunns karakteristika, ble regresjonsanalyse for bruk av antidepressiva gjort ved hjelp av gruppe som ikke var domfelt som referanse.(Methods The study is a follow-up of children born in Finland in 1987 (n=59 120), linking national registers to each other using personal identity codes. Data on psychotropic drug use came from a register of reimbursed drugs and data on crimes from a register on court convictions (after the age of 14 years). Participants were followed until the age of 18 years, and for some analyses until the end of the follow-up (mean 21 years). To adjust for differences in background characteristics, regression analyses for antidepressant use were made, using the no-conviction group as the reference.)

Resultater Andeler av unge personer dømt i en alder av 18 år var: 5 % av guttene (1,7 % for voldelige forbrytelser) og 1 % (0,5 %) av jenter. Bruk av antidepressiva (både totalt og for SSRI) var mer vanlig før voldelig kriminalitet blant de domfelte enn blant dem som ikke var domfelt. Blant gutter med gjentatte voldelige forbrytelser var det også mer vanlig enn blant gutter med ikke-voldelige forbrytelser. Justering for forskjeller i bakgrunn karakteristika reduserte forbindelsene mellom antidepressiva bruk og voldelig kriminalitet, men eliminerte dem ikike. (Results Proportions of young people convicted by the age of 18 years were: 5% of boys (1.7% for violent crimes) and 1% (0.5%) of girls. Antidepressant use (both overall and for SSRIs) prior to violent crime was more common among those convicted than among those without convictions. Among boys with repeated violent crimes, it was also more common than among boys with non-violent crimes. Adjustment for differences in background characteristics decreased the associations between antidepressant use and violent crime, but did not eliminate them.

Konklusjoner Resultatene legger ytterligere bevis for forsiktighet ved forskrivning antidepressiva blant unge personer. Det krever også en reanalyse av vurderinger av vold i de opprinnelige studiene.(…) (Conclusions The results add further evidence for caution in prescribing antidepressants among young persons. It also calls for a reanalysis of violence measures in the original trial data.)

(Anm: Cohort study explores association between SSRI use and violent crime (medicalnewstoday.com 15.9.2015).)

(Anm: Gjerningsmannen fikk psykiatrisk behandling. (…) Den 18 år gamle gjerningsmannen var under psykiatrisk og medisinsk behandling, og led av depresjon, opplyser politiet i München under en pressekonferanse lørdag formiddag. (aftenposten.no 23.7.2016).)

(Anm: Nearly half of deaths among ex-prisoners related to substance abuse (clinicalpsychiatrynews 21.4.2015).)

(Anm: Hundrevis av dødsfall hos innsatte med psykiske tilstander kunne vært unngått, ifølge granskning (Hundreds of deaths of detainees with mental health conditions were avoidable, inquiry says) BMJ 2015;350:h1044 (Published 23 February 2015).)

(Anm: Frode Sulland advokat, leder av Forsvaregruppen i Advokatforeningen. Ingen rettshjelp i Nederland. (…) Regjeringens prestisjeprosjekt er enda et eksempel på at rettssikkerheten blir skadelidende på grunn av mangelfull rettshjelp, og dermed en del av  begrunnelsen for Advokatforeningens rettshjelpsaksjon. (aftenposten.no 23.8.2015).)

(Anm: Betaler millioner for tomme fengselsplasser. Nesten halvparten av plassene i det norsk-leide fengselet i Nederland, står tomme. Det har kostet justisdepartementet minst 10 millioner kroner – bare de siste fire ukene. (nrk.no 11.10.2015).)

(Anm: Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment. Author’s reply to Dubicka and colleagues and Stone. Dubicka and colleagues say that we are likely to harm young people when we point out that antidepressants increase the risk of suicide.1 2 They consider it harmful that some young people will not start taking antidepressants because they think that these drugs do more harm than good. What is harmful is when these authors and other psychiatrists claim that these drugs protect against suicide despite the solid evidence we have to the contrary and the clear warnings from drug agencies. BMJ 2016;352:i915 (Published 16 February 2016).)

(Anm: Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment. Paper on suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment was flawed and the press release was misleading. We have concerns about the editorial process involved in the publication of Sharma and colleagues’ article.1 The article is fundamentally flawed in presentation and logic, and the results were further misrepresented by The BMJ press release. The BMJ is highly regarded and anything it publishes will probably be taken as fact by journalists and the public. It is therefore crucial that The BMJ operates with the highest levels of peer review scrutiny and editorial comment. BMJ 2016;352:i911 (Published 16 February 2016).)

(Anm: Lykkepille (Seroxat) utløser tilfeller av aggresjon ("aggression er iagttaget efter markedsføring") (ema.europa.eu 22. januar 2015).)

(Anm: Growing violence against doctors alarms medical profession. Grave concern about the growing incidence of violence against doctors across the globe has been expressed by the World Medical Association. (medicalnewstoday.com 20.4.2015).)

(Anm: Visst samband mellan SSRI och våld. Det tycks finnas ett visst samband mellan SSRI-användning och våldsbrott bland unga. Det visar en stor svensk studie. (…) – Det är en modest, det vill säga liten ökning, men det är en ökad risk. (…) I studien som publicerats i Plos Medicine ingick cirka 850 000 personer i Sverige som förskrivits SSRI-preparat mellan 2006 och 2009.  Av dem utgjorde den unga gruppen, mellan 15 och 24 år, tio procent. Det statistiska sambandet mellan förskrivning av SSRI-preparat och våldsbrott har forskarna studerat genom att länka samman flera nationella register som läkemedels-, vård-och brottsregister. (lakemedelsvarlden.se 16.9.2015).)

(Anm: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Violent Crime: A Cohort Study. PLoS Med 12(9): e1001875.)

(Anm:  – Menn som slår partneren er ofte psykisk syke. Bak en mann som slår partneren sin ligger ofte en depresjon, angst, rus eller andre psykiatriske diagnoser, viser en ny doktorgradsavhandling. – Det var overraskende at det var så mange som kvalifiserte til en alvorlig psykiatriske diagnose, sier forsker ved NKTVS, Ingun Rangul Askeland, til NRK. (nrk.no 16.5.2015).)

(Anm: Frontal lobe injuries, violence, and aggression: a report of the Vietnam Head Injury Study. (…)These findings support the hypothesis that ventromedial frontal lobe lesions increase the risk of aggressive and violent behavior. Neurology. 1996 May;46(5):1231-8.)

(Anm: Fisk som svømmer i vann som er forurenset av Prozac fremviser "antisosial, aggressiv og selvmorderisk atferd" (Fish swimming in water tainted with Prozac exhibit 'antisocial, aggressive and even homicidal behaviour' (dailymail.co.uk 14.7.2013).)

(Anm: Frontal lobe injuries, violence, and aggression: a report of the Vietnam Head Injury Study. (…)These findings support the hypothesis that ventromedial frontal lobe lesions increase the risk of aggressive and violent behavior. Neurology. 1996 May;46(5):1231-8.)

(Anm: Some antidepressants may cause adolescent aggression. Some antidepressant drugs could cause irritability and other abnormal behaviour in teenagers and more research is required to study their effect on children, say scientists. (paktribune.com 18.10.2007).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (øyesykdommer). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Vanlige alvorlige øyerelaterte bivirkninger for antidepressiva, antipsykotika etc. (CNS Drugs. 2010 Jun 1;24(6):501-26.).)

(Anm: Serious Signs of Eye Problems. What Eye Problems Look Like (webmd.com 20.12.2016).)

(Anm: Selv mild synshemning har innflytelse på livskvalitet (…) Even mild vision impairment has influence on quality of life. In a study published online by JAMA Ophthalmology, Phillippa M. Cumberland, M.Sc., and Jugnoo S. Rahi, Ph.D., F.R.C.Ophth., of the University College London Institute of Child Health, London, and the UK Biobank Eye and Vision Consortium, and colleagues examined the association of visual health (across the full acuity spectrum) with social determinants of general health and the association between visual health and health and social outcomes.  (medicalnewstoday.com 29.7.2016).)

(Anm: Study suggests new way of preventing diabetes-associated blindness (medicalnewstoday.com 26.5.2015).)

(Anm: Blurry Vision and Diabetes: What's the Connection? (medicalnewstoday.com 13.6.2016).)

(Anm: - Plutselig oppstått dobbeltsyn (- Visuelle komplikasjoner er vanlig etter hjerneslag) Sudden onset double vision BMJ 2014;348:g3286 (19 May 2014).)

- Sygeplejersker og SOSU’er i psykiatrien: Vi oplever mere vold

Sygeplejersker og SOSU’er i psykiatrien: Vi oplever mere vold
arbejdsmiljoviden.dk 13.10.2015
Kommentér  Af Ida Marie Winge  - 13. oktober 2015
Volden er stigende på de psykiatriske afdelinger. Det oplever over halvdelen af psykiatripersonalet i en ny undersøgelse.

Vrede patienter, der slår eller slynger trusler ud, er en stor del af arbejdslivet for sygeplejersker og social- og sundhedsassistenter i psykiatrien. Det viser en ny undersøgelse lavet af Dansk Sygeplejeråd, FOA og Bedre Psykiatri.

Mere end halvdelen af psykiatripersonalet i undersøgelsen oplever, at der er kommet en stigning i antallet af vold og trusler. Samtidig fortæller ni ud af ti, at nogen på deres arbejdsplads er blevet truet eller slået i løbet af det seneste år.

Dorte Stenberg næstformand i Dansk Sygeplejeråd fortæller, at den stigende vold gør de ansatte utrygge.

- Det er ikke altid de hårdeste episoder, der er de værste. Nogle gange er det antallet af episoder, som gør at folk bliver langtidssygemeldt, siger hun. (…)

- SSRI-relatert flykrasj.

Pilot in fatal crash was using banned drug (Pilot i dødelig krasj brukte forbudt legemiddel)
The Chilkat Valley News. (28.02.2002)
National Transportation Safety Board meldte mandag at spor av antidepressiva Paxil (Seroxat) ble funnet i blod og vevsprøver tatt av den 26 år gamle Chad Beer etter ulykkeen 30. juli 2001 nær Davidson Glacier som drepte Beer og fem passasjerer. (The NTSB factual report, a summary of the agency’s year-long investigation into the crash, does not list use of the drug as the cause of the accident. The safety board will determine and publish the probable cause of the crash within a month.)

NTSBs faktarapport, et sammendrag av byråets ett års granskning av krasjet, nevner ikke bruk av legemidlet som årsaken til ulykken. Sikkerhetskommisjonen vil avgjøre og offentliggjøre den sannsynlige årsak til krasjet innen en måned. (The NTSB factual report, a summary of the agency’s year-long investigation into the crash, does not list use of the drug as the cause of the accident. The safety board will determine and publish the probable cause of the crash within a month.)

I månedene før krasjet ble Beer forskrevet Seroxat (Paxil) som behandling mot angst relatert spesielt til hans arbeid.”… (In the months prior to the crash, Beer was prescribed Paxil to treat anxiety specifically related to his job.”…)

“Det populære antidepressiva er på en liste over psykotrope legemidler, som Federal Aviation Administration betegner "diskvalifiserende," hvilket innebærer at bruk for tiden ikke er tillatt for private eller trafikkflygere. (“The popular antidepressant is on a list of psychotropic drugs the Federal Aviation Administration lists as "disqualifying," meaning that use is currently not allowed for private or commercial pilots.)

Dr Robert Rigg, FAA-regionale flylege, sa at Seroxat (Paxil) er forbudt fordi det kunne påvirke en pilots prestasjoner. "Det endrer sinnsstemning og det kan ha en stor innvirkning på hva som foregår i toppetasjen. Der er faktisk to spørsmål her. Det ene er effekten legemidlet i seg selv har på en person, og det andre er underliggende tilstander som legemidlet er forskrevet mot. Alle mennesker blir deprimerte, og det kan være ille nok å være uskikket. Men bruk av Seroxat (Paxil) er definitivt diskvalifiserende." (Dr. Robert Rigg, FAA regional flight surgeon, said Paxil is banned because it could affect how a pilot performs. "It’s mood altering and it could have a big impact as far as what’s going on upstairs. There are really two issues here. One is the effect the drug itself has on a person, but the other is the underlying conditions for which the drug is prescribed. Everybody gets depressed, and it may be bad enough to be disqualifying. But use of Paxil definitely is disqualifying.")

Rigg sa at Beers lege, som ikke var FAA-sertifisert som medisinsk gransker og dermed kvalifisert til å utføre helseundersøkelser på piloter, kanskje ikke har visst at Seroxat (Paxil) var et forbudt legemiddel. (Rigg said Beer’s doctor, who was not an FAA-certified medical examiner qualified to perform pilot physicals, may not have known Paxil was a banned drug.)

Legen rapporterte til NTSB at Beer fortalte ham at han ikke kunne ta andre legemidler på grunn av sin jobb som trafikkflyger. "Hva legens ansvar angår har jeg ingen formening om fordi han kanskje har antatt (Beer) kunne bruke Seroxat (Paxil). Det vet man bare ikke." ()

Leger er rådet å informere sine pasienter om at Seroxat (Paxil) kan påvirke tenkning og motorikk. Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR; «Felleskatalogen»), standardreferansen for legemiddelforskrivning, opplyser: "Leger er tilrådet å fremlegge for sine pasienter at Seroxat (Paxil) kan forstyrre kognitiv tenkning og motorikk. Pasienter skal advares mot å betjene farlig maskineri, blant annet det å kjøre bil." (Doctors are advised to inform their patients that Paxil could impact thinking and motor skills. The Physician’s Desk Reference, the standard prescription drug reference, states: "Physicians are advised to discuss with their patients that Paxil can interfere with cognitive thinking and motor skills. Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles.")

Pasienter er gjort oppmerksom på om at " Seroxat (Paxil) kan svekke vurdering (bedømmelse), tenkning eller motorikk. Unngå bilkjøring, betjening av farlig utstyr, eller deltagelse i farlige aktiviteter som krever full mental våkenhet inntil du er sikker på at legemidlet ikke påvirker deg på denne måten." (Patients are warned that "Paxil may impair your judgement, thinking or motor skills. Do not drive, operate dangerous equipment, or participate in any hazardous activity that requires full mental alertness until you are sure the medication is not affecting you in this way.")

NTSB etterforskeren Clint Johnson sa at ledelsen av L.A.B. Flying Service var uvitende om at Beer ble forskrevet legemidlet. Beer fikk godkjent sin siste første skikkelige medisinske undersøkelse for piloter i september 2000, seks måneder etter å ha blitt hyret av L.A.B. (NTSB investigator Clint Johnson said that the management of L.A.B. Flying Service was unaware that Beer had been prescribed the drug. Beer passed his last first-class pilot’s medical exam in September 2000, six months after being hired by L.A.B.)

"Ved min granskning av krasjet var det meget klart at de ikke var oppmerksom på at han ble forskrevet Seroxat (Paxil). Der er egentlig ikke mulig å vite det, dersom ikke piloten forteller det selv," sa Johnson. ("Throughout my investigation of the crash it was very clear that they were not aware that he was prescribed Paxil. There’s really no way to know, if the pilot doesn’t tell them himself," Johnson said.)

Dette skyldes at F.A.A. ikke krever at piloter testes for Seroxat (Paxil) og andre forbudte antidepressiva. Tilfeldig substanstester for piloter legge hovedvekten på marihuana, kokain, og amfetamin. Det er et krav at trafikkflygere gjennomgår en årlig medisinsk undersøkelse, og frivillig er forventet å fortelle F.A.A.s medisinske gransker om det dersom de er på antidepressiva, sa Rigg.“… (That’s because the F.A.A. doesn’t require that pilots be tested for Paxil and other banned antidepressants. Random pilot drug tests focus on marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamines. Commercial pilots are required to undergo an annual medical exam, and are expected to voluntarily tell their F.A.A. medical examiner if they’re on antidepressant drugs, Rigg said.“)

“Rigg sa at piloter som innrømmer bruk av antidepressiva ikke har adgang til å fly før de har vært medisinfri opp til seks uker, for å sikre at tilstanden som legemidlet ble forskrevet mot ikke returnerer.” (…) (“Rigg said pilots who admit to antidepressant use aren’t allowed to fly again until they’ve been off medication for up to six weeks, to make sure the conditions for which the drugs were prescribed don’t return.)

(Anm: Seroxat (Paxil) (paroxetine; paroksetin) (SSRI) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Pillen som stjeler liv: En kvinnes skremmende reise for å oppdage sannheten om antidepressiva (The Pill That Steals Lives: One Woman's Terrifying Journey to Discover the Truth about Antidepressants Paperback  – 7 Jul 2016. (…) While going through a divorce, documentary filmmaker Katinka Blackford Newman took an antidepressant. Not unusual except that things didn't turn out quite as she expected. She went into a four-day toxic psychosis with violent hallucinations, imagining she had killed her children, and in fact attacking herself with a knife. (…) Could they really be the cause of world mass killings, such as the Germanwings pilot who took an airliner down, killing 150, while on exactly the same medication as the author when she became psychotic?) (amazon.co.uk).)

(Anm: - Flere flystyrter er selvmord. Ved systematisk sjekk av ulykker i USA i perioden 1993-2012 kom man frem til at 24 av 7.244 ulykker som medførte tap av liv, tilsvarende 0,33 prosent, sannsynligvis er direkte forårsaket av en eller flere piloter, ifølge Air & Space Magazine. (aftenposten.no 26.3.2015).)

(Anm: Don’t Blame It on Depression. That’s not what made the Germanwings co-pilot murder 149 people. (slate.com 29.3.2015).)

(Anm: The science, drugs and tech pushing our brains to new limits. (…) Crockett and colleagues used experiments looking at cooperation, and moral dilemmas such as the “trolley problem” where participants must decide who to save from an onrushing railway cart (a similar puzzle was posed in the 2015 Helen Mirren film Eye in the Sky). Among their findings was evidence that serotonin increased an aversion to harming others. (theconversation.com 3.10.2016).)

(Anm: Bias [baies] -en, - skjevhet i vitenskapelig undersøkelse el. resultat pga. mangelfull systematikk i innsamlingen av data. Etym.: eng., fr. biais helning, tendens. Kilde: ordnett.no.)

(Anm: Bias; (...) valg og vurderinger som på systematisk måte avviker fra det som er faktisk korrekt. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: Legemiddeletterlevelse (Tas legemidler som foreskrevet?) (Adherence to Medication.) (…) Legemidler virker ikke på pasienter som ikke tar dem. (Drugs don't work in patients who don't take them.)  (NEJM 2005;353:487-497(August 4).)

(Anm: A list of anticholinergic drugs and their potential impact is here. (agingbraincare.org).)

(Anm: Hukommelse – normal glemsomhet eller tegn på sykdom? Alle glemmer ting fra tid til annen, det er helt normalt. Men for noen kan dårlig hukommelse hemme gjøremål i hverdagen. (…) Hvilke legemidler kan påvirke hukommelsen? Noen legemidler kan også føre til at man får dårligere hukommelse, ifølge Bekkhus-Wetterberg. – Av legemidler er det hovedsakelig beroligende medisiner av benzodiazpintype, som diazepam og oxazepam, samt legemidler med antikolinerg effekt som gir hukommelsesproblemer. Alle midler som svekker oppmerksomheten og gjør at man blir trett og sløv, vil også påvirke hukommelsen. (lommeleen.no 1.8.2016).)

(Anm: - Hjerneskanninger linker fysiske endringer til kognitiv risiko hos mye brukte legemiddelklasser. (…) - Forskerne har også funnet signifikante linker mellom hjernens struktur avslørt av MR og antikolinerg legemiddelbruk, hvor deltakerne som brukte antikolinerge legemidler hadde redusert hjernevolum og større ventrikler, hulrommene inne i hjernen.) (…) En liste over antikolinerge midler og deres potensielle effekten er her. (A list of anticholinergic drugs and their potential impact is here.) (medicalnewstoday.com 19.4.2016).)

(Anm: - Problemene med uheldige antikolinerge effekter (bivirkninger) hos barn, ungdommer, voksne og eldre pasienter. (The problems of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.) Drugs Aging. 1993 Jul-Aug;3(4):335-48.)

(Anm: Anticholinergic effects of common drugs are associated with increased mortality in over 65s (Antikolinerge effekter av vanlige legemidler knyttet til økt dødelighet hos mennesker over 65) BMJ 2011; 342:d4037 (28 June).)

(Anm: Olanzapin depot kan gi en tilstand forenlig med sentralt antikolinergt syndrom. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2013; 133:2238 – 9 (12.11.2013).)

(Anm: Link mellom alkohol, hjerneslag, psykiatriske legemidler og demens (- Men også personer som tok medisin mot psykoser og folk som slet med depresjon, fikk forhøyd risiko for å bli rammet av demens tidlig. Høyt blodtrykk kan også øke faren for at man rammes, skriver nyhetsbyrået TT.) (vg.no 14.8.2013).)

(Anm: Boustani MA, Campbell NL, Munger S, Maidment I, Fox GC.  Impact of anticholinergics on the aging brain: a review and practical application. Aging Heatlh. 2008;4(3):311-320.)
 
(Anm: Campbell N, Boustani M, Limbil T, et al. The cognitive impact of anticholinergics: a clinical review.  Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2009;4(1):225-233.)

(Anm: Campbell N, Boustani M, Lane K, et al. Use of anticholinergics and the risk of cognitive impairment in an AfricanAmerican population. Neurology. 2010;75:152-159.)

(Anm:  Fox C, Richardson K, Maidment I, et al. Anticholinergic medication use and cognitive impairment in the older population: the medical research council cognitive function and ageing study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Aug;59(8):1477-83. Epub 2011 Jun 24.)

(Anm:  Cai X, Campbell N, Khan B, Callahan C, Boustani M. Long-term anticholinergic use and the aging brain. Alzheimers Dement. 2013 Jul;9(4):377-85. Epub 2012 Nov 22.)

(Anm: Functional brain organization of newborns altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. A new study by UNC researchers, based on MRI brain scans of 152 infants, found disruptions in functional connectivity within part of the amygdala-prefrontal network - a pathway thought to play an important role in arousal regulation. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.4.2015).)

(Anm: Etterforskningen etter Germanwings-styrten utvides. Flere leger konkluderte med at Germanwings-piloten som med hensikt styrtet et passasjerfly, ikke var skikket til å fly. Nå vil franske myndigheter undersøke om noen kan holdes ansvarlig. (…) Franske myndigheter starter nå en etterforskning av om noen av dem som har vært i kontakt med Lubitz kan holdes ansvarlig for uaktsomt drap. (aftenposten.no 11.6.2015).)

- Gåten Lubitz (...) Kan antidepressiva ha forårsaket Germanwings-tragedien (- Could antidepressants have caused the Germanwings tragedy?)

Etter flykatastrofen i Alpene: Gåten Lubitz
aftenposten.no 30.3.2015
Stadig flere opplysninger sannsynliggjør selvmordet. Men over massemordet, derimot, hviler et tungt mørke. (…)

Det drypper stadig ut biter av informasjon om Andreas Lubitz, mannen som for en uke siden styrtet et Germanwings-fly på vei fra Barcelona til Düsseldorf. Etter alt å dømme gjorde han det med viten og vilje. 149 mennesker mistet livet i tillegg til han selv.

Alle informasjonsbrokkene har to ting felles. De kan sannsynliggjøre, bygge opp en slags forståelse for hvorfor Lubitz ikke ville leve lenger. Men de sier ingenting om hvorfor han ble massemorder. (…)

Å forebygge selvmord er viktig. Å hindre massemord enda viktigere. (…)

Derfor settes et par spørsmål som på dagsordenen i Tyskland, et samfunn som setter verdier som orden, presisjon, arbeidsmoral og forutsigbarhet så høyt, men som samtidig hegner om privatsfæren og har utviklet en historisk betinget aversjon mot kontroll- og overvåkingstiltak som griper for dypt inn i den enkelte borgers liv: Hadde det vært mulig å stanse Lubitz før han satt alene bak spakene? Hva måtte i så fall til?

Herostratos-gåten er 2300 år gammel. Den er ennå ikke løst. (…)

(Anm: Could antidepressants have caused the Germanwings tragedy? (forbes.com 29.3.2015).)

(Anm: Dødspiloten førte «lykkedagbok» før Germanwings-krasjet. (…) Ble medisinert. De siste fire ukene før Lubitz tok sitt eget og 149 andre menneskers liv skal han ha fått utskrevet fire ulike medisiner, deriblant antidepressivaen Mirtazapin utskrevet, refererer den svenske avisa Aftonbladet. (dagbladet.no 20.9.2015).)

(Anm: Skrev ’lyckodagbok’ – innan han dödade 149. Informationen kommer från utredningen av kraschen och bland annat framkommer det att Lubitz fick regelbunden behandling av en psykiatriker. Den behandlande psykiatrikern skrev, enligt åklagarens dokument, ut ett medel mot sömnsvårigheter och bad Andreas Lubitz att stämma av detta med arbetsgivaren Germanwings särskilda avdelning för flygmedicin. Senare skrev läkaren också ut ett recept på den antidepressiva medicinen Mirtazapin. (aftonbladet 18.9.2015).)

(Anm: Germanwings-styrten: NRK svarer på kritikken: Også Bild kan ha relevante opplysninger. Vi ønsker ikke sensasjon og spekulasjon, men vil bidra med informasjon til publikum, svarer nyhetsdirektøren. (aftenposten.no 31.3.2015).)

(Anm: Dødspiloten Lubitz ble behandlet av fem forskjellige leger. Nevrologer og psykiatere skal ha vært inne i behandlingen av Andreas Lubitz. - En forunderlig lang rekke av leger og spesialister, sier en etterforsker til tyske Der Spiegel. (aftenposten.no 5.4.2015).)

(Anm: Etterforskningen etter Germanwings-styrten utvides. Flere leger konkluderte med at Germanwings-piloten som med hensikt styrtet et passasjerfly, ikke var skikket til å fly. Nå vil franske myndigheter undersøke om noen kan holdes ansvarlig. (…) Franske myndigheter starter nå en etterforskning av om noen av dem som har vært i kontakt med Lubitz kan holdes ansvarlig for uaktsomt drap. (aftenposten.no 11.6.2015).)

- Skjulte data

Hidden Data
Putting GlaxoSmithKline to the test over paroxetine
BMJ 2013;347:f6754 (Published 12 November 2013)
Blockbuster antidepressant paroxetine is no stranger to headlines. The drug is now back centre stage as requests for clinical data from one of its trials are testing manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline’s commitment to full transparency, Peter Doshi reports

When the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) published study 329 in 2001,1 its editors could have had no idea that the paper would spark a controversy, not only about the use of the antidepressant paroxetine in children but also about secrecy in clinical trials. It is a controversy that rages to this day and that goes to the heart of recent campaigns to gain access to drug companies’ trial data. (...)

(Anm: Interessekonflikter, bestikkelser og korrupsjon (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Når er et synspunkt en interessekonflikt? (When is a point of view a conflict of interest?) BMJ 2016;355:i6194 (Published 23 November 2016).)

(Anm: Høyresiden har størst mistillit til journalistikken. (…) Videre mente 63 prosent at journalister favoriserer kilder som mener det samme som dem. (aftenposten.no 13.2.2017).)

(Anm: Mina Ghabel Lunde, journalist. Når kilder også er venner. Pressen skal unngå bindinger som skaper usikkerhet om lojalitet. Da kan ikke journalister omgås sine kilder privat. (aftenposten.no 8.2.2017).)

(Anm: Ingen gratis lunsj for leger: Sponsede måltider knyttet til flere resepter (No free lunch for docs: Sponsored meals linked to more prescriptions) (mmm-online.com 20.6.2016).)

(Anm: SSRI-preparater og antipsykotika har uheldige effekter på mitokondrier (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Forstyrrelser av cellenes "kraftstasjoner" kan føre til tumorvekst, ifølge Penn-studie (Disrupting cells' 'powerhouses' can lead to tumor growth, Penn study finds.  (…) When the Penn scientists disrupted a key component of mitochondria, otherwise normal cells took on characteristics of cancerous tumor cells. (medicalnewstoday.com 11.7.2015).)

(Anm: Specific SSRIs and birth defects: bayesian analysis to interpret new data in the context of previous reports. BMJ 2015;351:h3190 (Published 08 July 2015).)

(Anm: Antidepressants linked with risk of birth defects. n recent years, numerous studies have reported that there may be a link between maternal use of a class of antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and greater risk of birth defects. Now, a new study provides further evidence of this association. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.7.2015).)

(Anm: Legemiddelinduserte mitokondrielle skader og sykdom. (Medication-induced mitochondrial damage and disease.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Laktat er et biprodukt av den kjemiske prosess som er kjent som glykolyse - å bryte ned av sukker eller glukose, til mindre molekyler med det formål å frembringe energi. Under intens fysisk aktivitet, akkumuleres laktat i vevet og blod, som noen ganger kan føre til dårligere fysisk ytelse og muskelstivhet. (Lactate is a byproduct of the chemical process known as glycolysis- the breaking down of sugar, or glucose, into smaller molecules with the purpose of producing energy. During intense physical activity, lactate accumulates in the tissue and blood, which can sometimes lead to poorer physical performance and muscle stiffness.) (medicalnewstoday.com 19.3.2017).)

(Anm: Er Mitokondrier nøkkelen til å finne en løsning på Parkinsons sykdom? Are Mitochondria the Key to Cracking Parkinson’s Disease? European Medical Journal 2017 (Februar 20, 2017).)

(Anm: Cytochrome c as a Potentially Clinical Useful Marker of Mitochondrial and Cellular Damage Front. Mitochondria are evolutionary endosymbionts derived from bacteria. Thus, they bear molecules, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that contains CpG DNA repeats and N-formyl peptides (FPs), found in bacteria. Immunol. 2016 (20 July 2016).)

(Anm: Mitochondria affect stress responses. CHOP scientist: Cell's powerhouse plays role in mind-body interactions, with long-term health effects. Mitochondria, the tiny structures inside our cells that generate energy, may also play a previously unrecognized role in mind-body interactions. Based on new studies of stress responses, this insight may have broad implications for human psychology and for the biology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. A pioneering scientist in mitochondrial medicine has led research in animals showing how alterations in mitochondrial function lead to distinct physiological changes in hormonal, metabolic and behavioral systems in response to mild stress. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.12.2015).)

(Anm: Mitochondria: "Mood Altering Organelles" that Impact Disease Throughout the Nervous System. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2015 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) indusert av sertraline (Zoloft), et antidepressiva (Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sertraline, an antidepressant agent) Toxicol Sci. 2012 Jun;127(2):582-91. Epub 2012 Mar 2.)

(Anm: Kan Lupus øke risikoen for demens? Could lupus raise dementia risk? People living with lupus may be at significantly greater risk of developing dementia than those without the autoimmune disease, a new study suggests. (…) Study co-author Daniela Amital, of the Sackler Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University in Israel, and colleagues recently reported their results in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.11.2017).)

(Anm: Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser. (Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.) (…) Dette resultatet forklarer de kliniske og deres respektive histopatologiske effekter av tramadol, for eksempel anfall og røde nevroner (markør for apoptose). (The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss.) (Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Dec;31(12):1325-33).)

(Anm: Antibiotika kan utløse mitokondriell dysfunksjon som induserer psykiatriske lidelser. (Antibiotics May Trigger Mitochondrial Dysfunction Inducing Psychiatric Disorders. Med Sci Monit. 2017 Jan 7;23:101-106.)

(Anm: PET Imaging of Mitochondrial Complex I with 18F-BCPP-EF in Brain of Parkinson's Disease Model Monkey. (…) CONCLUSION: 18F-BCPP-EF has potential as a PET probe for the quantitative imaging of MC-1 damage in the living brains of PD model monkeys using PET. J Nucl Med. 2016 Feb 11. pii: jnumed.115.169615. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Exercise increases mitochondrial complex I activity and DRP1 expression in the brains of aged mice. Abstract. Exercise is known to have numerous beneficial effects. Recent studies indicate that exercise improves mitochondrial energetics not only in skeletal muscle but also in other tissues. (…) Our results suggest that exercise training in old mice can improve brain mitochondrial function through effects on electron transport chain function and mitochondrial dynamics without increasing mitochondrial biogenesis. Exp Gerontol. 2017 Jan 17. pii: S0531-5565(16)30505-8. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Exercise prevents cellular aging by boosting mitochondria (medicalnewstoday.com 8.3.2017).)

(Anm: Trening er best for å redusere tilbakefall av brystkreft. Exercise is best for reducing breast cancer recurrence. The research was conducted by Dr. Ellen Warner, of the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Canada, in collaboration with coauthor Dr. Julia Hamer, and the findings were published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ). (medicalnewstoday.com 22.2.2017).)

(Anm: Drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiotoxicity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Sep 18:ajpheart.00554.2015. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Role of altered mitochondria functions in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.Lupus. 2015 Sep 18. pii: 0961203315605370. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Sykdommen som får kroppen til å angripe seg selv. Lupus rammer kvinner ni ganger så ofte som menn. (…) - Tilstanden er vanligst blant kvinner som er i 20- til 40-årene, sier Eide. Menn med lupus kan se ut til å bli oftere angrepet i nyrene enn kvinner med sykdommen, og man kan også oftere se endringer i blodbildet (hemolytisk anemi, lavere antall blodplater eller lavere antall lymfocytter) hos menn. (klikk.no 17.4.2017).)

(Anm: Mitochondrial dysfunction related to cell damage induced by 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid: non dependent-effect of early reactive oxygen species production. Neurotoxicology. 2015 Aug 5. pii: S0161-813X(15)00118-7. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Sertraline use during pregnancy and the risk of major malformations. OBJECTIVE: Given the current debate and growing public concerns on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and birth defects generated by Food and Drug Administration warnings, we aim to quantify the association between first-trimester exposure to sertraline, a first-line treatment, and the risk of congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed women. (…) CONCLUSION: Sertraline use during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of atrial/ventricular defects and craniosynostosis above and beyond the effect of maternal depression. Nonsertraline SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of craniosynostosis and musculoskeletal defects.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun;212(6):795.e1-795.e12. Epub 2015 Jan 28.)

(Anm: The Potential Application of Mitochondrial Medicine in Toxicologic Poisoning. J Med Toxicol. 2015 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Common antidepressant increased coronary atherosclerosis in animal model (Vanlig antidepressiva gir økt koronar aterosklerose (åreforkalkning) i dyremodell) (…) The animals were then randomly assigned to receive a commonly prescribed antidepressant, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) marketed under the brand name Zoloft, or a placebo once a day for 18 months. The antidepressant was given in a dose comparable to that given to patients. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.4.2015).)

(Anm: Role of gut microbiota in the modulation of atherosclerosis-associated immune response. Inflammation and metabolic abnormalities are linked to each other. At present, pathogenic inflammatory response was recognized as a major player in metabolic diseases. In humans, intestinal microflora could significantly influence the development of metabolic diseases including atherosclerosis. Front. Microbiol. 2015 (30 June 2015).)

(Anm: Macrophage Mitochondrial Energy Status Regulates Cholesterol Efflux and is Enhanced by Anti-miR33 in Atherosclerosis. Circ Res. 2015 May 22. pii: CIRCRESAHA.115.305624. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Association of mutations in the mitochondrial genome with the subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in women. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015 Apr 21. pii: S0014-4800(15)00089-1. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Antidepressive medikamenter påvirker kroppens fettproduksjon. (...) På det molekylære planet tok Ræder i bruk cellestudier og moderne genteknologiske metoder for å vise at de store gruppene av psykiatriske medisiner (antipsykotika og antidepressiva, inkludert SSRI-medikamenter) virker på fettomsetningen i kroppen gjennom en transkripsjonsfaktor kalt SREBP (steroid reseptor-element bindende protein). SREBP er meget viktig for å regulere produksjon både av kolesterol og av ulike fett-stoffer i kroppens celler. Kolesterol og andre fett-stoffer er viktig for at nevroner skal utvikle seg og fungere normalt, men har også en rolle i utviklingen av hjerte- og karsykdom. (...) NY DOKTORGRAD (uib.no (23.9.2006).)

(Anm: Sertraline (Zoloft)-indusert systemisk lupus erythematosus (SLE) (Lupus) (Sertraline Induced Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) (The Internet Journal of Internal Medicine 2005;6(1).)

- Dødsrater for Lupus forblir høye i USA.

(Anm: Lupus Death Rates Remain High in U.S. Drop in SLE death rates less than non-lupus mortality. Despite improving trends in mortality, death rates from systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) remain high compared with those in the general population, and disparities persist between subpopulations and geographic regions, according to a report in the Annals of Internal Medicine. (medpagetoday.com 6.11.2017).)

– Studien viser hvordan vanlig trening, stressreduksjon kan føre til bedre helse hos lupus pasienter.

(Anm: Study shows how regular exercise, stress reduction could lead to better health in lupus patients. Study shows how regular exercise, stress reduction could lead to better health in lupus patients (news-medical.net 19.9.2017).)

(Anm: Lupus Patients at Risk for Stroke. Risks high for women, the young, and during the year after diagnosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are more likely to experience ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke than the general population especially in the first year they are diagnosed, according to new research published in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. (medpagetoday.com 23.4.2017).)

(Anm: Lupus: Probiotics could help to reduce kidney inflammation. (…) Researchers have found that adding Lactobacillus to the diets of mice with lupus-induced kidney inflammation - also known as lupus nephritis - led to improvements in kidney function and increased their survival, but only in female mice. (…) Study co-author Xin Luo, from the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology at Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, and colleagues recently reported their results in the journal Microbiome. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.10.2017).)

(Anm: Researchers discover that beneficial bacteria in yogurt may affect severity of lupus (news-medical.net 3.10.2017).)

(Anm: Antifungals and probiotics could play critical role in potential new therapeutic approaches for IBD. (news-medical.net 5.10.2017).)

(Anm: Financial Strain Tied to Depression in Women with SLE. Survey: 40% of those reporting high money pressures developed depression. High financial strain nearly doubles the risk of incident depression in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In an analysis of data from the Lupus Outcomes Study, financial strain was the only significant socioeconomic predictor of incident depression, reported Patricia P. Katz, PhD, from the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues in Arthritis Care & Research. (medpagetoday.com 26.4.2017).)

(Anm: For lupus patients, anti-inflammatory immune cells are maturing Into wrong cell type (medicalnewstoday.com 9.3.2016).)

(Anm: Slideshow: Thyroid Symptoms and Solutions (webmd.com 15.4..2014).)
(Anm: 15 Cancer Symptoms to Know (webmd 28.3.2016).)
(Anm: Slideshow: Causes of Fatigue and Sleepiness and How to Fight Them. (webmd).)
(Anm: Slideshow: A Visual Guide to Fibromyalgia (webmd.com 10.11.2014).)
(Anm: Slideshow: A Visual Guide to Understanding Lupus (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: Gout Pictures Slideshow: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments of Gout (webmd.com 3.2.2016).)
(Anm: Slideshow: What Your Nails Say About Your Health (webmd.com 8.4.2014).)
(Anm: Sinusitis Slideshow: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment (webmd 8.12.2014).)
(Anm: What Your Skin Says About Your Health Slideshow. (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: Type 2 Diabetes Overview (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: What Eye Problems Look Like (webmed).)

(Anm: Fibromyalgi: Fibromyalgi rammer over 100.000 norske kvinner. - En del tror sykdommen bare er tøys. Også blant leger er det en del som flirer av den, forteller professor. (…)   Når leger blir bedt om å rangere hvilke sykdommer det er mest prestisje å jobbe med, så havner alltid fibromyalgi nederst, forteller hun. Professor Egil Andreas Fors ved Institutt for samfunnsmedisin og allmennmedisinsk forskningsenhet ved NTNU er blant Norges fremste eksperter på sykdommen. Han bekrefter holdningene Slydal beskriver. (…) Sykdommen kjennetegnes gjerne ved at man har kroniske muskelsmerter, andre symptomer kan være utmattelse, hodepine, stivhet i kroppen, svimmelhet, kvalme, indre frost, depresjoner, angst og søvnproblemer. (kk.no 8.3.2016).)

(Anm: Lettere at diagnosticere fibromyalgi. På University of Colorado har forskere opdaget en speciel hjernesignatur, der med 93 pct. sikkerhed kan fastslå, hvorvidt en person lider af fibromyalgi eller ej. (pharmadanmark.anp.se 27.10.2016).)

(Anm: Management of interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease. (…) Shrinking lung syndrome. (…) Systemic lupus erythematosus. BMJ 2016;352:h6819 (Published 24 February 2016).)

(Anm: Suicidal Thoughts Seen as Risk in Lupus. —Common among lupus patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations (medpagetoday.com 24.9.2015).)

(Anm: Ofre i legemiddelstudie får "livsvarig sykdomsutvikling (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Cancer-inflammation 'vicious cycle' detailed in new study (medicalnewstoday.com 22.4.2015).)

(Anm: Cell signaling pathway linked to obesity and Type 2 diabetes (medicalnewstoday.com 11.8.2014).)

(Anm: Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue. Exp Physiol. 2014 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print].)

- Effekten av psykostimulerende legemidler på blod-hjerne barrierens (BBBs) funksjon og nevroinflammasjon.

(Anm: Effekten av psykostimulerende legemidler på blod-hjerne barrierens (BBBs) funksjon og nevroinflammasjon (The effects of psychostimulant drugs on blood brain barrier function and neuroinflammation) Front. Pharmacol. 2012;3:121 (Published online: 29 June 2012.)

(Anm: Inflammation in Middle Age May Be Tied to Brain Shrinkage Decades Later. MINNEAPOLIS, Minn -- November 1, 2017 -- People who have biomarkers tied to inflammation in their blood in their 40s and 50s may have more brain shrinkage decades later than people without the biomarkers, according to a study published in the November 1, 2017, online issue of Neurology. The brain cell loss was found especially in areas of the brain that are affected by Alzheimer’s disease. (dgnews.docguide.com 1.11.2017).)

(Anm: Alzheimers sykdom: Kan en lekk blod-hjerne barrieren (BBB) være involvert? (Alzheimer's disease: Could a leaky blood-brain barrier be involved? (…) "Blood-brain barrier leakage means that the brain has lost its protective means, the stability of brain cells is disrupted and the environment in which nerve cells interact becomes ill-conditioned. These mechanisms could eventually lead to dysfunction in the brain." The blood-brain barrier (BBB) separates the brain from circulating blood to keep brain tissue healthy. It is a collection of specialized cells and cellular components that line the walls of blood vessels in the brain and the rest of the central nervous system. The BBB controls the delivery of important nutrients, blocks substances that can harm the brain, and removes waste from the brain.) (medicalnewstoday.com 31.5.2016).)

(Anm: Leaky blood-brain barrier linked to Alzheimer's disease. Researchers using contrast-enhanced MRI have identified leakages in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of people with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a new study published online in the journal Radiology. The results suggest that increased BBB permeability may represent a key mechanism in the early stages of the disease.  (medicalxpress.com 31.5.2016).)

(Anm: nevrotoksisk; Forårsake skade eller toksisitet av sentrale eller perifere nervesystemet (wikbio.com.no).)

(Anm: Disruption of brain-blood barrier might influence progression of Alzheimer's (medicalnewstoday.com 30.9.2015).)

(Anm: Brain's immune cells key to maintaining blood-brain barrier. New research shows that the cells responsible for protecting the brain from infection and inflammation are also responsible for repairing the system of defenses that separates the brain from the rest of the body. These findings have significant clinical implications because certain cardiovascular drugs could possibly impede the brain's ability to repair itself after a stroke or other injury. (medicalnewstoday.com 12.1.2016).)

(Anm: Neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage Front. Cell. Neurosci. 2014 (20 November 2014).)

- Seroxat (paroxetine) hemmer et komplekst enzym kalt GRK2

Common antidepressant may hold the key to heart failure reversal
medicalnewstoday.com 9.3.2015
A team led by researchers at Temple University School of Medicine (TUSM) found that a commonly prescribed antidepressant restored heart function in mice with heart failure, a finding that could lead to clinical trials for a disease long considered irreversible.

The team, which was led by Walter J. Koch, PhD, the William Wikoff Smith Endowed Chair in Cardiovascular Medicine and Director of the Center for Translational Medicine at TUSM, found that the antidepressant paroxetine (also known as Paxil), reversed heart failure in mice. The findings were published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. The effect of paroxetine was not because of its antidepressant properties, but the inhibition of a specific enzyme that is a side-effect of the drug. (…)

The current study grows out of Koch's two decades of investigation into an enzyme called GRK2, which stands for G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2. Levels of this enzyme rise when the heart is failing. Previous research by Koch and his colleagues has demonstrated the role of GRK2 in heart failure. That research relied on genetic manipulation to control GRK2 levels and, when GRK2 is lowered in various animal models, heart failure is reversed. Koch said he hopes next year to begin clinical trials of a gene therapy approach to lowering GRK2 levels. (…)  

(Anm: Paroxetine is a direct inhibitor of g protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and increases myocardial contractility. ACS Chem Biol. 2012 Nov 16;7(11):1830-9. Epub 2012 Aug 21.)

(Anm: The complex G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) interactome unveils new physiopathological targets. (...) Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun;160(4):821-32.)

(Anm: Drugs with anticholinergic effects and cognitive impairment, falls and all-cause mortality in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: A list of anticholinergic drugs and their potential impact is here. (agingbraincare.org).)

(Anm: Hukommelse – normal glemsomhet eller tegn på sykdom? Alle glemmer ting fra tid til annen, det er helt normalt. Men for noen kan dårlig hukommelse hemme gjøremål i hverdagen. (…) Hvilke legemidler kan påvirke hukommelsen? Noen legemidler kan også føre til at man får dårligere hukommelse, ifølge Bekkhus-Wetterberg. – Av legemidler er det hovedsakelig beroligende medisiner av benzodiazpintype, som diazepam og oxazepam, samt legemidler med antikolinerg effekt som gir hukommelsesproblemer. Alle midler som svekker oppmerksomheten og gjør at man blir trett og sløv, vil også påvirke hukommelsen. (lommeleen.no 1.8.2016).)

(Anm: - Hjerneskanninger linker fysiske endringer til kognitiv risiko hos mye brukte legemiddelklasser. (…) - Forskerne har også funnet signifikante linker mellom hjernens struktur avslørt av MR og antikolinerg legemiddelbruk, hvor deltakerne som brukte antikolinerge legemidler hadde redusert hjernevolum og større ventrikler, hulrommene inne i hjernen.) (…) En liste over antikolinerge midler og deres potensielle effekten er her. (A list of anticholinergic drugs and their potential impact is here.) (medicalnewstoday.com 19.4.2016).)

(Anm: - Problemene med uheldige antikolinerge effekter (bivirkninger) hos barn, ungdommer, voksne og eldre pasienter. (The problems of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.) Drugs Aging. 1993 Jul-Aug;3(4):335-48.)

(Anm: Anticholinergic effects of common drugs are associated with increased mortality in over 65s (Antikolinerge effekter av vanlige legemidler knyttet til økt dødelighet hos mennesker over 65) BMJ 2011; 342:d4037 (28 June).)

(Anm: Olanzapin depot kan gi en tilstand forenlig med sentralt antikolinergt syndrom. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2013; 133:2238 – 9 (12.11.2013).)

(Anm: Link mellom alkohol, hjerneslag, psykiatriske legemidler og demens (- Men også personer som tok medisin mot psykoser og folk som slet med depresjon, fikk forhøyd risiko for å bli rammet av demens tidlig. Høyt blodtrykk kan også øke faren for at man rammes, skriver nyhetsbyrået TT.) (vg.no 14.8.2013).)

(Anm: Boustani MA, Campbell NL, Munger S, Maidment I, Fox GC.  Impact of anticholinergics on the aging brain: a review and practical application. Aging Heatlh. 2008;4(3):311-320.)
 
(Anm: Campbell N, Boustani M, Limbil T, et al. The cognitive impact of anticholinergics: a clinical review.  Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2009;4(1):225-233.)

(Anm: Campbell N, Boustani M, Lane K, et al. Use of anticholinergics and the risk of cognitive impairment in an AfricanAmerican population. Neurology. 2010;75:152-159.)

(Anm:  Fox C, Richardson K, Maidment I, et al. Anticholinergic medication use and cognitive impairment in the older population: the medical research council cognitive function and ageing study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Aug;59(8):1477-83. Epub 2011 Jun 24.)

(Anm:  Cai X, Campbell N, Khan B, Callahan C, Boustani M. Long-term anticholinergic use and the aging brain. Alzheimers Dement. 2013 Jul;9(4):377-85. Epub 2012 Nov 22.)

- Test kan påvise farlige bivirkninger på et tidlig stadie

Test aims to detect dangerous side effects so that fewer patients are given unsafe drugs (Test utviklet for å oppdage farlige bivirkninger slik at færre pasienter gis utrygge legemidler)
medicalnewstoday.com 19.12.2014
På grunn av uoppdagede toksisitetsproblemer (giftighet) blir omtrent en tredjedel av reseptbelagte legemidler, som er godkjent i USA, trukket tilbake fra markedet eller krever ekstra advarsler som begrenser deres bruk. En usedvanlig følsom toksisitetstest oppfunnet ved University of Utah gjør det mulig å avdekke flere av disse farlige bivirkninger tidlig i legemiddelutviklingen slik at færre pasienter gis farlige legemidler. (ecause of undetected toxicity problems, about a third of prescription drugs approved in the U.S. are withdrawn from the market or require added warning labels limiting their use. An exceptionally sensitive toxicity test invented at the University of Utah could make it possible to uncover more of these dangerous side effects early in pharmaceutical development so that fewer patients are given unsafe drugs.)

For å bevise poenget kjørte U-forskerne sin test på på Seroxat (Paxil; paroxetine/paroksetin), et antidepressiva som tusenvis av gravide kvinner benyttet i årene før det ble knyttet til en økt risiko for misdannelser. Den amerikanske legemiddelkontrollen Food and Drug Administration krever nå en advarsel mot bruk i første trimester av svangerskapet. I U-studien utviklet eksponerte mus flere problemer: hanner veide mindre, hadde færre avkom, dominerte færre territorier og hadde økt dødsrate. Hunner brukte lengre tid å få sine første kull, hadde færre avkom og avkom som var undervektige. Legemiddeldoser var relativt nær de som som foreskrives til mennesker. I den konvensjonelle sikkerhetstesting på dyr, som er rapportert av legemiddelprodusenten, dukket ingen reproduktive bivirkninger opp for gnagere som tok doser flere ganger høyere enn de som er gitt til behandling av depresjon. ( To prove the point, the U researchers ran their test on Paxil, an antidepressant that thousands of pregnant women used in the years before it was linked to an increased risk of birth defects. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration now requires a warning about use in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the U study, mice exposed during development experienced multiple problems: males weighed less, had fewer offspring, dominated fewer territories and died at a higher rate. Females took longer to produce their first litters, had fewer pups and pups that were underweight. The drug doses were relatively close to those prescribed for people. In the conventional animal safety testing reported by the drug's manufacturer, no reproductive side effects emerged until rodents took doses multiple times higher than those given to treat depression.)

"Vi ser effekter ved en dosering som er nær nivåer for mennesker. Og vi gjør det akkurat slik vi må gjøre det for å påvise om de utgjør en risiko for skade på fosteret," sier biolog Shannon M. Gaukler ved University of Utah, studiens hovedforfatter, som nylig fullførte en doktorgrad ved U. Studien vil bli publisert i januar-februar utgaven av Neurotoxicology and Teratology som har lagt ut en preprint online. ( "We are seeing effects at a dose that is close to human levels. And we are doing it exactly the way we need to determine if it presents a risk of harm to a developing fetus," says University of Utah biologist Shannon M. Gaukler, the study's lead author who recently completed a doctoral degree at the U. The study will be published in the January-February issue of Neurotoxicology and Teratology, which has posted a preprint online.)

Studiens førsteforfatter, biologiprofessor Wayne K. Potts ved University of Utah, sier at å påvise toksisitetsproblemer (gifighet) tidlig i preklinisk testing ville ikke bare beskytte pasienter mot eksponering for farlige legemidler, men også hjelpe lemiddelfirmaer til å unngå å sløse milliarder av dollar på å bringe legemidler på markedet som mislykkes. (University of Utah biology professor Wayne K. Potts, the study's senior author, says that detecting toxicity problems early in preclinical testing would not only protect patients from exposure to unsafe drugs, but also help pharmaceutical companies avoid wasting billions of dollars bringing drugs to market only to have them fail.)

"Vi har egentlig ikke et følsomt bredt tosksisk vurderingssystem", sier Potts. "Det er derfor disse substansene slipper gjennom nåløyet, og at vi ofte ikke oppdager de skadelige effekter før etter 10 eller 20 år med epidemiologiske studier med publikum som eksperimentelle forsøkskaniner." ("We don't really have a sensitive, broad toxicity assessment system," Potts says. "That's why these things slip through the cracks and we often don't discover harmful effects until after 10 or 20 years of epidemiology studies using the public as the experimental guinea pigs.")

(Anm: Low-dose paroxetine exposure causes lifetime declines in male mouse body weight, reproduction and competitive ability as measured by the novel organismal performance assay. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2015;47:46-53 (January–February 2015).)

(Anm: ‘Darwinian’ test uncovers an antidepressant’s hidden toxicity (unews.utah.edu 15.12.2014.)

(Anm: - Pasienter som får blodplatetransfusjoner for noen sjeldne blodcellelidelser kan ha økt risiko for død (Patients receiving platelet transfusions for some rare blood cell disorders may be at increased risk of death) (medicalnewstoday.com 18.1.2015).)

- Forskere finner ny link mellom diabetes og Alzheimers sykdom

Scientists find new link between diabetes and Alzheimer's (Forskere finner ny link mellom diabetes og Alzheimers sykdom)
medicalnewstoday.com 6.5.2015
Researchers have uncovered a unique connection between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, providing further evidence that a disease that robs people of their memories may be affected by elevated blood sugar, according to scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

While many earlier studies have pointed to diabetes as a possible contributor to Alzheimer's, the new study - in mice - shows that elevated glucose in the blood can rapidly increase levels of amyloid beta, a key component of brain plaques in Alzheimer's patients. The buildup of plaques is thought to be an early driver of the complex set of changes that Alzheimer's causes in the brain.

The research is published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation. (…)

(Anm: Hyperglycemia modulates extracellular amyloid-β concentrations and neuronal activity in vivo. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2015 (First published May 4, 2015).)

(Anm: Paradoks: De raskeste diabetikere dør tidligst. De raskeste type 2-diabetikere har dobbelt så høj dødelighed som de sygeste, og manglende forebyggende medicin synes at være synderen. Derfor skal den kommende nationale handleplan, Diabetesplan 2, sikre, at alle med diabetes får den optimale forebyggende behandling. Det mener Diabetesforeningen. Det lyder umiddelbart paradoksalt, men de raskeste type 2-diabetikere er faktisk dem, der dør tidligst. En dansk undersøgelse viser, at 12,4 procent af de diabetikere, der har mindst problemer med blodsukkeret, dør syv år efter, de får stillet diagnosen diabetes, mens tallet ligger helt nede på 6,5 procent for de sygeste diabetikere. (diabetes.dk 21.11.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva og antipsykotika gir økt risiko for diabetes hos barn og voksne (50 til 700 %) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Diabetes: Risiko for hjerteinfarkt på grunn av tap av små blodårene rundt hjertet. (Diabetes: Heart attack risk due to loss of small blood vessels around the heart.) (medicalnewstoday.com 24.3.2017).)

(Anm: Pasienter behandlet med antipsykotika (nevroleptika) har signifikant senket platelet complex I aktivitet i mitokondrier i likhet med det som er observert ved idiopatisk Parkinsons sykdom. (...) Antipsykotika (nevroleptika) hemmer kompleks I i elektrontransportkjeden. (Neuroleptic medications inhibit complex I of the electron transport chain. (...) Neuroleptic treated patients have significant depression of platelet complex I activity similar to that seen in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Complex I inhibition may be associated with the extrapyramidal side effects of these drugs.) Ann Neurol. 1993;33:512-7).)

(Anm: Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I exhibits aberrant hyperactivity in diabetes. (…) Highlights • Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I shows hyperactivity in diabetes. • Complex I hyperactivity is associated with increased NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance. • Complex I hyperactivity is associated with increased oxidative stress and cell death. • Complex I hyperactivity is linked with compromised cellular anti-oxidative stress capacity such as decreased sirt3 and NQO1 expressions. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2017 Sep;11:119-129.)

(Anm: Effekter av MPTP på serotonerge nevronale systemer og mitokondrie Complex I aktiviteten i den levende hjernen: En PET-studie på bevisste rhesusaper. (Effects of MPTP on Serotonergic Neuronal Systems and Mitochondrial Complex I Activity in the Living Brain: A PET Study on Conscious Rhesus Monkeys. (Effects of MPTP on Serotonergic Neuronal Systems and Mitochondrial Complex I Activity in the Living Brain: A PET Study on Conscious Rhesus Monkeys.) J Nucl Med. 2017 Mar 9. pii: jnumed.116.189159.)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (inkl. SSRI-preparater) og antipsykotika har skadelige effekter på mitokondrier (Mol Cell Biochem 1999;199:103-9).)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon ligger bak kognitive defekter som et resultat av nevral stamcelleutarmning og nedsatt neurogenese. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies cognitive defects as a result of neural stem cell depletion and impaired neurogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jun 8.)

(Anm: Adenosintrifosfat (ATP) er en energirik kjemisk forbindelse som er involvert i alle energikrevende prosesser i menneskekroppen, som muskelsammentrekning, overføring av signaler i nerver, oppbygging av proteiner, kopiering av arvestoffer med mer. (…) ATP kan oppfattes som en universell energileverandør i alle celler og vev. Livet ville ikke vært mulig uten ATP. Forbindelsen er blitt kalt «livets molekyl». Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: Mitokondriell energimangel fører til hyperproliferasjon av skjelettmuskel-mitokondrier og økt insulinfølsomhet. (...) Vi fremlegger bevis på at mitokondrier bidrar til etiologien (sykdomsårsaken) til metabolsk sykdom. (…) Diabetes er assosiert med svekket glukosemetabolisme i nærvær av overskudd av insulin. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) 2017;114(8) (February 21, 2017).)

(Anm: Forskrivninger av midler til behandling av diabetes øker med en tredjedel i løpet av fem år. (Diabetes prescribing rises by a third over five years. The number of prescriptions for drugs that treat type 2 diabetes that were dispensed by pharmacies in England has risen by one third (33%) in five years, according to research carried out by analytic database provider EXASOL.) BMJ 2016;355:i5484 (Published 10 October 2016).)

(Anm: Yngre med type 2-diabetes rammes hårdt. Er man under 45 år, når man får type 2-diabetes, har man ofte allerede tidlige tegn på øjen- og nyreskader, viser nyt dansk studie. (diabetes.dk 14.9.2016).)

(Anm: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Decrease Pancreatic Insulin Secretion in Older Adults and Increase the Risk of Insulin Dependence in Type 2 Diabetes Patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Aug 2.)

(Anm: Antidepressiva og antipsykotika øker risikoen for hoftebrudd, benskjørhet etc. (- Blant mennesker i alderen 60 år og eldre i Norge hadde de som brukte et antipsykotika hadde dobbelt så stor risiko for å lide av et hoftebrudd enn de som ikke brukte dem.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Tanntap (tannløshet) linkes til økt risiko for demens. (Tooth loss linked to an increased risk of dementia.) Våre funn understreker den kliniske betydningen av tannpleie og behandling, spesielt når det gjelder vedlikehold av tenner fra en tidlig alder for å kunne redusere fremtidig risiko for demens. (…) Personer med 10-19, 1-9 og ingen tenner hadde hhv. 62 %, 81 % og 63 % høyere risiko for demens enn personer med > 20 tenner. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.3.2017).)

(Anm: Derfor kan du få demens av diabetes. Diabetes øker risikoen for alzheimer. Den gode nyheten er at du i stor grad kan påvirke risikoen selv. (dagbladet.no 2.7.2016).)

(Anm: FDA advarer om nye impulskontrollproblemer knyttet til legemidlet aripiprazol (Abilify) for psykisk helse (Abilify, Abilify vedlikeh, Aristada) (FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA warns about new impulse-control problems associated with mental health drug aripiprazole (Abilify, Abilify Maintena, Aristada). (fda.gov 5.5.2016).)

(Anm: Role of mitochondrial DNA variation in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Mitochondria are crucial intracellular organelles where ATP and reactive oxygen species are generated via the electron transport chain. They are also where cellular fate is determined. There is a growing body of evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. (…)  Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2016 Jun 1;21:1151-67.)

(Anm: Antidepressiva er ifølge ny studie knyttet til mislykkede tannimplantater. (Antidepressants linked to tooth implant failure, new study finds.) (- Forskning viser at bruk av antidepressiva firedobler risikoen for implantat svikt. For hvert år dobler antidepressiva risikoen for svikt.) (medicalnewstoday.com 10.3.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva ökar risken för benbrott hos äldre. (…) Den förhöjda risken för höftfraktur gällde alla de vanliga antidepressiva läkemedlen, SSRI-preparat, mirtazapin och SNRI-preparat (selektiva serotonin- och noradrenalinåterupptagshämmare. Sambandet gällde även då det kontrollerats för andra faktorer som ålder, annan medicinering som ökar fallrisken, benskörhet, socioekonomisk status, kroniska sjukdomar och psykiatriska diagnoser.) (lakemedelsvarlden.se 12.1.2017).)

(Anm: Heart disease risk higher with latent tooth infection. If you missed your last dental checkup, a new study might encourage you to book that appointment right away; researchers have identified a higher risk of heart disease for individuals who have hidden tooth infections. (…) Last year, for example, a study published in Infection and Immunity suggested that the bacterium involved in gum disease may also raise the risk of heart disease. Now, researchers from the University of Helsinki in Finland have uncovered a link between dental root tip infection, known as apical periodontitis, and greater risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) - an umbrella term for conditions that involve blocked blood flow to the coronary arteries. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.8.2016).)

(Anm: Munhälsan bättre än på 80-talet – men tandlossning ökar igjen. De två största tandsjukdomarna karies och parodontit (tandlossning) minskade fram till 2008. Därefter ökade antalet individer med parodontit och den positiva utvecklingen för karies stannade av. – Även om munhälsan har förbättras under denna 30-årsperiod ser vi en försämring mellan 2008 och 2013 då det gäller främst tandlossning, säger Kristina Edman vid Uppsala universitet har undersökt munhälsans utveckling över en trettioårsperiod. (forskning.se 3.5.2016).)

(Anm: Diabetikere skal motiveres til motion og medicin. Det er en stor udfordring at motivere patienter med type 2-diabetes til at tage medicin og ændre livsstil. Nyeste forskning tyder på, at motiverende samtaler og individuelle behandlingsforløb kan have stor effekt hos kvinder. En dårligt behandlet type 2-diabetes kan have alvorlige følger. Man risikerer at blive blind, at få nyreskader, hjertesvigt og sår, som ikke kan hele, hvilket kan føre til amputationer af for eksempel tæerne. (videnskab.dk 20.1.2016).)

(Anm: Experts of the University of Cadiz create a new model shedding light on the relationship between Alzheimer and diabetes. In recent time, many epidemiological studies have proved very close links existing between diabetes and Alzheimer´s disease. In fact, it has been stated that diabetes is a significant risk factor for suffering from Alzheimer and vascular dementia, the two main causes of dementia. (medicalnewstoday.com 11.1.2016).)

(Anm: Konklusjon: Resultatene fra denne studien viste at pasienter med diabetes mellitus vanligvis klager på gastrointestinale symptomer (som har med mage og tarm å gjøre), og gastrointestinale problemer som forringer trivsel og livskvalitet. (…) Utbredelse av gastrointestinale symptomer og dens effekt på livskvalitet blant pasienter med diabetes mellitus American Journal of Nursing Research 2015;3(3):48-53.)

(Anm: Effect of age, family history of diabetes, and antipsychotic drug treatment on risk of diabetes in people with psychosis: a population-based cross-sectional study.Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Oct 13. pii: S2215-0366(15)00276-X. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Dårlig kontroll øker demens-risiko. (…) – Det faktum at blodsukker er sterkt forbundet med demens blir stadig mer tydelig, sier forsker Aidin Rawshani ved Sahlgrenska-akademiet, der studien er utført. (aftenposten.no 20.9.2015).)

(Anm: Young women with diabetes 'have six-fold higher heart attack risk' (medicalnewstoday.com 1.9.2015).)

- Pasienter som får blodplatetransfusjoner for noen sjeldne blodcellelidelser kan ha økt risiko for død

Patients receiving platelet transfusions for some rare blood cell disorders may be at increased risk of death
medicalnewstoday.com 18.1.2015
People hospitalized with certain rare blood cell disorders frequently receive a treatment that is associated with a two- to fivefold increase in death, according to a new study that reviewed hospital records nationwide. The study authors recommend that for these rare disorders, doctors should administer the treatment, a platelet transfusion, only in exceptional circumstances.

The Johns Hopkins-led study, published in Blood, the journal of the American Society of Hematology, is the first nationwide review of nearly 100,000 combined hospital admissions for three rare blood cell disorders: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).

"Because these conditions are so rare, they're difficult to study," says Aaron Tobian, M.D., Ph.D., an associate professor of pathology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and an expert in transfusion medicine. "There was some suggestion that transfusion may be harmful in these conditions, but it really was not known until now. Our study is the first one to show that platelet transfusions are frequently administered to patients with ITP, HIT and TTP, and that they're associated with higher odds of arterial blood clots and mortality in TTP and HIT."

All three conditions are immune system disorders marked by low levels of the colorless blood cells called platelets that help seal up damaged blood vessels. TTP is a life-threatening condition in which clots form in small blood vessels, resulting in a low overall platelet count. It occurs in less than one out of every 100,000 people per year. ITP is a less serious tendency to bleeding, seen in about one in every 20,000 children and one in every 50,000 adults, which often clears up on its own. HIT is a life-threatening reaction to the drug heparin, given to patients to prevent the formation of blood clots. For unknown reasons, in about 1 to 5 percent of patients given heparin, the immune system responds by producing clots rather than suppressing them. (…)

(Anm: Prolongation of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with paroxetine administration. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2013 Mar-Apr;35(2):213.e13-5. Epub 2012 Jul 24.)

(Anm: Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia: a descriptive survey in the French PharmacoVigilance database. Platelets. 2012;23(6):490-4. Epub 2011 Nov 18).)

(Anm: Blood vessels in older brains break down, possibly leading to Alzheimer's (medicalnewstoday.com 23.1.2015).)

(Anm: Danmarks Bløderforening (bloderforeningen.dk).)

(Anm: Trombotisk trombocytopenisk purpura (TTP). Tilstand karakterisert av lavt innhold av blodplater i blodet, lav blodprosent som følge av ødeleggelse av de røde blodlegemene og utbredte små blodpropper som inneholder mye blodplater. (nhi.no).)

(Anm: Dysmorfe plasmaceller i blod. En mann i 50-årene ble innlagt i lokalsykehus grunnet ryggsmerter og generelt redusert allmenntilstand. Blodprøver på lokalsykehus viste følgende verdier: Hb 8,2 g/dl (13,4 – 17,0), trombocytter 57 ×10⁹/l (145 – 348), leukocytter 15,5 ×10⁹/l (3,5 – 11,0) og kreatinin 204 μmol/l (60 – 105). Pasienten hadde altså anemi, trombocytopeni, leukocytose og nyresvikt. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2016; 136:1650-1650.)

(Anm: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (Heparinindusert trombocyttantistoff (HIT) Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is the development of thrombocytopenia (a low platelet count), due to the administration of various forms of heparin, an anticoagulant. HIT predisposes to thrombosis, the abnormal formation of blood clots inside a blood vessel, and when thrombosis is identified the condition is called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT).)

- How blood stem cells take root in the body

How blood stem cells take root in the body
medicalnewstoday.com 19.1.2015
see-through zebrafish and enhanced imaging provide the first direct glimpse of how blood stem cells take root in the body to generate blood. Reporting online in the journal Cell, researchers in Boston Children's Hospital's Stem Cell Research Program describe a surprisingly dynamic system that offers several clues for improving bone marrow transplants in patients with cancer, severe immune deficiencies and blood disorders, and for helping those transplants "take."

The Cell version offers a more technical explanation:

"The same process occurs during a bone marrow transplant as occurs in the body naturally," says Zon. "Our direct visualization gives us a series of steps to target, and in theory we can look for drugs that affect every step of that process."

"Stem cell and bone marrow transplants are still very much a black box--cells are introduced into a patient and later on we can measure recovery of their blood system, but what happens in between can't be seen," says Owen Tamplin, PhD, the paper's co-first author. "Now we have a system where we can actually watch that middle step." (…)

- GlaxoSmithKline innrømmer forskningssvindel, professorer i psykiatri forblir ustraffet

U. forgoes action against prof after study fraud (Universitet dropper sak mot professor etter studiesvindel)
browndailyherald.com 14.9.2012
Universitetet vil ikke gripe inn mot tidligere professor i psykiatri og menneskelig atferd, Martin Keller, til tross for bekreftelse fra den farmasøytiske giganten GlaxoSmithKline at Keller var medforfatter for en uredelig studie som fremmet bruk av antidepressivaet Seroxat (Paxil) for ungdom. (...) (The University will not take action against former Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior Martin Keller, despite acknowledgment by pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline that Keller co-authored a fraudulent study advocating adolescent use of the antidepressant Paxil.)

Medical Research Fraud: Professors Go Unpunished in Glaxo $3 Billion Guilty Plea Over Paxil (Medisinsk forskningssvindel: Professorene forblir ustraffet i Glaxos 3 milliarder dollar skyldighetserklæring for Seroxat (Paxil))
thenation.com 7.8.2012
Leder av UCLA sykehus, Dr. David Feinberg, og tjueen andre akademikere forblir ustraffet til tross for deres rolle og skyldighet i den største svindelsaken i USAs historie som resulterte i den største boten noensinne betalt av et legemiddelfirma . (The head of the UCLA hospital, Dr. David Feinberg, and twenty-one other academics are going unpunished despite their role in perpetrating a healthcare fraud that has resulted in the largest fine ever paid by a pharmaceutical company in US history.)

Den 3. juli erklærte GlaxoSmithKline seg skyldig i kriminelle anklager og ble enig om å betale 3 milliarder i bot for å promotere sitt bestselgende antidepressiva for ikke-godkjent bruk. Hjertet i saken var en artikkel i et medisinsk tidsskrift som viser til dokumenter og sikkerhet for Seroxat (Paxil) ved behandling av depresjon hos barn. Artikkelen listet opp mer enn 20 forskere som forfattere, inklusive UCLAs Feinberg, men Justisdepartementet fant at Glaxo hadde betalt for utkastet til den uredelige artikkelen hvor forskerne hadde anført sine navn. (On July 3 GlaxoSmithKline pleaded guilty to criminal charges and agreed pay $3 billion in fines for promoting its bestselling antidepressants for unapproved uses. The heart of the case was an article in a medical journal purporting to document the safety and efficacy of Paxil in treating depression in children. The article listed more that twenty researchers as authors, including UCLA’s Feinberg, but the Department of Justice found that Glaxo had paid for the drafting of the fraudulent article to which the researchers had attached their names.)

Studien, som ifølge The Chronicle of Higher Education, ble kritisert fordi den “på en farlig måte feiltolket data” og “skjulte informasjon som indikerte at legemidlet øket selvmordsatferd hos tenåringer,” ble publisert i 2001 i The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Første-"forfatter" var Martin B. Keller, for tiden professor i psykiatri ved Brown University. Han fratrådte denne måneden. Artikkelen er blitt avslørt som svindel i en BBC-dokumentar i 2007, og i 2008 i boken Side Effects: A Prosecutor, a Whistleblower, and a Bestselling Antidepressant on Trial, av Alison Bass. Glaxos skyldighetserklæring inkluderte ifølge Chronicle en tilståelse om at “artikkelen inneholder forskningssvindel.” (...) (The study, which, according to The Chronicle of Higher Education, had been criticized because it “dangerously misrepresented data” and had “hidden information indicating that the drug promoted suicidal behavior among teenagers,” was published in 2001 in The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The lead “author” was Martin B. Keller, at the time a professor of psychiatry at Brown University. He retired this month. The article had been exposed as fraudulent in a 2007 BBC documentary and in the 2008 book Side Effects: A Prosecutor, a Whistleblower, and a Bestselling Antidepressant on Trial, by Alison Bass. Glaxo’s guilty plea, according to the Chronicle, included an admission that “the article constituted scientific fraud.”)

- Senator Grassley sier GlaxoSmithKlines (GSKs) hemmeligholdt legemiddeldata

Could your antidepressant do more harm than good? (Kan antidepressiva gjøre mer skade enn nytte?)
foxreno.com 11.4.2012
(...) Leger foreskriver ofte antidepressiva som kalles selektive serotonin reopptakshemmere (SSRI) til sine pasienter som ikke viser tegn på depresjon. Imidlertid har SSRI-er nylig fått økt oppmerksomhet grunnet potensielt alvorlige bivirkninger. (Doctors often prescribe antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to their patients who show signs of depression. However, SSRIs have come under fire recently for having potentially serious side effects.)

“If you’re considering taking these anti-depressant medications, you should know about the risks -- especially if you’re a pregnant woman,” says attorney Martin Sweet of legal information websiteTHELAW.TV.

En ny kanadisk studie viser en sammenheng mellom SSRI-er som Seroxat (Paxil) og høyt blodtrykk hos gravide kvinner. Studien, publisert i British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, fant at kvinner som tar Seroxat (Paxil) under eller etter svangerskapet står overfor 80 prosent risiko for å utvikle høyt blodtrykk. Studien viste at gravide kvinner som tar enkelte SSRI-er hadde 60 prosent større sannsynlighet for å utvikle høyt blodtrykk, mens de som tar hvilken som helst antidepressiva var 50 prosent mer sannsynlig. (A new Canadian study shows a link between SSRIs such as Paxil and high blood pressure in pregnant women. The study, published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, found that women who take Paxil during or after pregnancy face an 80 percent risk for developing hypertension. The study showed that pregnant women taking any SSRI were 60 percent more likely to develop high blood pressure, while those taking any form of antidepressant were 50 percent more likely.)

Expectant mothers might not be the only ones at risk. In 2010, Bloomberg News reported that $2.4 billion set aside by Paxil manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline included the settlement of lawsuits involving Paxil-related birth defects in newborn children. These birth defects reportedly include pulmonary hypertension.

SSRI-er har også vært knyttet til diabetes både hos menn og kvinner. En studie publisert i forrige uke i American Journal of Psychiatry viser at moderate til høye doser av antidepressiva i mer enn to år er assosiert med 84 prosent økning i risiko for diabetes. Forskerne fant at risikoen var spesielt uttalt for Seroxat (Paxil). Selv om forskerne ikke er sikre på årsaken til linken, mener noen eksperter at vektøkning kan være knyttet til antidepressiva. (SSRIs have also been linked to diabetes in both men and women. A study published last week in the American Journal of Psychiatry shows taking moderate to high doses of antidepressants for more than two years is associated with an 84 percent increase in risk for diabetes. The researchers found the risk was particularly notable for Paxil. Although researchers are not certain of the reason for the link, some experts believe it might be due to the weight gain often associated with taking antidepressants.)

Andre potensielle SSRI bivirkninger inkluderer (Other potential SSRI side effects include):

• Violent behavior (Voldelig atferd)
• Immune system problems (Immunsystemproblemer)
• Stillbirths (Dødfødsler)
• Brittle bones (Benskjørhet) (...)

Hvis du tror du har et krav bør du kontakte en advokat. (...) (If you believe you have a claim, you should contact a lawyer.)

(Anm: Importance of Early Weight Changes to Predict Long-Term Weight Gain During Psychotropic Drug Treatment. Background: Psychotropic drugs can induce substantial weight gain, particularly during the first 6 months of treatment. (…) Results: Prevalences of metabolic syndrome and obesity were 22% and 17%, respectively, at baseline and 32% and 24% after 1 year. (…) Conclusion: Following prescription of weight gain–inducing psychotropic drugs, a 5% threshold for weight gain after 1 month should raise clinician concerns about weight-controlling strategies. (J Clin Psychiatry 2015;76(11):e1417–e1423).)

(Anm: Metabolic Syndrome Components Are Associated With Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Independent of Glycemic Status. Diabetes Care 2016 (March 10, 2016).)

(Anm: New cause of immune neuropathy discovered. Hope for a better diagnosis. "Our study backs the assumption from previous studies that patients who have antibodies against proteins of Nodes of Ranvier exhibit characteristic features," says Kathrin Doppler. This means: The disease develops rapidly, causes severe paralysis and responds poorly to standard therapy with corticosteroids or immunoglobulins but excellently to Rituximab treatment. The Würzburg neurologists found that strong neuralgia is another typical symptom in patients with Caspr antibodies. Patients with antibodies against the two other proteins, Neurofascin-155 and Contactin-1, in contrast typically exhibit a distinct tremor in targeted movements. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.8.2016).)

(Anm: Auto-antibodies to contactin-associated protein 1 (Caspr) in two patients with painful inflammatory neuropathy. Brain. 2016 Jul 29. pii: aww189. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Prepsychosis links with elevated metabolic syndrome. MADRID – Untreated people at high risk for developing psychosis also showed an increased prevalence of certain components of metabolic syndrome in data collected from 163 German study participants, a finding that gives new insight into the well-documented but poorly delineated link between schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome. (...) He also suggested prescribing antipsychotic medications that pose the lowest risk for causing further metabolic derangements in patients. (clinicalpsychiatrynews.com.com 2.4.2016).)

(Anm: Joachim Raese, MD. Metabolic syndrome is defined by the aggregation of hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, elevated fasting glucose, hypertension, and increased waist circumference. Metabolic syndrome confers an increased risk of developing diabetes and of dying from coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among patients with schizophrenia, who have a life expectancy about 20 years shorter than the general population. (…) For a more detailed discussion, I suggest watching a YouTube video that we have prepared. (cmeinstitute.com 27.4.2016).)

(Anm: Video Lecture 8: Metabolic Syndrome Lectures 1 (By Dr. Joachim Raese) (youtube.com).)

(Anm: Women with type 2 diabetes at greater cardiovascular risk than men. While it is well established that individuals with diabetes are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, a new scientific statement from the American Heart Association claims this risk may be significantly greater for women with the condition. Published in the journal Circulation, the statement also says women with type 2 diabetes may need to take more action than men to lower their risk for heart attack and stroke. (medicalnewstoday.com 8.12.2015).)

(Anm: Type 2 diabetes: blood pressure drugs may be harmful for some patients. For some patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with intense blood-lowering medication may do more harm than good. This is according to a new study published in The BMJ. (medicalnewstoday.com 26.2.2016).)

(Anm: Sex Differences in the Cardiovascular Consequences of Diabetes Mellitus: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015; 132(25): 2424-47.)

Prof’s study linked to child suicide (Professors studie linket til barne-selvmord)
browndailyherald.com 17.11.2011
U. remains silent in face of accusations

Ten years after its publication, a study by Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior Martin Keller continues to generate concern in the medical community due to its alleged link to child suicide.

Last month, the global nonprofit Healthy Skepticism wrote to the University requesting support for its efforts to retract Keller's article — commonly known as Study 329 — from the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Healthy Skepticism expressed concern that the study, which identified the drug Paxil as an effective combatant of depression in children, "seriously misrepresented both the effectiveness and the safety" of the drug. The authors added that the study's continued citation was harmful to children, since some children committed suicide after being prescribed Paxil.

The letter follows several ethical examinations of Study 329, including a BBC documentary, the book "Side Effects" by former Boston Globe reporter Alison Bass and an investigation by the Senate Finance Committee. Those inquiries led to allegations that the authors of the study — who had received funds from Paxil's parent company GlaxoSmithKline — suppressed the findings on the drug's connection to suicidal tendencies because they would adversely affect profits.

Keller, the lead author, was also accused of allowing the study to be ghostwritten by a GlaxoSmithKline affiliate. In June 2009, he stepped down as chair of the psychiatry department, citing personal reasons, but he retained his professorship. Keller did not respond to multiple requests for comment for this story.
Citing confidentiality reasons, Dean of Medicine and Biological Sciences Edward Wing also declined to comment. (...)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (nytteverdi) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Ny forskning: Lykkepiller gør mere skade end gavn. Folk med depression får intet ud af at tage antidepressivet SSRI, bedre kendt som lykkepiller, viser nyt dansk studie. (jyllands-posten.dk 13.2.2017).)

(Anm: Forskere finner link mellom bruk av antidepressiva, medfødte misdannelser eller dødfødsler. (Researchers Find Link Between Antidepressant Use, Congenital Anomalies or Stillbirths) (…) "Mens denne ekstra risikoen kan virke liten er resultatene etter mitt syn så alvorlig som de kan være." (“While this extra risk may seem small, in my view, the outcomes are as serious as they can be.”) (dgnews.docguide.com 5.12.2016).)

(Anm: Eksponering av foster for antidepressiva kan endre Corpus Callosums mikrostruktur: Presentert ved PAS / ASPN. (…) Fordi "den neonate (nyfødtes) corpus callosum mikrostruktur er assosiert med utero (livmor) SSRI-eksponering og prenatal (før fødsel) mødredepresjon, er tidlige modningsprosesser i denne regionen følsomme for endret 5-hydroksytryptamin (5-HT) signalering under tiden i utero (livmor)," bemerket Campbell. "Disse resultatene - sammen med forstyrret hvit substans’ mikrostruktur i genu hos premature spedbarn - tyder dette på at utviklingen av [corpus callosum] kan være følsom for tidlige uheldige påvirkninger. (Fetal Exposure to Antidepressants May Alter Corpus Callosum Microstructure.) (dgnews.docguide.com 10.5.2017).)

(Anm: Unormal sæd med SSRI antidepressiva. Flere studier har funnet endrede sædparametere etter eksponering for SSRI-antidepressiva. Selv om SSRIs rolle er usikker, er det berettiget å ta hensyn til de observerte effektene på sædkvalitet og informere eksponerte pasienter. (Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants. Several studies have found altered semen parameters after exposure to SSRI antidepressants. Although the role of SSRIs is uncertain, it is justified to take into account the observed effects on sperm quality and to inform exposed patients.) Prescrire Int 2015; 24 (156): 16-17.)

(Anm: Gravide kvinner som tar antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å få barn med autisme, ifølge studie. Pregnant women who take antidepressants more likely to have a child with autism, study finds. Research data published in the BMJ reveal that antidepressant use during pregnancy increases the risk of autism in children, as reported The Independent Thursday. (firstwordpharma.com 20.7.2017).)

(Anm: - Nye data viser økt risiko for misdannelser når antidepressiva brukes under graviditet. (…) En studie publisert i British Medical Journal (BMJ) avslører at antidepressiva forskrevet til gravide kan øke sjansen for å få en baby med misdannelser.) (New Data Show Heightened Risk of Birth Defects When Antidepressants Are Used During Pregnancy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 19.1.2017).)

(Anm: - Utviklingen av et potensielt livstruende serotonergt syndrom eller nevroleptisk malignt syndrom (NMS)-lignende reaksjoner er rapportert for SNRI-er og SSRI-er alene, inkludert Celexa-behandling, men spesielt ved samtidig bruk av serotonerge legemidler (inklusive triptaner) og legemidler som svekker metabolisme av serotonin (inklusive MAO-hemmere), eller med antipsykotika eller andre dopaminantagonister (fda.gov 6.3.2009).)

(Anm: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed pregnant women: an updated analysis of the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort. (…) Conclusions Antidepressants with effects on serotonin reuptake during embryogenesis increased the risk of some organ-specific malformations in a cohort of pregnant women with depression. BMJ Open 2017;7:e013372.)

(Anm: Bruk av antipsykotika er assosiert med en 60 % økt risiko for dødelighet hos pasienter med Alzheimers sykdom. (…) Bruk av to eller flere antipsykotika samtidig ble knyttet til nesten doblet dødsrisiko (200 %) enn ved monoterapi.) (Antipsychotic Drug Use Increases Risk of Mortality Among Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease. JOENSUU, Finland -- December 12, 2016 -- Antipsychotic drug use is associated with a 60% increased risk of mortality among patients with Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. The risk was highest at the beginning of drug use and remained increased in long-term use. Use of 2 or more antipsychotic drugs concomitantly was associated with almost 2 times higher risk of mortality than monotherapy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 12.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antipsykotika dobler dødsrisiko allerede etter 180 dagers bruk. Greater Mortality Risk With Antipsychotics in Parkinson's (Større dødsrisiko med antipsykotika ved Parkinsons) (medicalnewstoday.com 21.6.2015).)

(Anm: (...) For ytterligere å illustrere problemet kan nevnes at antipsykotika forårsaker parkinsonisme (5), og en studie fant at mennesker med Parkinsons sykdom og psykose hadde fire ganger større sannsynlighet for å dø etter tre til seks måneders behandling enn de som ikke fikk antipsykotika. (6) De var også mer utsatt for kognitiv svikt, forverring av parkinsonsymptomer, hjerneslag, infeksjoner og fall. RE: Psykisk syke lever kortere. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 10.11.2015.)

(Anm: Legemidler som kan gi delirium hos eldre. Delirium ses særlig hos eldre ved akutte sykdommer og skader eller som følge av toksisk eller farmakologisk påvirkning. Eldre personer har mange sykdommer og bruken av legemidler er høy. Mange legemidler, og særlig de med antikolinerg eller dopaminerg effekt, kan gi delirium. Kjennskap til legemidler og kombinasjoner av legemidler som kan gi delirium, er viktig for å kunne forebygge og behandle tilstanden. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2005; 125:2366-7 (8.9.2005).)

(Anm: Delirium in hospitalized patients: Risks and benefits of antipsychotics. ABSTRACT Consensus panel guidelines advocate for the judicious use of antipsychotic drugs to manage delirium in hospitalized patients when nonpharmacologic measures fail and the patient is in significant distress from symptoms, poses a safety risk to self or others, or is impeding essential aspects of his or her medical care. Here, we review the use of haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole for this purpose. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2017 August;84(8):616-622.)

(Anm: Post injektionssyndrom. (…) De fleste af disse patienter udviklede symptomer på sedation (fra mild sedation til koma) og/eller delirium (herunder forvirring, desorientering, ophidselse/ uro, angst og anden kognitiv svækkelse). Andre symptomer inkluderede ekstrapyramidale symptomer, dysartri, ataksi, aggression, svimmelhed, svaghed, hypertension eller krampe.) (sundhedsstyrelsen.dk 29.6.2014).)

(Anm: Mødre til børn med misdannelser har øget dødelighed. (…) Bivirkninger har ført til to dødsfald. Den største del af bivirkningerne (42 procent) af de 429 blev indberettet for såkaldte psykostimulerende lægemidler - eksempelvis til behandling af ADHD - efterfulgt af 31 procent for antidepressiver og 24 procent for antipsykotiske lægemidler. (videnskab.dk 20.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antikolinerge effekter av vanlige legemidler knyttet til økt dødelighet hos mennesker over 65. De kombinerte antikolinerge effektene av mange vanlige legemidler øker risikoen for kognitiv svekkelse og død hos personer over 65 år, ifølge resultater fra en storskala studie på den langsiktige helseeffekten av legemidler.(Anticholinergic effects of common drugs are associated with increased mortality in over 65s. The combined anticholinergic effects of many common drugs increase the risk of cognitive impairment and death in people aged over 65, a large scale study of the long term effect of drugs on health has found.) BMJ 2011; 342:d4037 (28 June).)

(Anm: Men experience greater cognitive impairment and increased risk of death following hip surgery. In a study of hip fracture patients, men displayed greater levels of cognitive impairment within the first 22 days of fracture than women, and cognitive limitations increased the risk of dying within six months in both men and women. "While men make up only about 25 percent of all hip fractures, the number of men who fracture their hip is increasing and we know men are more likely to die than women after a hip fracture," said Dr. Ann Gruber-Baldini, lead author of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society study. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.2.2017).)

(Anm: Det autonome nervesystemet. Det autonome nervesystemets hovedoppgave er å bidra til likevekt i kroppens basale funksjoner. Det vil blant annet si kroppstemperatur, blodtrykk, åndedrett og fordøyelse. (nhi.no 4.3.2015).)

(Anm: Ulike selektive serotonin reopptakshemmeres (SSRI-er) cytotoksisitet mot kreftceller. (Cytotoxicity of different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against cancer cells.) (…) Vi har funnet at paroxetine (paroksetin; Seroxat; Paxil etc.) har cytotoksisk aktivitet mot tumorceller. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006;6(1):23-9.)

(Anm: Could antidepressants stop prostate cancer from spreading? In almost all cases where prostate cancer spreads to other areas of the body, the disease spreads to the bone first. In a new study, researchers reveal the discovery of an enzyme that helps prostate cancer cells to invade bone. Furthermore, certain antidepressant medications may have the potential to block this enzyme. Study co-author Jason Wu, of Washington State University-Spokane, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Cancer Cell. (medicalnewstoday.com 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: Classic cytotoxic drugs: a narrow path for regulatory approval. Several classic cytotoxic drugs have shown encouraging activity in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.1–3 However, only a few have received an overwhelming welcome from regulatory authorities and succeeded in obtaining widespread regulatory approval for routine use. For example eribulin was approved for treatment of metastatic breast cancer in several countries including Japan, USA, and Europe, based on data that showed longer overall survival in patients treated with eribulin compared with patients treated with physician's choice of treatment. In contrast ixabcpilone with capecitabine gained approval from the US Food and Drug Agency based on data showing longer progression-free survival compared with capccitabine alone, but did not obtain rcgulatory authorisation in Europc because it is associated with a high incidence of nevropathy.5 Lancet Oncol. 2017 Feb 10. pii: S1470-2045(17)30089-X. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Ødelagt cellulær "klokke" linket til hjerneskade (Broken Cellular 'Clock' Linked to Brain Damage) (sciencedaily.com 25.11.2013).)

(Anm: Signaling Pathways Linked to Serotonin-Induced Superoxide Anion Production: A Physiological Role for Mitochondria in Pulmonary Arteries. Abstract. Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) is commonly associated to cellular damages due to [Formula: see text] overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, [Formula: see text] also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). Front Physiol. 2017 Feb 9;8:76. eCollection 2017.)

(Anm: Bruk av antidepressiva ble assosiert med et betydelig eldre utseende og forskere fant også ut at vekten spilte en viktig faktor. I de sett med tvillinger som var yngre enn 40 år ble tyngre tvillinger oppfattet som eldre. (…) I tillegg mistenker forskerne at den vedvarende avslapping av ansiktsmuskler som antidepressiva forårsaker kan forklare årsaken til at ansiktet faller sammen (henger). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Minislag (ministroke: transient ischemic attack (TIA)) linket til lavere forventet levetid. (- Minislag kan forårsake demens.) (- Enkelte psykofarmaka kan øke risiko for minislag / demens.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Stumme infarkt rammer oftere folk med høy smertetoleranse. Stumme hjerteinfarkt gir ikke de klassiske brystsmertene som ved vanlige infarkt. - Denne pasientgruppen tar enten ikke kontakt med lege, eller de har ikke fått riktig diagnose, sier lege og forsker Andrea Milde Øhrn. (…) Det er vanlig å tenke sterke brystsmerter og akutt behandling når det er snakk om hjerteinfarkt. Det mange kanskje ikke vet, er at man kan ha hatt et hjerteinfarkt uten å vite det. Dette kalles et stumt infarkt, et hjerteinfarkt med få eller ingen symptomer. - Et stumt hjerteinfarkt er et hjerteinfarkt som ikke er erkjent. (nhi.no 3.2.2017).)

(Anm: Sannsynlig karotidyni forårsaket av fluoxetine (Prozac; SSRI-er). (Probable fluoxetine-induced carotidynia.)  Karotidyni er en fokal nakkesmerte (bestemt, avgrenset område), som involverer anatomiske områder til den berørte arteria carotis, og stråler ofte ut i den ipsilateral side (samme side) av ansiktet eller øret. På grunnlag av medisinsk historie og alder har karotidyni konvensjonelt vært klassifisert i klassisk (ikke-migrenøs), migrenøs, og vaskulære varianter. The Lancet 2009;374(9695):1061-1062 (26 September).)

(Anm: Nakkesmerter sætter forskerne skakmat. Kroniske nakkesmerter koster samfundet milliarder og er en af de hyppigste årsager til, at danskere melder sig syge fra job. Forskerne er i vildrede: Ingen behandling er effektiv. (videnskab.dk 22.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva linket til hjerterisiko: tvillingstudie. (Antidepressants linked to heart risk: twins study) - Middelaldrende menn som bruker antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å ha en innsnevring av blodårer, noe som øker risikoen for hjerteinfarkt og slag, enn de som ikke bruker legemidlene, ifølge en studie presentert på lørdag. (Reuters) - Middle-age men who use antidepressants are more likely to have a narrowing of blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes, than those who do not use the medications, according to a study presented on Saturday.) (reuters.com 2.4.2011).)

(Anm: - Pfizers Zyvoxid (Zyvox) og antidepressiva kan være en dødelig kombinasjon. (- Det antas at når linezolid gis til pasienter, som behandles med serotonerge psykofarmaka, kan forhøyede nivåer av serotonin bygge seg opp i hjernen og forårsake toksisitet (giftighet). Dette er referert til som Serotonin syndrom - tegn og symptomer inkluderer mentale endringer (forvirring, hyperaktivitet, minneproblemer), muskelrykninger, overdreven svetting, skjelving eller risting, diaré, problemer med koordinasjon og / eller feber.) (fda.gov 21.10.2011).)

(Anm: Hva er det forskrivere og pasienter ikke vet om bivirkninger av antidepressiva? (What do prescribers and patients not know about the side effects of antidepressant drugs?) (medicalnewstoday.com 15.9.2016).)

(Anm: Forskere: Alvorlige bivirkninger, når antidepressiver droppes. Angst, depression og selvmordstanker er nogle af de bivirkninger, som tit forekommer, når man holder op med at tage antidepressiv medicin. Bivirkningerne kan i nogle tilfælde være langvarige og kroniske, viser et nyt studie. (videnskab.dk 16.3.2015).)

(Anm: Bruk av visse smertestillende midler (og antidepressiva (+ 31 %)) forbundet med økt risiko for drap (Use of certain painkillers linked with increased risk of homicide) Enkelte legemidler som påvirker sentralnervesystemet - som smertestillende og beroligende benzodiazepiner - er assosiert med økt risiko for å begå et drap, finner en ny studie publisert i tidsskriftet World Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 1.6.2015).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. Drab og vold har de seneste år fyldt debatten om de danske bosteder for patienter med psykiske problemer. (…) Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. (…) Mens Folketinget kæmper for en løsning på problemet med vold på offentlige bosteder, vælger flere kommuner at sende tunge patienter til private tilbud. (politiken.dk 18.3.2017.)

(Anm: Aggresjon knyttet til økt risiko for substansmisbruk. Aggression disorder linked to greater risk of substance abuse. (…) In the study, published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Coccaro, MD, and colleagues analyzed data from more than 9,200 subjects in the National Comorbidity Survey, a national survey of mental health in the United States. They found that as the severity of aggressive behavior increased, so did levels of daily and weekly substance use. The findings suggest that a history of frequent, aggressive behavior is a risk factor for later substance abuse, and effective treatment of aggression could delay or even prevent substance abuse in young people. (medicalnewstoday.com 2.3.2017).)

(Anm: Halvparten av norske drap begått av rusede. (…) I 125 av drapene – eller 54 prosent – er det beskrevet i dommen at gjerningspersonen var påvirket av rusmidler under drapet. (nrk.no 13.12.2016).)

- En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn.

(Anm: En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn. (- Pasienten døde etter kort tid, og dødsårsaken var nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning), heter det i tilsynets rapport. (nrk.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body, frequently a response of the immune system to infection. (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Sepsis. Definisjon: SIRS + påvist/mistenkt infeksjon (f. eks. positiv blodkultur). SIRS- kriteriene er: - Feber > 38 ºC eller hypotermi < 36 ºC - Puls > 90/minutt - Respirasjonsfrekvens > 20/minutt eller hypokapni med pCO2 < 4,3 kPa i blodgass - Leukocytose ≥ 12 × 109/l eller leukopeni < 4 × 109/l eller > 10 % umodne leukocytter. (helsebiblioteket.no - Metodebok for indremedisinere, 2012).)

(Anm: Rollen til mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) ved sepsis (blodforgiftning)-indusert multiorgansvikt. (The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure). (Virulence. 2013 Nov 1;5(1).)

- Diagnostisering av sepsis. Sepsis, også kjent som blodforgiftning, er kroppens hyperaktive respons på en infeksjon som kan føre til betennelse, vevskader, organsvikt etc.

(Anm: Diagnosing Sepsis. Sepsis, also known as blood poisoning, is the body’s hyperactive response to an infection that can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, organ failure etc. It is a very dangerous state in which the immune system stops fighting with the invading agents  and turns to itself. Around one-third of patients who are affected with sepsis die every year. (news-medical.net 7.9.2017).)

- Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon.

(Anm: Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon. Recognizing Sepsis as a Global Health Priority — A WHO Resolution. “Some very important clinical issues, some of them affecting life and death, stay largely in a backwater which is inhabited by academics and professionals and enthusiasts, dealt with very well at the clinical and scientific level but not visible to the public, political leaders, leaders of healthcare systems... The public and political space is the space in which [sepsis] needs to be in order for things to change.” NEJM (June 28, 2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis – den dödliga sjukdomen som glöms bort. Trots att infektionssjukdomen sepsis förekommer oftare än de vanligaste formerna av cancer och att upp emot hälften som drabbas av den allvarligaste formen dör, så har många knappt hört talas om sjukdomen. Sepsis som är den medicinska termen på blodförgiftning, drabbar omkring 40 000 svenskar varje år. (netdoktor.se 7.6.2017).)

- Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod.

(Anm: Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod. (- Sepsis, en potensielt livstruende komplikasjon av en infeksjon, har den høyeste byrde mht. død og medisinske utgifter på sykehus over hele verden.) (- Quick test finds signs of sepsis in a single drop of blood. (…) Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, has the highest burden of death and medical expenses in hospitals worldwide. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.7.2017).)

(Anm: Nye sepsiskriterier kan føre til forsinket behandling. (…) Sepsis er en svært alvorlig tilstand med høy morbiditet og mortalitet (2). Den totale insidensen er ukjent, men man regner med at sepsis er en av de viktigste årsakene til alvorlig, akutt sykdom på verdensbasis (1). (…) Sepsis har inntil nylig vært definert som mistenkt infeksjon med samtidig tilstedeværelse av to eller flere SIRS-kriterier (1). Endringer i hjertefrekvens, kroppstemperatur, respirasjonsfrekvens og leukocytter er kroppens tegn på inflammasjon, og de indikerer ikke nødvendigvis en livstruende, dysregulert vertsrespons på infeksjon. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2017; :609-10 (20.4.2017).)

(Anm: LEGENE FORSTO IKKE AT HAN VAR DØDSSYK: Stian (19) døde etter 18 timer på sykehus uten legetilsyn. (…) Helsetilsynet konkluderer med at sykehusets behandling var uforsvarlig. (…) Fikk ikke beskjed. (…) Fastlegen sendte med dem papirer som foreldrene leverte på Akuttmottaket ved Ahus, der sto det; «Diagnose: Obs sepsis».  (tv2.no 29.4.2017).)

(Anm: Svikt i behandlingen av akutt syk ung mann i akuttmottaket – brudd på helselovgivningen. (…) Pasienten ble lagt på observasjonsposten (Akutt 24) ved akuttmottaket frem til neste morgen. I løpet av tiden på observasjonsposten ble han ikke tilsett av lege. På morgenen var han betydelig verre og han fikk tegn på fullt utviklet blodforgiftning. Behandling med antibiotika ble iverksatt, men han døde kort tid etter som følge av meningokokksepsis og hjerneødem. (helsetilsynet.no 2.5.2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis; grunnleggende kliniske observasjoner. Sepsis= En systemisk inflammatorisk respons (SIRS) pga. en infeksjon Tre alvorlighetsgrader: 1) Sepsis (to eller flere symptomer på SIRS som følge av infeksjon) 2) Alvorlig sepsis (sepsis med akutt organdysfunksjon, hypoperfusjon eller hypotensjon) 3) Septisk sjokk (hypotensjon til tross for adekvat væsketerapi, samt forekomst av perfusjonsforstyrrelser og organdysfunksjon) (hnt.no 5.11.2013).)

- Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting (sepsis) blir undersøkt av lege for seint.

(Anm: Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting blir undersøkt av lege for seint. Helsetilsynet fann brot ved 24 akuttmottak over heile landet. – Svært alvorleg. – Dette er svært alvorleg, for det dreier seg om ein alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som i verste fall kan medføra død dersom behandlinga ikkje blir igangsett til riktig tid, seier avdelingsdirektør i Helsetilsynet, Ragnar Hermstad. OVER EIN TIME: Pasientar som kjem inn med teikn på alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som blodforgifting skal ifølge nasjonale retningslinjer få anitibiotikabehandling innan maks ein time. Alle dei 24 akuttmottaka hadde svikt på dette området. (nrk.no 16.6.2017).)

(Anm: Lege sier improvisert «kur» for sepsis har hatt bemerkelsesverdige resultater. (…) Spesialist i intensivbehandling Paul Marik sier at enkel behandling med infusjon av vitamin C og steroider har bemerkelsesverdig effekt på pasienter med potensielt dødelig tilstand. (independent.co.uk 24.3.2017).)

(Anm: Bivirkninger underrapporteres i videnskabelige tidsskrifter. (...) Mellem 43 og 100 procent af de bivirkninger, der, ifølge det ikke-publicerede materiale, er fundet ved de testede lægemidler, er ikke lagt frem i de videnskabelige artikler, viser Yoon Loke og kollegernes gennemgang. (videnskab.dk 5.10.2016).)

(Anm: Dødsfall på grunn av nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning) etter behandling med legemiddelet klozapin – uforsvarlig oppfølging – mangelfull samhandling og informasjon. (…)  Manglende informasjon fra spesialisthelsetjenesten og mangelfull samhandling mellom kommunehelsetjenesten, fastlegen, pasienten og pårørende bidro til hendelsen. Helseforetaket skal gjennomgå hendelsen for å redusere risikoen ved lignende tilfeller. (helsetilsynet.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter. De ønsker psykologhjelp. I stedet blir de fôret med piller fra fastlegen. Unge jenter har aldri brukt mer antidepressiver. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Flere barn og unge akuttinnlegges for psykisk sykdom. I fjor utgjorde andelen øyeblikkelig hjelp innleggelser 61 prosent av alle innleggelser. Det er en økning fra 47 prosent i 2012. (dagensmedisin.no 19.9.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter: Lykkepillegenerasjonen. «Lykkepillen» gjorde Sandra så dårlig at hun ble innlagt på psykiatrisk avdeling. På ti år har bruken av antidepressiver blant unge jenter økt med 83 prosent. Mange får pillene uten en gang å ha snakket med psykolog.  (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Helseminister Bent Høie reagerer på «lykkepille»-praksis: – Veldig urovekkende. ** Kraftig økning i antidepressiva til unge jenter. Helseminister Bent Høie reagerer på den sterke økningen i lykkepillebruk blant unge jenter. Han mener manglende ressurser og fastlegers holdninger er årsaker. Lørdag dokumenterte VG Helg og VG+ konsekvensene av den økende lykkepille-bruken blant unge jenter. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: LO advarer mot trygdebombe. En stadig større del av nordmenn i arbeidsfør alder er uten jobb. LO mener dette er en potensiell trygdebombe. (…) Det trengs 180.000 nye jobber for å få yrkesdeltakelsen opp på samme nivå som i 2008, viser en rapport fra samfunnsøkonomene i LO. I 2008 var 70 prosent av befolkningen mellom 15 og 74 år i jobb. Nå er yrkesdeltakelsen nede i 67,3 prosent., og det er nedgang i alle fylker. (hegnar.no 6.10.2016).)

(Anm: Rekordmange søger akut psykisk hjælp. (- Mens kun 12.099 danskere i 1995 besøgte de psykiatriske akutmodtagelser og skadestuer, er det steget til hele 33.333 i 2015, viser opgørelse fra Sundhedsdatastyrelsen og Danske Regioner, der for kort tid siden blev sendt til Folketinget. (politiken.dk 9.7.2016).)

(Anm: Har vi blitt psykisk sykere? (- Vi vet også at stadig flere får uførepensjon på grunn av psykiske lidelser og at sykefraværet på grunn av psykiske plager og lidelser har økt. Vi tror alle disse forholdene bidrar til vår oppfatning om at stadig flere får en psykisk lidelse eller plage.) (Folkehelseinstituttet fhi.no 10.10.2013).)

(Anm: Høyt fravær på grunn av ME. Minst 270 elever var borte fra skolen i fjor fordi de hadde ME. (aftenposten.no 6.2.2017).)

(Anm: Psykisk ohälsa fortsätter att öka. Antalet svenskar som sjukskrivs på grund av psykisk ohälsa ökar kontinuerligt sedan 2010. Den vanligaste diagnosen är stressrelaterad psykisk ohälsa som till mångt och mycket är arbetsrelaterad. Då evidensbaserad behandling saknas står förebyggande arbete i fokus. (netdoktor.se 14.9.2016).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske skadestuer kan ikke klare presset. Psykiske lidelser hører til nogle af de største sygdomsbyrder, som hvert år koster samfundet et svimlende milliardbeløb i tabt arbejdsfortjeneste og sociale ydelser. (politiken.dk 11.7.2016).)

(Anm: - 9 ting som skjer i hjernen og kroppen på MDMA (Ecstasy). (- 9 Things That Happen in the Brain and Body on MDMA.) (- Derfor, når substansen avsluttes, sitter mennesker igjen med mindre serotonin enn vanlig, noe som kan føre til følelser av depresjon, irritabilitet og tretthet.) (- Siden MDMA frigir så mye serotonin, ødelegger kroppen deretter mer serotonin enn vanlig, ifølge AsapSCIENCE.) (thescienceexplorer.com 24.6.2016).)

Grassley Says Glaxo Withheld Drug Data (Grassley sier Glaxo hemmeligholdt legemiddeldata)
online.wsj.com 13.7.2010
WASHINGTON—A former Food and Drug Administration official said the maker of diabetes drug Avandia withheld from regulators information suggesting the drug posed an increased risk for serious heart problems, according to people familiar with her statements.

The allegation comes as one of the biggest recent drug-safety fights nears a climax. Starting Tuesday, a panel of FDA experts will debate whether GlaxoSmithKline PLC's Avandia should be pulled from the market after years of controversy over its alleged side effects.

The statements by the ex-FDA official, made in a deposition for lawsuits filed against Glaxo, are included in a letter received Monday by the agency from Sen. Charles Grassley (R., Iowa), the top Republican on the Senate Finance Committee, which has been investigating Glaxo and Avandia. His letter, co-signed by committee chairman Sen. Max Baucus (D., Mont.), includes additional information detailing internal company records about Avandia, according to people familiar with the letter. (...)

(Anm: Legemiddelstudier, åpenhet, uredelighet og kvalitet. (mintankesmie.no).)

GSK's bitter sweet pill to swallow (GSKs svelger bittersøt pille)
thisismoney.co.uk 13.7.2010
After BP's rough treatment in Washington, GlaxoSmith-Kline, one of Britain's world class pharmaceutical groups, cannot take the current regulatory hearings on its key diabetes drug Avandia lightly.

In much the same way as BP became a victim of the American debate about the advisability of deep-sea drilling for oil, so the food & Drug Administration hearings into Avandia could become something more serious.

One of the few legislative victories for Barack Obama has been healthcare reform. Among the goals of that reform was to cap the cost of pharmaceuticals, which form a large chunk of America's big health bill.

It would be grotesque if GSK - which sought to clear up its act in the wake of the Paxil/Seroxat controversy - were now to be dragged through the mud over Avandia. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

Glaxo Plans $2.3 Billion Liability Charge (Glaxo avsetter 2,3 milliard dollar til erstatningsansvar)
nytimes.com 15.7.2010
Det britiske legemiddelfirmaetGlaxoSmithKline uttalte torsdag at de tar et tap i andre kvartal på 2,36 milliarder dollar relatert til rettslige saker som involverer Avandia og Seroxat (Paxil). (...) (GlaxoSmithKline, the British pharmaceutical company, said on Thursday that it would take a second-quarter charge of $2.36 billion related to legal cases involving its drugs Avandia and Paxil.)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (SSRI) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Avandia (rosiglitazone) - informasjon versus kunnskap og visdom - hvem visste hva? (mintankesmie.no).)

Glaxo takes £1.57bn charge for Avandia, Paxil (Glaxo setter av 1,57 milliarder pund for anklager mot Avandia og Seroxat (Paxil))
telegraph.co.uk 15.7.2010
GlaxoSmithKline, the British drug maker, is to take a £1.57bn charge to cover settlements and legal actions relating to its diabetes pill Avandia and antidepressant Paxil.

With respect to Paxil and Avandia, the charge includes provisions for settled cases and an estimate for outstanding cases. Terms of the settlements reached are confidential, Glaxo said. (...)

Glaxo Said to Have Paid $1 Billion in Paxil Suits (Update2) (Glaxo hevdes å ha betalt 1 milliard dollar i forbindelse med Seroxat-søksmål)
Bloomberg.com 14.12.2009
Dec. 14 (Bloomberg) -- GlaxoSmithKline Plc has paid almost $1 billion to resolve lawsuits over Paxil since it introduced the antidepressant in 1993, including about $390 million for suicides or attempted suicides said to be linked to the drug, according to court records and people familiar with the cases.

As part of the total, Glaxo, the U.K.’s largest drugmaker, so far has paid $200 million to settle Paxil addiction and birth-defect cases and $400 million to end antitrust, fraud and design claims, according to the people and court records.

The $1 billion “would be worse than many people are expecting,” said Navid Malik, an analyst at Matrix Corporate Capital in London. “I don’t think this is within the boundaries of current assumptions for analysts.” (...)

GlaxoSmithKline Reportedly Paid $1 Billion for Paxil Lawsuits (GlaxoSmithKline har angivelig betalt én milliard dollar for Seroxat-søksmål)
lawyersandsettlements.com 14.12.2009
Philadelphia, PA: According to reports, Paxil-maker GlaxoSmithKline may have paid almost $1 billion to settle Paxil lawsuits alleging serious side effects, including birth defects, addiction and suicides or attempted suicides. (...)

With 600 birth defects lawsuits still waiting in the wings, a $2.5 million settlement for each lawsuit could leave GlaxoSmithKline on the hook for $1.5 billion in birth defect lawsuits alone.

According to Bloomberg, approximately 150 suicide-related lawsuits were settled for an average of $2 million and 300 suicide attempt cases were settled for an average of $300,000. Meanwhile, 10 birth defect lawsuits were settled for an average of $4 million. (...)

Glaxo Ordered to Pay $2.5 Million for Paxil Defects (Update3)
(Glaxo dømt til å betale 2,5 millioner dollar for Seroxat-fødselsskader)
Bloomberg.com 13.10.2009
Oct. 13 (Bloomberg) -- GlaxoSmithKline Plc must pay $2.5 million over claims that its Paxil antidepressant caused birth defects, a Pennsylvania jury concluded in the first of 600 such cases to come to trial. (...)

GSK to Pay $2.5 Million to Family in Birth Defects Lawsuit (GSK betaler 2,5 millioner dollar til familie for Seroxat-fødselsdefekter)
lawyersandsettlements.com 13.10.2009
(...) Interne GSK-e-poster indikerer at de visste (Internal GSK Emails Suggest They Knew)

Under rettssaken ba dommeren GSK om å overlevere e-poster skrevet av GSK-ledere, og en slik e-post, et notat skrevet av Bonnie Rossello i 1997, som var spesielt belastende, inneholdt uttalelsen, "Dersom negative, resultater kan begraves." Rosello refererte til hva den farmasøytiske giganten burde gjøre dersom det ble nødvendig å utføre dyrestudier på Seroxat (Paxil), kjent som paroxetine (paroksetin). Ifølge resultater utført av danske utviklere av den kjemiske forbindelsen, tok lave doser av paroxetine livet av unge rotter. (During the court case the judge ordered GSK to hand over emails written by GSK executives, and one such email, written by Bonnie Rossello in a 1997 memo, was particularly incriminating, including the statement, "If neg, results can bury." Rosello was referring to what action the pharmaceutical giant should take if it became necessary to do animal studies with Paxil, known generically as paroxetine. According to results of a study done by the Danish developers of the compound, low-dose paroxetine killed young rats.)

Under rettssaken, fortalte Tracey jurymedlemmene at Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ikke ba om ytterligere sikkerhetsstudier for selektive serotoninreopptakshemmere (SSRIer) - den klasse antidepressiva som Seroxat tilhører - før i 2003. På dette tidspunkt erkjente angivelig GSK at Seroxat var assosiert med en økt risiko for fødselsdefekter. (...) (During the trial, Tracey reportedly told jurors that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not order additional safety studies on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)- the class of antidepressants to which Paxil belongs - until 2003. At that point, GSK allegedly acknowledged there was an increased risk of birth defects associated with Paxil.)

Glaxo must pay $2.5M in Paxil case (Glaxo må betale 2,5 millioner dollar i Seroxat-sak)
philly.com 13.10.2009
GlaxoSmithKline P.L.C. must pay $2.5 million to settle a claim that its Paxil antidepressant caused severe heart defects in a 3-year-old Bensalem boy, a Philadelphia common pleas jury ruled today.

The verdict is the first in 600 cases alleging that London-based Glaxo knew Paxil caused birth defects and hid those risks to boost profits.

The drug, approved for U.S. use in 1992, generated about $942 million in sales last year, 2.1 percent of Glaxo's total revenue. (...)

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy and congenital malformations: population based cohort study (Selektive serotoninreopptakshemmere i svangerskap og medfødte misdannelser: befolkningsbasert kohortstudie)
BMJ 2009;339:b3569 (23 September)
(...) Konklusjon Der er en økt forekomst av defekter i hjerteskillevegger hos barn av mødre forskrevet SSRI tidlig i svangerskapet, spesielt sertraline og citalopram. Den sterkeste forbindelsen ble påvist hos barn av kvinner som innløste forskrivninger på mer enn én type SSRI. (...) (Conclusion There is an increased prevalence of septal heart defects among children whose mothers were prescribed an SSRI in early pregnancy, particularly sertraline and citalopram. The largest association was found for children of women who redeemed prescriptions for more than one type of SSRI.)

(Anm: Ny granskning av valproatanvändning under graviditet och hos kvinnor i fertil ålder. Den europeiska läkemedelsmyndigheten (EMA) har inlett en granskning av användningen av läkemedel som innehåller valproat för behandling av flickor och kvinnor som är eller kan bli gravida. Dessa läkemedel är godkända nationellt inom EU för behandling av epilepsi, bipolär sjukdom och i vissa länder migrän, och har tidigare granskats av EMA. (lakemedelsverket.se 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: Tusindvis af franske børn fik fosterskader af epilepsimedicin. Nye undersøgelser viser nu, at op til 4100 børn har fået svære fosterskader, siden medicinen første gang blev bragt på markedet i 1967. (...) Gravide kvinder har taget Sanofi-middel trods risiko for fosterskader (...) Medicinalfirmaerne Sanofi-Aventis, Orion Pharma og Desitin Pharma udsendte allerede for halvandet år siden skærpede advarsler om lægemidler, der indeholder Valproat. Det gælder for eksempel Deprakine og Delepsine. (medwatch 20.4.2017).

(Anm: Thalidomide (Thalidomid) informasjon vs kunnskap og visdom - hvem visste hva? (mintankesmie.no).)

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and congenital malformations
Editorials
BMJ 2009;339:b3525 (23 September)
(...) In the linked population based cohort study from Denmark (doi:10.1136/bmj.b3569), Pedersen and colleagues confirm a previously reported doubling of risk for septal heart defects after early exposure in pregnancy to SSRIs (odds ratio 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 3.53).4 (...)

Lack of consistency across these studies with respect to specific malformations and specific drugs makes it difficult to translate the findings into clinical practice. (...)

One explanation for this inconsistency, assuming that SSRIs do cause specific birth defects, is differences in study designs. For example, although Pedersen and colleagues linked records for 496 881 singleton live born infants, they identified only 1370 mothers who redeemed multiple prescriptions for an SSRI in the perinatal period. Therefore, the study may have been insufficiently powered to detect the previously suggested twofold to threefold increased risk for anencephaly, omphalocele, craniosynostosis, or right ventricular outflow tract defects, all of which occur at least an order of magnitude less frequently than septal defects. (...)

Glaxo Linked Birth Defect of Fetus to Paxil, Ex-Executive Says (Ifølge tidligere leder linket Glaxo Seroxat til fødselsdefekter hos foster)
bloomberg.com 18.9.2009
Sept. 18 (Bloomberg) -- Officials of GlaxoSmithKline Plc, the U.K.’s largest drugmaker, said in 2001 that a birth defect in the fetus of a woman taking its Paxil antidepressant likely was linked to the drug, according to court testimony.

After analyzing a 2001 e-mail from a Paxil user who aborted her fetus because it had a heart defect, Glaxo officials noted in company files they were “almost certain” the drug was related to the problem, Jane Nieman, a former Glaxo drug-safety executive, told a Pennsylvania jury. (...)

(Anm: Antidepressiva kan skade menns fruktbarhet (DNA), ifølge studie (reuters.com 24.9.2008).)

Glaxo Official Memo Official Scientists to Withhold Information About Paxil's Risks,... (Offisielt notat viser at Glaxo oppfordret forskere til å hemmeligholde informasjon om risiko ved Seroxat,...)
reuters.com 16.9.2009
Glaxo Official Memo Urged Scientists to Withhold Information About Paxil's
Risks, Trial Hears; Pharmaceutical Industry Today Offers Complete News
Coverage

ASHINGTON, Sept. 16 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Antidepressant drug Paxil,
which generated about 2.1% of GlaxoSmithKline's total revenue last year, has
been known to cause birth defects, but the world's second-biggest drugmaker
hid its risks to pump up profits, a Philadelphia court has heard.

According to available information, Glaxo failed to properly test the drug and
urged scientists to conceal Paxil's risks. The Philadelphia trial is the first
of more than 600 cases against the London-based company. (...)

Summary Box: Glaxo used ghostwriting to push Paxil (Oppsummering: Glaxo brukte spøkelsesforfattere (skjulte bidragsytere) til å pushe Seroxat)
forbes.com 19.8.2009 (AP)
British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline PLC used a ghostwriting operation called CASPPER to promote its antidepressant Paxil, allowing doctors to take credit for journal articles mainly written by company consultants, according to court documents.

Here are some details from the memo, which instructs salespeople to approach physicians and offer to help them write and publish articles in medical journals:

_ The company offers to help doctors with everything from "developing a topic" to "writing a first draft."

_ The program's goal is to "strengthen the product positioning and overcome competitive issues."

_ The company expects that "physicians will be eager to participate in CASPPER regardless of their professional stature," adding "less experienced physicians may be interested in building their reputation in the field." (...)

(Anm: Spøkelsesforfattere (ghostwriters) (mintankesmie.no).)

Inside GSK's CASSPER Ghostwriting Program
industry.bnet.com 21.8.2009
A look inside GlaxoSmithKline’s CASSPER ghostwriting brochure reveals that Paxil Product Management at GSK expected its drug sales reps to control the process, even with doctors who were clearly unfamiliar with existing published data on the drug.

BNET noted yesterday that GSK (formerly SmithKline Beecham in the U.K.) maintained the program to create ghostwritten medical journal articles about its antidepressant, Paxil. (...)

(Anm: Seroxat (Paxil) (paroxetine; paroksetin) (SSRI) (mintankesmie.no).)

Glaxo used ghostwriting program to promote Paxil (Glaxo brukte spøkelsesforfatter-program for å promotere Seroxat)
google.com/hostednews/ap 19.8.2009 (AP)
WASHINGTON — Drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline used a sophisticated ghostwriting program to promote its antidepressant Paxil, allowing doctors to take credit for medical journal articles mainly written by company consultants, according to court documents obtained by The Associated Press.

An internal company memo instructs salespeople to approach physicians and offer to help them write and publish articles about their positive experiences prescribing the drug.

Known as the CASPPER program, the paper explains how the company can help physicians with everything from "developing a topic," to "submitting the manuscript for publication." (...)

Glaxo used ghostwriting program to promote Paxil (Glaxo brukte spøkelsesforfattere (skjulte bidragsytere) til å pushe Seroxat)
google.com/hostednews/ap 19.8.2009 (AP)
WASHINGTON — Court documents show drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline used a ghostwriting program to promote its antidepressant Paxil, letting doctors take credit for medical journal articles written by company consultants.

An internal company memo instructs salespeople to offer to help physicians write and publish articles about their positive experiences prescribing Paxil.

The document was uncovered by the Los Angeles law firm, Baul and Hedlund, which alleges Glaxo downplayed the risks of the drug, including increased suicidal behavior in young adults.

The April 2000 memo states that the program aimed to "strengthen the product positioning and overcome competitive issues," facing Paxil.

A spokeswoman for the British drugmaker had no immediate comment Wednesday afternoon. (...)

Glaxo used ghostwriting program to promote Paxil (Glaxo brukte spøkelsesforfattere (skjulte bidragsytere) til å pushe Seroxat)
google.com/hostednews/ap 19.8.2009 (AP)
WASHINGTON — Court documents show drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline used a ghostwriting program to promote its antidepressant Paxil, letting doctors take credit for medical journal articles written by company consultants.

An internal company memo instructs salespeople to offer to help physicians write and publish articles about their positive experiences prescribing Paxil.

The document was uncovered by the Los Angeles law firm, Baul and Hedlund, which alleges Glaxo downplayed the risks of the drug, including increased suicidal behavior in young adults.

The April 2000 memo states that the program aimed to "strengthen the product positioning and overcome competitive issues," facing Paxil.

A spokeswoman for the British drugmaker had no immediate comment Wednesday afternoon. (...)

GSK Used Ghostwriting to Push Paxil (GSK Glaxo brukte spøkelsesforfattere (skjulte bidragsytere) til å pushe Seroxat)
pharmpro.com 21.8.2009
WASHINGTON (AP) — Drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline used a sophisticated ghostwriting program to promote its antidepressant Paxil, allowing doctors to take credit for medical journal articles mainly written by company consultants, according to court documents obtained by The Associated Press. (...)

Court documents show Glaxo used CASPPER (the friendly ghostwriting program) to promote Paxil
latimes.com 19.8.2009
WASHINGTON (AP) — Drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline used a sophisticated ghostwriting program to promote its antidepressant Paxil, allowing doctors to take credit for medical journal articles mainly written by company consultants, according to court documents obtained by The Associated Press.

An internal company memo instructs salespeople to approach physicians and offer to help them write and publish articles about their positive experiences prescribing the drug.

Known as the CASPPER program, the paper explains how the company can help physicians with everything from "developing a topic," to "submitting the manuscript for publication."

The document was uncovered by the Baum Hedlund PC law firm of Los Angeles, which is representing hundreds of former Paxil users in personal injury and wrongful death suits against GlaxoSmithKline. The firm alleges the company downplayed several risks connected with its drug, including increased suicidal behavior and birth defects. (...)

CASPPER, GlaxoSmithKline’s Friendly Ghostwriting Program
online.wsj.com 23.8.2009
Drug makers have been taking heat for a while now over ghostwritten articles in medical journals. Basically, there have been instances where drug companies went out and found doctors willing to put their names on articles that the company paid someone else to write or make significant contributions to. (...)

Inside GSK's CASSPER Ghostwriting Program
industry.bnet.com 21.8.2009
A look inside GlaxoSmithKline’s CASSPER ghostwriting brochure reveals that Paxil Product Management at GSK expected its drug sales reps to control the process, even with doctors who were clearly unfamiliar with existing published data on the drug.

BNET noted yesterday that GSK (formerly SmithKline Beecham in the U.K.) maintained the program to create ghostwritten medical journal articles about its antidepressant, Paxil. (...)

(Anm: Seroxat (Paxil) (paroxetine; paroksetin) (SSRI) (mintankesmie.no).)

Investigation of Glaxo's Paxil widens: paper (Granskning av Glaxos Seroxat utvides, ifølge avis)
reuters.com 20.6.2008
NEW YORK (Reuters) - A U.S. Department of Justice investigation into whether GlaxoSmithKline PLC withheld data about the suicide risks of the antidepressant drug Paxil is widening, the Wall Street Journal reported on Friday.

In its online editions, the newspaper said Glaxo confirmed that a previously disclosed Colorado-based investigation of its marketing practices also includes the U.S. attorney's office in Boston and is being coordinated by the agency in Washington.

Federal investigators in Boston last year asked lawyers for families that are suing Glaxo for information, documents and depositions concerning Paxil's potential link to suicidal behavior, and how the company portrayed that risk to doctors and the Food and Drug Administration. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

(Anm: Grassley seeks FDA scrutiny of Paxil and suicide risk (finance.senate.gov).

(Anm: Sen Grassley investigates GlaxoSmithKline and Paxil/Seroxat (seroxatsecrets.wordpress.com).)

UPDATE 3-US senator seeks FDA probe of Glaxo's Paxil data (Oppdatering 3- Amerikansk senator ber FDA granske Glaxos Seroxat-data)
reuters.com 12.6.2008
(Adds scientist comment, report details)
WASHINGTON, June 12 (Reuters) - U.S. Sen. Charles Grassley asked regulators on Thursday to investigate whether drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline Plc (GSK.L: Quote, Profile, Research, Stock Buzz)(GSK.N: Quote, Profile, Research, Stock Buzz) withheld data about a risk of suicide linked to its anxiety disorder drug Paxil.

Grassley, a Republican from Iowa, said in a letter that a British regulatory agency had found that Glaxo knew as far back as 1998 that Paxil was associated with a higher risk of suicidal behavior in adolescents.

"I would like you to take a look at the information that agency gathered and determine if the company has withheld safety information here as well," Grassley wrote in the letter to the heads of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the Food and Drug Administration.

Grassley also asked the FDA to review a report by a Harvard psychiatrist who had submitted information as part of several lawsuits.

Rapporten viste at Glaxo "måtte vite om Seroxats selvmordsrisiko da de søkte godkjenning for legemidlet," ifølge en meddelelse fra senatoren. (...) (The report found that Glaxo "had to know of Paxil's suicide risk when it sought FDA approval for the drug," a statement from the senator said.)

GlaxoSmithKline faces US scrutiny over Paxil suicide link (GlaxoSmithKline står overfor amerikansk granskning av Seroxats selvmordslink)
guardian.co.uk 12.6.2008
(...) The senator also pointed to a report recently unsealed by a US court that found GSK knew as early as 1989 that Paxil carried a heightened suicide risk in adults as well as children.

The report, by Harvard University psychiatrist Joseph Glenmullen, was based on internal GSK documents and intended for use in ongoing US court cases against the company. (...)

Sen. Grassley Asks FDA to Probe Glaxo Communication on Paxil (Senator Grassley ber FDA om granskning av Glaxo kommunikasjon om Seroxat)
blogs.wsj.com 12.6.2008
Sen. Chuck Grassley wants the FDA to dig in on the data that GlaxoSmithKline submitted to the agency about the antidepressant Paxil to know if the company concealed risk of suicide for users of the drug.

The Iowa Republican wants to know who knew what when about the medicine and a link to an increase in suicidal behavior.

Grassley points out in a letter to the agency and HHS Secretary Michael Leavitt that the U.K. recently concluded that GSK withheld safety information in its submission for approval in Europe, and wants the FDA to investigate whether the company did the same in the U.S. as well. (...)

Sen. Grassley Letter to Pharmaceutical Drug Maker About Notice of Drug Trial Findings (Senator Grassleys brev til legemiddelprodusent om bemerkninger til konklusjoner i legemiddelforsøk)
pharmalive.com 6.2.2008
WASHINGTON, February 6, 2008 - Sen. Chuck Grassley is asking drug maker GlaxoSmithKline for documents regarding the antidepressant medication Paxil. Sen. Grassley is making his request based on a review of documents recently made public and reported today in the magazine New Scientist. (...)

The publicly available portions of the report on Paxil that is missing nine pages is posted at http://finance.senate.gov along with this press release. (...)

(Anm: Grassley Press (finance.senate.gov).

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

Did GSK trial data mask Paxil suicide risk? (Hemmeligholdt GSK selvmordsrisiko for Seroxat?)
newscientist.com 6.2.2008
AN INAPPROPRIATE analysis of clinical trial data by researchers at GlaxoSmithKline obscured suicide risks associated with paroxetine, a profitable antidepressant, for 15 years, suggest court documents (897kb, requires Acrobat Reader) released last month. Not until 2006 did GSK alert people to raised suicide risks associated with the drug, marketed as Paxil and Seroxat.

“Not until 2006 did GlaxoSmithKline alert people to raised suicide risks associated with Paxil/Seroxat” (...)

Paxil Risks at Center of Grassley Probe (Farer ved Seroxat i fokus for Grassley-granskning)
forbes.com 6.2.2008
WASHINGTON - A leading Republican senator is investigating whether GlaxoSmithKline knew about the suicide risks of its antidepressant Paxil more than 15 years before it warned the public.

The British drug maker added warnings to Paxil in 2006 about increased rates of suicidal behavior in young adults. However, Sen. Charles Grassley of Iowa said Wednesday that court documents from a recently dismissed lawsuit suggest the company knew about the risks as early as 1989.

In the documents, a Harvard Medical School psychiatrist argues Glaxo mishandled reports of suicide in early studies of Paxil. Glaxo has denied any wrongdoing. (...)

Effectiveness of paroxetine in the treatment of acute major depression in adults: a systematic re-examination of published and unpublished data from randomized trials
CMAJ 2008; 178 (3) (January 29)
Background: Concern has been raised about the efficacy of antidepressant therapy for major depression in adults. We undertook a systematic review of published and unpublished clinical trial data to determine the effectiveness and acceptability of paroxetine. (...)

Interpretation: Among adults with moderate to severe major depression in the clinical trials we reviewed, paroxetine was not superior to placebo in terms of overall treatment effectiveness and acceptability. These results were not biased by selective inclusion of published studies. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

Paxil Risks at Center of Grassley Probe (Farer ved Seroxat i fokus for Grassley-granskning)
money.cnn.com 6.2.2008
Grassley Raises Questions About When Glaxo First Knew of Paxil's Suicide Risks

NEW YORK (Associated Press) - A leading Republican senator is investigating whether GlaxoSmithKline knew about the suicide risks of its antidepressant Paxil more than 15 years before it warned the public.

The British drug maker added warnings to Paxil in 2006 about increased rates of suicidal behavior in young adults. However, Sen. Charles Grassley of Iowa said Wednesday that court documents from a recently dismissed lawsuit suggest the company knew about the risks as early as 1989.

In the documents, a Harvard Medical School psychiatrist argues Glaxo mishandled reports of suicide in early studies of Paxil. Glaxo has denied any wrongdoing. (...)

If the company had tabulated the suicide reports conventionally, Glenmullen says the data would have shown Paxil patients had an eight times greater risk of suicidal behavior. (...)

- Parlamentsmedlem kritiserer legemidler under avhør om dødsårsak

MP takes war on drugs to inquest (Parlamentsmedlem kritiserer legemidler under avhør om dødsårsak)
torontosun.com 18.6.2010
Oakville MP Terence Young started a relentless campaign to prevent tragedies linked to prescription drugs when his teenaged daughter died after taking a since-banned drug Prepulsid for bloating in 2000.

He used a coroner’s inquest Friday to champion a host of changes aimed at protecting Canadians by making them aware of the dangerous side effects of prescription drugs.

The 57-year-old MP testified at the inquest examining the May 6, 2007 suicide of athlete-scholar Sara Carlin after the 18-year-old took an anti-depressant drug called Paxil.

Her parents are blaming the drug for her death.

Sara hanged herself in the basement of her parents’ Oakville home after taking Paxil for 14 months.

Young emphasized that patients must be educated about the dangerous side effects of drugs and the possibility of using alternate non-drug treatments. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

- Flere spørsmål om Seroxats (Paxils) sideeffekter (- Glaxo unnlot å advare om Seroxat-risiko)

Sent språk kan skyldes mors antidepressiva
dagensmedisin.no 16.4.2014
Barn av mødre som bruker antidepressiva i svangerskapet, kan ha økt risiko for forsinket språkutvikling.
Forsinket språkutvikling ved treårsalder kan ha sammenheng med mors bruk av den vanligste typen antidepressiva (SSRI) i svangerskapet, viser en studie fra Folkehelseinstituttet.

Studien er en av få i verden som har sett på langtidseffekter hos barn etter mors bruk av antidepressiva i svangerskapet, og som har kunnet følge så mange barn over lang tid. Studien inkluderer 50. 000 barn fra Den norske mor og barn-undersøkelsen (MoBa).

Angstsymptomer gir større risiko
- Siden studien er blant de første av sitt slag, er det viktig at resultatene blir etterprøvd av andre forskere før det legges alt for stor vekt på dem, sier Svetlana Skurtveit, seniorforsker og professor på Folkehelseinstituttet og Universitet i Oslo, til FHIs nettsider.

FHI har gjort studien i samarbeid med SERAF ved Universitetet i Oslo og Harvard School of Public Health. Studien er publisert i BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. (...)

(Anm: Prenatal SSRI Use and Offspring With Autism Spectrum Disorder or Developmental Delay. Pediatrics 2014 (Published online April 14, 2014).)

(Anm: Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and language competence at age three: results from a large population-based pregnancy cohort in Norway. BJOG. 2014 Apr 14. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12821. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Altered dopamine signaling a clue to autism (medicalnewstoday.com 4.2.2015).)

(Anm: Flere unge bruker antidepressiva enn for ti år siden. Dette viser en ny studie fra Folkehelseinstituttet gjort i samarbeid med Høgskolen i Hedmark. Studien viser også at færre barn i 1-2-årsalderen får sovemidler. (…) Bruk av et psykofarmaka er i denne studien definert som uttak av minst én resept i løpet av et år på følgende legemidler: •sovemiddel inkludert alimemazin (Vallergan) •midler mot depresjon (antidepressiva) •midler mot psykose (antipsykotika) •angstdempende midler (anxiolytika) •midler i behandling av ADHD (fhi.no 2.2.2016).)

Forsinket språkutvikling hos barnet kan ha sammenheng med mors bruk av antidepressiva
fhi.no 15.4.2014
Barn av mødre som brukte den vanligste typen antidepressiva (SSRI) i svangerskapet, kan ha økt risiko for forsinket språkutvikling ved treårsalder sammenlignet med barn av mødre som ikke brukte antidepressiva mens de var gravide. Det viser resultater i en studie fra Den norske mor og barn-undersøkelsen på Folkehelseinstituttet.

Resultatene fra studien viser at gravides bruk av antidepressiva kan ha innvirkning på språkutvikling. Funnene viser også at dersom den gravide hadde symptomer på angst og depresjon, økte risikoen for at barnet fikk forsinket språkutvikling. Forskerne understreker at svært få barn kom i kategorien som tilsvarer alvorlig forsinket språkutvikling.

Dette er en av få studier i verden som har sett på langtidseffekter hos barn etter mors bruk av antidepressiva i svangerskapet, og som har kunnet følge så mange barn over lang tid. (...)

Om studien
Studien inkluderer i overkant av 50 000 barn fra Den norske mor og barn-undersøkelsen (MoBa). Alle foreldre som har deltatt i MoBa har bidratt med viktig informasjon om sin livsstil, sine plager og sykdommer før, under og etter svangerskapet. Dette har gjort det mulig å kontrollere for andre risikofaktorer for forsinket språkutvikling som kunne ha påvirket forskernes resultater. Et eksempel på en slik faktor er depresjon, som forskerne allerede vet at i seg selv kan påvirke barns utvikling. Forskerne er imidlertid også åpne for at det kan være andre faktorer som kan påvirke språkutviklingen.

Folkehelseinstituttet har gjort studien i samarbeid med SERAF ved Universitetet i Oslo og Harvard School of Public Health. (...)

(Anm: Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and language competence at age three: results from a large population-based pregnancy cohort in Norway. BJOG. 2014 Apr 14. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12821. [Epub ahead of print].)

Parental depression, maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy, and risk of autism spectrum disorders: population based case-control study (Foreldres depresjon, mors antidepressant bruk under svangerskapet, og risikoen forautismespekterforstyrrelser: befolkningsbasert kasus kontrollstudie (case-control study))
BMJ 2013;346:f2059 (19 April 2013)
(...) Objective To study the association between parental depression and maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy with autism spectrum disorders in offspring.
Design Population based nested case-control study.

Conclusions In utero exposure to both SSRIs and non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors (tricyclic antidepressants) was associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders, particularly without intellectual disability. Whether this association is causal or reflects the risk of autism with severe depression during pregnancy requires further research. However, assuming causality, antidepressant use during pregnancy is unlikely to have contributed significantly towards the dramatic increase in observed prevalence of autism spectrum disorders as it explained less than 1% of cases. (...)

Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Linked to Higher Risk of Autism (Bruk av antidepressiva under svangerskapet linket til høyere risiko for autisme)
healthland.time.com 5.7.2011 (Time)
Children whose mothers use antidepressants during pregnancy may be more likely to develop autism than kids whose mothers do not, say researchers in California.

In a study involving data on more than 1,800 children — fewer than 300 of whom had an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) — and their mothers, the scientists found that women who were prescribed drugs to treat depression in the year before giving birth were twice as likely to have children with an ASD, compared with women who did not take antidepressants. The risk was even greater for women who were prescribed the drugs in the first trimester: their children were nearly four times more likely to develop autism or a related disorder.

The study focused on one type of antidepressant, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a class of drug that includes fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil) and sertraline (Zoloft). These antidepressants work by increasing available levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin surrounding nerve cells in the brain, which helps boost mood. (...)

(Anm: Antidepressants during pregnancy linked to autism. Prof. Bérard says: (…) Finally, we looked for a statistical association between the two groups, and found a very significant one: an 87% increased risk." The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - a common class of antidepressants - during the second and/or third trimester was significantly associated with an increased risk of ASD. (medicalnewstoday.com 14.12.2015).)

(Anm: Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children.  Conclusions and Relevance  Use of antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, during the second and/or third trimester increases the risk of ASD in children, even after considering maternal depression. Further research is needed to specifically assess the risk of ASD associated with antidepressant types and dosages during pregnancy. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 (Published online December 14, 2015).)

Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy and Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders (Bruk av antidepressiva under svangerskapet og autisme)
Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011 (Published online July 4)
(...) Results Prenatal exposure to antidepressant medications was reported for 20 case children (6.7%) and 50 control children (3.3%). In adjusted logistic regression models, we found a 2-fold increased risk of ASD associated with treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by the mother during the year before delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.3]), with the strongest effect associated with treatment during the first trimester (adjusted odds ratio, 3.8 [95% confidence interval, 1.8-7.8]). No increase in risk was found for mothers with a history of mental health treatment in the absence of prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Conclusion Although the number of children exposed prenatally to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in this population was low, results suggest that exposure, especially during the first trimester, may modestly increase the risk of ASD. The potential risk associated with exposure must be balanced with the risk to the mother or fetus of untreated mental health disorders. Further studies are needed to replicate and extend these findings. (...)

Can an increased risk of autism be linked to Paxil? (Kan en øket risiko for autisme linkes til Seroxat (paroxetine)?)
central-pennsylvania.injuryboard.com 15.3.2012
Late last year, a study was published in the Archives of General Psychiatry that suggests a possible link between autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and maternal use of antidepressant medications during pregnancy. The study—although inconclusive as to a causal link between the two—has gotten quite a bit of attention for the advances it makes in furthering our understanding of what causes ASDs.

The study was aimed at determining whether prenatal exposure to antidepressant medications can be associated with an increased risk of ASD. It was a relatively small study, involving only about 300 children with ASD and 1500 randomly selected children without ASD. The authors concluded that the results suggest that exposure to SSRIs—especially during the first trimester—may “modestly increase the risk of ASD.” The researchers also underscored the need for further studies on this issue, particularly given this study’s small size. (...)

SSRI's And Environment Strong Autism Contributing Factors Over Genes
Editor's Choice
medicalnewstoday.com 5.7.2011
New research this week points to a link between the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a type of antidepressant, and the occurrence of autism in unborn kids. Another study found that among twins, the environment plays a bigger role in the development of autism than genetics which is a game changer considering past investigation into autism cause factors.

Over the past 30 years, the number of children with autism has increased from about 4 in 10,000 to about 40 in 10,000.

First off, research led by Kaiser Permanente Northern California reviewed the medical records of more than 1,600 children, 298 of whom had autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). They found that the risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorder was about twice as high among women who took SSRIs in the year before delivery. That risk was even four times higher in women who took SSRIs during their first trimester. SSRIs include such well-known brands as Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil and Celexa. (...)

Data Confirm Trend of Sharp Rise in ASD Cases (Data bekrefter trend med sterk økning av autismetilfeller)
Psychiatr News 2011;46(14):20 (July 15) (American Psychiatric Association)
Among 388,644 children born in one state from 2001 to 2005, more than 3,000 were enrolled in an early-intervention program for autism spectrum disorders by age 3, and in that period, the numbers rose steeply.

In a reflection of national trends, a recent study of children in Massachusetts reports that diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are increasing, particularly among boys. The study was published online May 16 in Pediatrics. (...)

They discovered that 1 of every 129 children born in Massachusetts in that five-year period was enrolled in an early intervention for an ASD by age 36 months. Early ASD diagnoses increased linearly from 1 in 178 for the 2001 birth cohort to 1 in 108 for the 2005 birth cohort, an increase of 66 percent. (...)

Serotonin and the Autisms (Serotonin og autisme)
Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011 (Published online July 5)
A Red Flag or a Red Herring?

The struggles to provide mechanistic insight regarding the causes of the autisms (autism spectrum disorder [ASD]) continue as the data mount from the newest population-based studies finding that ASD diagnoses affect 1% to 2% of the population.1-2 Twin and sibling studies support the highly heritable nature of ASD risk, and at-risk younger siblings may have a recurrence risk of 15% to 20%. The newest estimates concur that rare mutations and copy number variants may account for up to 20% of cases.3 What about the other 80%? The genomecentric emphases have resulted in an opacity regarding the idea that through enhanced risk and/or endophenotype modulation, environmental factors are likely to interact with genetic components to participate at some important level in ASD etiology. Yet, the generation of convincing evidence of specific environmental factors remains a struggle, with the few exceptions of medication (eg, valproate sodium) or prenatal infection. Co-occurrence does not impart guilt, so the many candidates identified based on increases of exposures to a variety of agents that parallel an increase in ASD prevalence remain unsubstantiated. The problem is that even benign environmental elements can affect brain development in experimental systems because the building of well-functioning brain architecture is exquisitely sensitive to both genetic and environmental regulation. So, the field is left with basic findings that implicate a variety of genetic and epigenetic factors, together with associated small to modest increases in odds ratios for ASD due to a lengthening list of investigated environmental factors. (...)

Perhaps it is a coincidence that the odds ratio for ASD risk in the study by Croen and colleagues increases when first-trimester exposure to SSRIs is the sole factor. However, it is exactly that time of human brain development during which cortical and subcortical neuronal populations are being produced, migrating to their final destinations and beginning the long process of wiring. While much occurs later, the establishment of a strong foundation developmentally may be an essential component of healthy brain development. Croen and colleagues note more than once in their article that the study should not be taken as carte blanche for withholding SSRI treatment from pregnant mothers who are suffering the stress of depression and related disorders. Altered neurochemistry and stress response systems during pregnancy may affect the fetus as well. New basic neurobiology studies that focus on the importance of 5-HT in brain development and further advances in analyzing prospectively collected clinical data and outcomes will lead to a sound evidence-based approach to the clinical management of individuals who are suffering during a period that should be among the most joyous in their life. (...)

Is Autism, at Least in Part, a Disorder of Fetal Programming?
Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011 (Published online July 5)
The year 1977 marked an important milestone in the history of autism. In this year, the first twin study in autism was published by Folstein and Rutter1; it demonstrated a striking difference in concordance rates between monozygous (MZ) and dyzgyous (DZ) twins. The studies that followed reported even higher MZ concordance rates, up to 90%, for a broader phenotype resembling what is currently labeled as autism spectrum disorder (ASD)2-4 and DZ concordance rates at or close to 0%. This resulted in heritability estimates greater than 90%, suggesting that almost all of the variance in phenotypic expression could be attributed to inherited genetic factors.

There was an important need to revisit those early heritability estimates given that there have been significant improvements in the diagnosis of ASD and that the prevalence rates on which the original models were based are now much greater. In addition, the fact that the concordance for DZ twins was so close to 0% has always been a puzzling finding largely ascribed to the imprecision of the estimates. Family studies of nontwin siblings have suggested that the recurrence risk is closer to 5%, or even 10%, once stoppage rules are taken into account.5 Even so, based on these twin studies, ASD was often described as the most heritable of psychiatric disorders. It must be admitted, though, that the field has been frustrated by the difficulty in identifying the specific inherited genetic mechanisms for the etiology of ASD. Even the recent genome-wide association studies have not given us any smoking guns, and the top hits have been difficult to replicate. (...)

Firmaer skjuler negative medicinforsøg
ekstrabladet.dk 13.10.2010
Medicinalfirmaerne vildleder forbrugerne ved kun at offentliggøre de testresultater, som kommer positivt ud, advarer forskere (...)

Læger og patienter bliver ført bag lyset af medicinalfirmaerne, som skjuler negative resultater fra kliniske forsøg, så deres medicin fremstår mere effektiv end den er, advarer eksperter. (...)

Et tysk forskerhold har i det anerkendte tidsskrift British Medical Journal offentliggjort en gennemgang af ikke tidligere offentliggjorte forsøg med antidepressivet reboxetine (Edronax). De konkluderer, at medicinen ikke er blevet fremstillet i et sandfærdigt lys, skriver BBC.co.uk. (...)

'Vores fund understreger det tvingende behov for tvungen offelitggørelse af førsøgsdata' konkluderer undersøgelsens bagmænd ifølge BBC.co.uk. (...)

Undersøgelsen kommer i kølvandet på flere kritiske historier om medicinalindustrien: Medicinalgiganten Glaxo Smith Kline er ligesom Pfizer blevet anklaget for at tilbageholde kritiske resultater i forhold til diabetesmedicinen Avandia og antidepressivet Seroxat.

Tidligere på måneden blev medicinalfirmaerne i bogen 'Sex, lies and Pharmaceuticals' anklaget for at opfinde nye sygdomme og sygeliggøre raske, så de kunne sælge mere medicin. (...)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (nytteverdi) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Ny forskning: Lykkepiller gør mere skade end gavn. Folk med depression får intet ud af at tage antidepressivet SSRI, bedre kendt som lykkepiller, viser nyt dansk studie. (jyllands-posten.dk 13.2.2017).)

- Konklusjon: Dekonstruksjon av rettsdokumenter avslørte at protokollspesifikke resultater ikke viste statistisk signifikant forskjell mellom citalopram og placebo. Den publiserte artikkelen konkluderte imidlertid med at citalopram var trygt og betydelig mer effektivt enn placebo for barn og ungdom, med mulige bivirkninger mht. pasientsikkerhet.

(Anm: The citalopram CIT-MD-18 pediatric depression trial: Deconstruction of medical ghostwriting, data mischaracterisation and academic malfeasance. OBJECTIVE: Deconstruction of a ghostwritten report of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety trial of citalopram in depressed children and adolescents conducted in the United States. (…) CONCLUSION: Deconstruction of court documents revealed that protocol-specified outcome measures showed no statistically significant difference between citalopram and placebo. However, the published article concluded that citalopram was safe and significantly more efficacious than placebo for children and adolescents, with possible adverse effects on patient safety. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2016 Mar 16;28(1):33-43.)

(Anm: Cipralex (Lexapro) (escitalopram) - Cipramil (Celexa) (cipramil) (citalopram) - H. Lundbeck A/S (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Forskere finner link mellom bruk av antidepressiva, medfødte misdannelser eller dødfødsler. (Researchers Find Link Between Antidepressant Use, Congenital Anomalies or Stillbirths) (…) "Mens denne ekstra risikoen kan virke liten er resultatene etter mitt syn så alvorlig som de kan være." (“While this extra risk may seem small, in my view, the outcomes are as serious as they can be.”) (dgnews.docguide.com 5.12.2016).)

(Anm: Eksponering av foster for antidepressiva kan endre Corpus Callosums mikrostruktur: Presentert ved PAS / ASPN. (…) Fordi "den neonate (nyfødtes) corpus callosum mikrostruktur er assosiert med utero (livmor) SSRI-eksponering og prenatal (før fødsel) mødredepresjon, er tidlige modningsprosesser i denne regionen følsomme for endret 5-hydroksytryptamin (5-HT) signalering under tiden i utero (livmor)," bemerket Campbell. "Disse resultatene - sammen med forstyrret hvit substans’ mikrostruktur i genu hos premature spedbarn - tyder dette på at utviklingen av [corpus callosum] kan være følsom for tidlige uheldige påvirkninger. (Fetal Exposure to Antidepressants May Alter Corpus Callosum Microstructure.) (dgnews.docguide.com 10.5.2017).)

(Anm: Unormal sæd med SSRI antidepressiva. Flere studier har funnet endrede sædparametere etter eksponering for SSRI-antidepressiva. Selv om SSRIs rolle er usikker, er det berettiget å ta hensyn til de observerte effektene på sædkvalitet og informere eksponerte pasienter. (Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants. Several studies have found altered semen parameters after exposure to SSRI antidepressants. Although the role of SSRIs is uncertain, it is justified to take into account the observed effects on sperm quality and to inform exposed patients.) Prescrire Int 2015; 24 (156): 16-17.)

(Anm: Gravide kvinner som tar antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å få barn med autisme, ifølge studie. Pregnant women who take antidepressants more likely to have a child with autism, study finds. Research data published in the BMJ reveal that antidepressant use during pregnancy increases the risk of autism in children, as reported The Independent Thursday. (firstwordpharma.com 20.7.2017).)

(Anm: - Nye data viser økt risiko for misdannelser når antidepressiva brukes under graviditet. (…) En studie publisert i British Medical Journal (BMJ) avslører at antidepressiva forskrevet til gravide kan øke sjansen for å få en baby med misdannelser.) (New Data Show Heightened Risk of Birth Defects When Antidepressants Are Used During Pregnancy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 19.1.2017).)

(Anm: - Utviklingen av et potensielt livstruende serotonergt syndrom eller nevroleptisk malignt syndrom (NMS)-lignende reaksjoner er rapportert for SNRI-er og SSRI-er alene, inkludert Celexa-behandling, men spesielt ved samtidig bruk av serotonerge legemidler (inklusive triptaner) og legemidler som svekker metabolisme av serotonin (inklusive MAO-hemmere), eller med antipsykotika eller andre dopaminantagonister (fda.gov 6.3.2009).)

(Anm: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed pregnant women: an updated analysis of the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort. (…) Conclusions Antidepressants with effects on serotonin reuptake during embryogenesis increased the risk of some organ-specific malformations in a cohort of pregnant women with depression. BMJ Open 2017;7:e013372.)

(Anm: Bruk av antipsykotika er assosiert med en 60 % økt risiko for dødelighet hos pasienter med Alzheimers sykdom. (…) Bruk av to eller flere antipsykotika samtidig ble knyttet til nesten doblet dødsrisiko (200 %) enn ved monoterapi.) (Antipsychotic Drug Use Increases Risk of Mortality Among Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease. JOENSUU, Finland -- December 12, 2016 -- Antipsychotic drug use is associated with a 60% increased risk of mortality among patients with Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. The risk was highest at the beginning of drug use and remained increased in long-term use. Use of 2 or more antipsychotic drugs concomitantly was associated with almost 2 times higher risk of mortality than monotherapy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 12.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antipsykotika dobler dødsrisiko allerede etter 180 dagers bruk. Greater Mortality Risk With Antipsychotics in Parkinson's (Større dødsrisiko med antipsykotika ved Parkinsons) (medicalnewstoday.com 21.6.2015).)

(Anm: (...) For ytterligere å illustrere problemet kan nevnes at antipsykotika forårsaker parkinsonisme (5), og en studie fant at mennesker med Parkinsons sykdom og psykose hadde fire ganger større sannsynlighet for å dø etter tre til seks måneders behandling enn de som ikke fikk antipsykotika. (6) De var også mer utsatt for kognitiv svikt, forverring av parkinsonsymptomer, hjerneslag, infeksjoner og fall. RE: Psykisk syke lever kortere. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 10.11.2015.)

(Anm: Legemidler som kan gi delirium hos eldre. Delirium ses særlig hos eldre ved akutte sykdommer og skader eller som følge av toksisk eller farmakologisk påvirkning. Eldre personer har mange sykdommer og bruken av legemidler er høy. Mange legemidler, og særlig de med antikolinerg eller dopaminerg effekt, kan gi delirium. Kjennskap til legemidler og kombinasjoner av legemidler som kan gi delirium, er viktig for å kunne forebygge og behandle tilstanden. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2005; 125:2366-7 (8.9.2005).)

(Anm: Delirium in hospitalized patients: Risks and benefits of antipsychotics. ABSTRACT Consensus panel guidelines advocate for the judicious use of antipsychotic drugs to manage delirium in hospitalized patients when nonpharmacologic measures fail and the patient is in significant distress from symptoms, poses a safety risk to self or others, or is impeding essential aspects of his or her medical care. Here, we review the use of haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole for this purpose. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2017 August;84(8):616-622.)

(Anm: Post injektionssyndrom. (…) De fleste af disse patienter udviklede symptomer på sedation (fra mild sedation til koma) og/eller delirium (herunder forvirring, desorientering, ophidselse/ uro, angst og anden kognitiv svækkelse). Andre symptomer inkluderede ekstrapyramidale symptomer, dysartri, ataksi, aggression, svimmelhed, svaghed, hypertension eller krampe.) (sundhedsstyrelsen.dk 29.6.2014).)

(Anm: Mødre til børn med misdannelser har øget dødelighed. (…) Bivirkninger har ført til to dødsfald. Den største del af bivirkningerne (42 procent) af de 429 blev indberettet for såkaldte psykostimulerende lægemidler - eksempelvis til behandling af ADHD - efterfulgt af 31 procent for antidepressiver og 24 procent for antipsykotiske lægemidler. (videnskab.dk 20.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antikolinerge effekter av vanlige legemidler knyttet til økt dødelighet hos mennesker over 65. De kombinerte antikolinerge effektene av mange vanlige legemidler øker risikoen for kognitiv svekkelse og død hos personer over 65 år, ifølge resultater fra en storskala studie på den langsiktige helseeffekten av legemidler.(Anticholinergic effects of common drugs are associated with increased mortality in over 65s. The combined anticholinergic effects of many common drugs increase the risk of cognitive impairment and death in people aged over 65, a large scale study of the long term effect of drugs on health has found.) BMJ 2011; 342:d4037 (28 June).)

(Anm: Men experience greater cognitive impairment and increased risk of death following hip surgery. In a study of hip fracture patients, men displayed greater levels of cognitive impairment within the first 22 days of fracture than women, and cognitive limitations increased the risk of dying within six months in both men and women. "While men make up only about 25 percent of all hip fractures, the number of men who fracture their hip is increasing and we know men are more likely to die than women after a hip fracture," said Dr. Ann Gruber-Baldini, lead author of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society study. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.2.2017).)

(Anm: Det autonome nervesystemet. Det autonome nervesystemets hovedoppgave er å bidra til likevekt i kroppens basale funksjoner. Det vil blant annet si kroppstemperatur, blodtrykk, åndedrett og fordøyelse. (nhi.no 4.3.2015).)

(Anm: Ulike selektive serotonin reopptakshemmeres (SSRI-er) cytotoksisitet mot kreftceller. (Cytotoxicity of different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against cancer cells.) (…) Vi har funnet at paroxetine (paroksetin; Seroxat; Paxil etc.) har cytotoksisk aktivitet mot tumorceller. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006;6(1):23-9.)

(Anm: Could antidepressants stop prostate cancer from spreading? In almost all cases where prostate cancer spreads to other areas of the body, the disease spreads to the bone first. In a new study, researchers reveal the discovery of an enzyme that helps prostate cancer cells to invade bone. Furthermore, certain antidepressant medications may have the potential to block this enzyme. Study co-author Jason Wu, of Washington State University-Spokane, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Cancer Cell. (medicalnewstoday.com 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: Classic cytotoxic drugs: a narrow path for regulatory approval. Several classic cytotoxic drugs have shown encouraging activity in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.1–3 However, only a few have received an overwhelming welcome from regulatory authorities and succeeded in obtaining widespread regulatory approval for routine use. For example eribulin was approved for treatment of metastatic breast cancer in several countries including Japan, USA, and Europe, based on data that showed longer overall survival in patients treated with eribulin compared with patients treated with physician's choice of treatment. In contrast ixabcpilone with capecitabine gained approval from the US Food and Drug Agency based on data showing longer progression-free survival compared with capccitabine alone, but did not obtain rcgulatory authorisation in Europc because it is associated with a high incidence of nevropathy.5 Lancet Oncol. 2017 Feb 10. pii: S1470-2045(17)30089-X. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Ødelagt cellulær "klokke" linket til hjerneskade (Broken Cellular 'Clock' Linked to Brain Damage) (sciencedaily.com 25.11.2013).)

(Anm: Signaling Pathways Linked to Serotonin-Induced Superoxide Anion Production: A Physiological Role for Mitochondria in Pulmonary Arteries. Abstract. Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) is commonly associated to cellular damages due to [Formula: see text] overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, [Formula: see text] also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). Front Physiol. 2017 Feb 9;8:76. eCollection 2017.)

(Anm: Bruk av antidepressiva ble assosiert med et betydelig eldre utseende og forskere fant også ut at vekten spilte en viktig faktor. I de sett med tvillinger som var yngre enn 40 år ble tyngre tvillinger oppfattet som eldre. (…) I tillegg mistenker forskerne at den vedvarende avslapping av ansiktsmuskler som antidepressiva forårsaker kan forklare årsaken til at ansiktet faller sammen (henger). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Minislag (ministroke: transient ischemic attack (TIA)) linket til lavere forventet levetid. (- Minislag kan forårsake demens.) (- Enkelte psykofarmaka kan øke risiko for minislag / demens.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Stumme infarkt rammer oftere folk med høy smertetoleranse. Stumme hjerteinfarkt gir ikke de klassiske brystsmertene som ved vanlige infarkt. - Denne pasientgruppen tar enten ikke kontakt med lege, eller de har ikke fått riktig diagnose, sier lege og forsker Andrea Milde Øhrn. (…) Det er vanlig å tenke sterke brystsmerter og akutt behandling når det er snakk om hjerteinfarkt. Det mange kanskje ikke vet, er at man kan ha hatt et hjerteinfarkt uten å vite det. Dette kalles et stumt infarkt, et hjerteinfarkt med få eller ingen symptomer. - Et stumt hjerteinfarkt er et hjerteinfarkt som ikke er erkjent. (nhi.no 3.2.2017).)

(Anm: Sannsynlig karotidyni forårsaket av fluoxetine (Prozac; SSRI-er). (Probable fluoxetine-induced carotidynia.)  Karotidyni er en fokal nakkesmerte (bestemt, avgrenset område), som involverer anatomiske områder til den berørte arteria carotis, og stråler ofte ut i den ipsilateral side (samme side) av ansiktet eller øret. På grunnlag av medisinsk historie og alder har karotidyni konvensjonelt vært klassifisert i klassisk (ikke-migrenøs), migrenøs, og vaskulære varianter. The Lancet 2009;374(9695):1061-1062 (26 September).)

(Anm: Nakkesmerter sætter forskerne skakmat. Kroniske nakkesmerter koster samfundet milliarder og er en af de hyppigste årsager til, at danskere melder sig syge fra job. Forskerne er i vildrede: Ingen behandling er effektiv. (videnskab.dk 22.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva linket til hjerterisiko: tvillingstudie. (Antidepressants linked to heart risk: twins study) - Middelaldrende menn som bruker antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å ha en innsnevring av blodårer, noe som øker risikoen for hjerteinfarkt og slag, enn de som ikke bruker legemidlene, ifølge en studie presentert på lørdag. (Reuters) - Middle-age men who use antidepressants are more likely to have a narrowing of blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes, than those who do not use the medications, according to a study presented on Saturday.) (reuters.com 2.4.2011).)

(Anm: - Pfizers Zyvoxid (Zyvox) og antidepressiva kan være en dødelig kombinasjon. (- Det antas at når linezolid gis til pasienter, som behandles med serotonerge psykofarmaka, kan forhøyede nivåer av serotonin bygge seg opp i hjernen og forårsake toksisitet (giftighet). Dette er referert til som Serotonin syndrom - tegn og symptomer inkluderer mentale endringer (forvirring, hyperaktivitet, minneproblemer), muskelrykninger, overdreven svetting, skjelving eller risting, diaré, problemer med koordinasjon og / eller feber.) (fda.gov 21.10.2011).)

(Anm: Hva er det forskrivere og pasienter ikke vet om bivirkninger av antidepressiva? (What do prescribers and patients not know about the side effects of antidepressant drugs?) (medicalnewstoday.com 15.9.2016).)

(Anm: Forskere: Alvorlige bivirkninger, når antidepressiver droppes. Angst, depression og selvmordstanker er nogle af de bivirkninger, som tit forekommer, når man holder op med at tage antidepressiv medicin. Bivirkningerne kan i nogle tilfælde være langvarige og kroniske, viser et nyt studie. (videnskab.dk 16.3.2015).)

(Anm: Bruk av visse smertestillende midler (og antidepressiva (+ 31 %)) forbundet med økt risiko for drap (Use of certain painkillers linked with increased risk of homicide) Enkelte legemidler som påvirker sentralnervesystemet - som smertestillende og beroligende benzodiazepiner - er assosiert med økt risiko for å begå et drap, finner en ny studie publisert i tidsskriftet World Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 1.6.2015).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. Drab og vold har de seneste år fyldt debatten om de danske bosteder for patienter med psykiske problemer. (…) Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. (…) Mens Folketinget kæmper for en løsning på problemet med vold på offentlige bosteder, vælger flere kommuner at sende tunge patienter til private tilbud. (politiken.dk 18.3.2017.)

(Anm: Aggresjon knyttet til økt risiko for substansmisbruk. Aggression disorder linked to greater risk of substance abuse. (…) In the study, published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Coccaro, MD, and colleagues analyzed data from more than 9,200 subjects in the National Comorbidity Survey, a national survey of mental health in the United States. They found that as the severity of aggressive behavior increased, so did levels of daily and weekly substance use. The findings suggest that a history of frequent, aggressive behavior is a risk factor for later substance abuse, and effective treatment of aggression could delay or even prevent substance abuse in young people. (medicalnewstoday.com 2.3.2017).)

(Anm: Halvparten av norske drap begått av rusede. (…) I 125 av drapene – eller 54 prosent – er det beskrevet i dommen at gjerningspersonen var påvirket av rusmidler under drapet. (nrk.no 13.12.2016).)

- En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn.

(Anm: En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn. (- Pasienten døde etter kort tid, og dødsårsaken var nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning), heter det i tilsynets rapport. (nrk.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body, frequently a response of the immune system to infection. (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Sepsis. Definisjon: SIRS + påvist/mistenkt infeksjon (f. eks. positiv blodkultur). SIRS- kriteriene er: - Feber > 38 ºC eller hypotermi < 36 ºC - Puls > 90/minutt - Respirasjonsfrekvens > 20/minutt eller hypokapni med pCO2 < 4,3 kPa i blodgass - Leukocytose ≥ 12 × 109/l eller leukopeni < 4 × 109/l eller > 10 % umodne leukocytter. (helsebiblioteket.no - Metodebok for indremedisinere, 2012).)

(Anm: Rollen til mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) ved sepsis (blodforgiftning)-indusert multiorgansvikt. (The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure). (Virulence. 2013 Nov 1;5(1).)

- Diagnostisering av sepsis. Sepsis, også kjent som blodforgiftning, er kroppens hyperaktive respons på en infeksjon som kan føre til betennelse, vevskader, organsvikt etc.

(Anm: Diagnosing Sepsis. Sepsis, also known as blood poisoning, is the body’s hyperactive response to an infection that can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, organ failure etc. It is a very dangerous state in which the immune system stops fighting with the invading agents  and turns to itself. Around one-third of patients who are affected with sepsis die every year. (news-medical.net 7.9.2017).)

- Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon.

(Anm: Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon. Recognizing Sepsis as a Global Health Priority — A WHO Resolution. “Some very important clinical issues, some of them affecting life and death, stay largely in a backwater which is inhabited by academics and professionals and enthusiasts, dealt with very well at the clinical and scientific level but not visible to the public, political leaders, leaders of healthcare systems... The public and political space is the space in which [sepsis] needs to be in order for things to change.” NEJM (June 28, 2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis – den dödliga sjukdomen som glöms bort. Trots att infektionssjukdomen sepsis förekommer oftare än de vanligaste formerna av cancer och att upp emot hälften som drabbas av den allvarligaste formen dör, så har många knappt hört talas om sjukdomen. Sepsis som är den medicinska termen på blodförgiftning, drabbar omkring 40 000 svenskar varje år. (netdoktor.se 7.6.2017).)

- Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod.

(Anm: Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod. (- Sepsis, en potensielt livstruende komplikasjon av en infeksjon, har den høyeste byrde mht. død og medisinske utgifter på sykehus over hele verden.) (- Quick test finds signs of sepsis in a single drop of blood. (…) Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, has the highest burden of death and medical expenses in hospitals worldwide. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.7.2017).)

(Anm: Nye sepsiskriterier kan føre til forsinket behandling. (…) Sepsis er en svært alvorlig tilstand med høy morbiditet og mortalitet (2). Den totale insidensen er ukjent, men man regner med at sepsis er en av de viktigste årsakene til alvorlig, akutt sykdom på verdensbasis (1). (…) Sepsis har inntil nylig vært definert som mistenkt infeksjon med samtidig tilstedeværelse av to eller flere SIRS-kriterier (1). Endringer i hjertefrekvens, kroppstemperatur, respirasjonsfrekvens og leukocytter er kroppens tegn på inflammasjon, og de indikerer ikke nødvendigvis en livstruende, dysregulert vertsrespons på infeksjon. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2017; :609-10 (20.4.2017).)

(Anm: LEGENE FORSTO IKKE AT HAN VAR DØDSSYK: Stian (19) døde etter 18 timer på sykehus uten legetilsyn. (…) Helsetilsynet konkluderer med at sykehusets behandling var uforsvarlig. (…) Fikk ikke beskjed. (…) Fastlegen sendte med dem papirer som foreldrene leverte på Akuttmottaket ved Ahus, der sto det; «Diagnose: Obs sepsis».  (tv2.no 29.4.2017).)

(Anm: Svikt i behandlingen av akutt syk ung mann i akuttmottaket – brudd på helselovgivningen. (…) Pasienten ble lagt på observasjonsposten (Akutt 24) ved akuttmottaket frem til neste morgen. I løpet av tiden på observasjonsposten ble han ikke tilsett av lege. På morgenen var han betydelig verre og han fikk tegn på fullt utviklet blodforgiftning. Behandling med antibiotika ble iverksatt, men han døde kort tid etter som følge av meningokokksepsis og hjerneødem. (helsetilsynet.no 2.5.2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis; grunnleggende kliniske observasjoner. Sepsis= En systemisk inflammatorisk respons (SIRS) pga. en infeksjon Tre alvorlighetsgrader: 1) Sepsis (to eller flere symptomer på SIRS som følge av infeksjon) 2) Alvorlig sepsis (sepsis med akutt organdysfunksjon, hypoperfusjon eller hypotensjon) 3) Septisk sjokk (hypotensjon til tross for adekvat væsketerapi, samt forekomst av perfusjonsforstyrrelser og organdysfunksjon) (hnt.no 5.11.2013).)

- Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting (sepsis) blir undersøkt av lege for seint.

(Anm: Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting blir undersøkt av lege for seint. Helsetilsynet fann brot ved 24 akuttmottak over heile landet. – Svært alvorleg. – Dette er svært alvorleg, for det dreier seg om ein alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som i verste fall kan medføra død dersom behandlinga ikkje blir igangsett til riktig tid, seier avdelingsdirektør i Helsetilsynet, Ragnar Hermstad. OVER EIN TIME: Pasientar som kjem inn med teikn på alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som blodforgifting skal ifølge nasjonale retningslinjer få anitibiotikabehandling innan maks ein time. Alle dei 24 akuttmottaka hadde svikt på dette området. (nrk.no 16.6.2017).)

(Anm: Lege sier improvisert «kur» for sepsis har hatt bemerkelsesverdige resultater. (…) Spesialist i intensivbehandling Paul Marik sier at enkel behandling med infusjon av vitamin C og steroider har bemerkelsesverdig effekt på pasienter med potensielt dødelig tilstand. (independent.co.uk 24.3.2017).)

(Anm: Bivirkninger underrapporteres i videnskabelige tidsskrifter. (...) Mellem 43 og 100 procent af de bivirkninger, der, ifølge det ikke-publicerede materiale, er fundet ved de testede lægemidler, er ikke lagt frem i de videnskabelige artikler, viser Yoon Loke og kollegernes gennemgang. (videnskab.dk 5.10.2016).)

(Anm: Dødsfall på grunn av nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning) etter behandling med legemiddelet klozapin – uforsvarlig oppfølging – mangelfull samhandling og informasjon. (…)  Manglende informasjon fra spesialisthelsetjenesten og mangelfull samhandling mellom kommunehelsetjenesten, fastlegen, pasienten og pårørende bidro til hendelsen. Helseforetaket skal gjennomgå hendelsen for å redusere risikoen ved lignende tilfeller. (helsetilsynet.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter. De ønsker psykologhjelp. I stedet blir de fôret med piller fra fastlegen. Unge jenter har aldri brukt mer antidepressiver. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Flere barn og unge akuttinnlegges for psykisk sykdom. I fjor utgjorde andelen øyeblikkelig hjelp innleggelser 61 prosent av alle innleggelser. Det er en økning fra 47 prosent i 2012. (dagensmedisin.no 19.9.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter: Lykkepillegenerasjonen. «Lykkepillen» gjorde Sandra så dårlig at hun ble innlagt på psykiatrisk avdeling. På ti år har bruken av antidepressiver blant unge jenter økt med 83 prosent. Mange får pillene uten en gang å ha snakket med psykolog.  (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Helseminister Bent Høie reagerer på «lykkepille»-praksis: – Veldig urovekkende. ** Kraftig økning i antidepressiva til unge jenter. Helseminister Bent Høie reagerer på den sterke økningen i lykkepillebruk blant unge jenter. Han mener manglende ressurser og fastlegers holdninger er årsaker. Lørdag dokumenterte VG Helg og VG+ konsekvensene av den økende lykkepille-bruken blant unge jenter. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: LO advarer mot trygdebombe. En stadig større del av nordmenn i arbeidsfør alder er uten jobb. LO mener dette er en potensiell trygdebombe. (…) Det trengs 180.000 nye jobber for å få yrkesdeltakelsen opp på samme nivå som i 2008, viser en rapport fra samfunnsøkonomene i LO. I 2008 var 70 prosent av befolkningen mellom 15 og 74 år i jobb. Nå er yrkesdeltakelsen nede i 67,3 prosent., og det er nedgang i alle fylker. (hegnar.no 6.10.2016).)

(Anm: Rekordmange søger akut psykisk hjælp. (- Mens kun 12.099 danskere i 1995 besøgte de psykiatriske akutmodtagelser og skadestuer, er det steget til hele 33.333 i 2015, viser opgørelse fra Sundhedsdatastyrelsen og Danske Regioner, der for kort tid siden blev sendt til Folketinget. (politiken.dk 9.7.2016).)

(Anm: Har vi blitt psykisk sykere? (- Vi vet også at stadig flere får uførepensjon på grunn av psykiske lidelser og at sykefraværet på grunn av psykiske plager og lidelser har økt. Vi tror alle disse forholdene bidrar til vår oppfatning om at stadig flere får en psykisk lidelse eller plage.) (Folkehelseinstituttet fhi.no 10.10.2013).)

(Anm: Høyt fravær på grunn av ME. Minst 270 elever var borte fra skolen i fjor fordi de hadde ME. (aftenposten.no 6.2.2017).)

(Anm: Psykisk ohälsa fortsätter att öka. Antalet svenskar som sjukskrivs på grund av psykisk ohälsa ökar kontinuerligt sedan 2010. Den vanligaste diagnosen är stressrelaterad psykisk ohälsa som till mångt och mycket är arbetsrelaterad. Då evidensbaserad behandling saknas står förebyggande arbete i fokus. (netdoktor.se 14.9.2016).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske skadestuer kan ikke klare presset. Psykiske lidelser hører til nogle af de største sygdomsbyrder, som hvert år koster samfundet et svimlende milliardbeløb i tabt arbejdsfortjeneste og sociale ydelser. (politiken.dk 11.7.2016).)

(Anm: - 9 ting som skjer i hjernen og kroppen på MDMA (Ecstasy). (- 9 Things That Happen in the Brain and Body on MDMA.) (- Derfor, når substansen avsluttes, sitter mennesker igjen med mindre serotonin enn vanlig, noe som kan føre til følelser av depresjon, irritabilitet og tretthet.) (- Siden MDMA frigir så mye serotonin, ødelegger kroppen deretter mer serotonin enn vanlig, ifølge AsapSCIENCE.) (thescienceexplorer.com 24.6.2016).)

Public 'misled' by drug trial claims (Publikum "villedet" av påstander i legemiddelforsøk)
By Michelle Roberts Health reporter, BBC News
bbc.co.uk 13.10.2 010
Drugs need to undergo extensive testing in trials before approval

Doctors and patients are being misled about the effectiveness of some drugs because negative trial results are not published, experts have warned.
Writing in the British Medical Journal, they say that pharmaceutical companies should be forced to publish all data, not just positive findings. (...)

(Anm: Reboxetine for acute treatment of major depression: systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor controlled trials. BMJ 2010; 341:c4737 (12 October).)

(Anm: reboxetine (Edronax) (felleskatalogen.no).)

(Anm: Editorials. Safety, trust, and money are uncomfortable bedfellows. BMJ 2015;351:h5750 (Published 03 November 2015).)

(Anm: Reboxetine has no antidepressant effect at all. BMJ 2015; 351  (Published 03 November 2015) BMJ 2015;351:h5842.)

Reboxetine for acute treatment of major depression: systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor controlled trials.
BMJ 2010; 341:c4737 (12 October)
Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of reboxetine versus placebo or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the acute treatment of depression, and to measure the impact of potential publication bias in trials of reboxetine.

Design Systematic review and meta-analysis including unpublished data. (...)

Conclusions Reboxetine is, overall, an ineffective and potentially harmful antidepressant. Published evidence is affected by publication bias, underlining the urgent need for mandatory publication of trial data. (...)

Table 4 Examples of publication bias and industry sponsorship bias in trials of antidepressants

In addition to publication bias, outcome reporting bias has been identified as a major problem in the reporting of clinical trials, resulting in a distorted public record of an intervention.35 36 37 38 Our review also identified this type of bias—for three reboxetine trials, only results on subpopulations or selected outcomes were available in the published literature (trials 047, 050, 052; table 1).

The more positive benefit-risk ratio in published data compared with unpublished data also affects the content of clinical guidelines. For example, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline on the treatment and management of depression in adults is based on published studies of reboxetine, and concludes that “Reboxetine is superior to placebo and as effective as other antidepressants in the treatment of depression.”10 In our opinion, this conclusion can no longer be upheld.

The ongoing problem of publication bias shows that unbiased decision making in health care requires mandatory public disclosure of all clinical trial data. The US FDA Amendments Act of 200739 solves the problem in part by requiring protocol information and study results for clinical trials to be made public on the clinicaltrials.gov website (www.clinicaltrials.gov; please see accompanying comment (doi:10.1136/bmj.c4942) for further details). Similar legislation is also being introduced in Europe, with the mandatory public disclosure of data from the clinical trials database EudraCT (eudract.ema.europa.eu),40 41 but the date of implementation is not yet clear.

As the full assessment reports on reboxetine prepared by regulatory authorities are not publicly available, it is not clear as to how the comprehensive body of evidence (including that on efficacy outcomes) generated after reboxetine was approved in Europe in the late 1990s has been analysed by these authorities. The reason for the difference in approval status of reboxetine between Europe and the US thus remains unclear.(...)

Tvivl om antidepressiv medicin
videnskab.dk 21.9.2009
En kritisk artikel i det højt ansete, videnskabelige tidsskrift The New England Journal of Medicine har sat spørgsmålstegn ved effekten af 'lykkepiller'. (...)

Kun positive resultater publiceret
Faktisk var der nøjagtig lige mange undersøgelser med positive resultater (36), som med direkte negative resultater (24) samt tvivlsomme resultater (12), der hverken var klart positive eller negative med hensyn til en tydelig virkning af den antidepressive medicin. (...)

More Questions About Paxil Side Effects (Flere spørsmål om Seroxats (Paxils) sideeffekter)
lawyersandsettlements.com 29.5.2010
Chicago, IL: En ny artikkel i ScienceNews reiser spørsmål om risiko for Seroxats (Paxils) sideeffekter og fødselsdefekter hos barn eksponert for antidepressiva før fødselen. Artikkelen referer til studier som antyder udefinerbare forandringer i hjernene til babyer eksponert for antidepressiva av typen selektive serotoninreopptakshemmere (SSRIer). Seroxat (Paxil) er et av legemidlene i SSRI-klassen. (Chicago, IL: A new article in ScienceNews raises questions about the risk of Paxil side effects and Paxil birth defects in children exposed to the antidepressant prior to birth. The article cites studies that suggest subtle changes in the brains of babies exposed to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. Paxil is one of the drugs in the SSRI class.)

According to the author of the ScienceNews (06/05/10) article, Susan Gaidos, studies conducted in the past few years indicate that mice and rats exposed to antidepressants either just before or just after birth grew up anxious and depressed. A more recent study, according to Gaidos, suggests that children exposed to antidepressants while in the womb are more likely to appear sad or withdrawn at three years old than those not exposed to antidepressants.

Serotonin is produced naturally in the brain and is released into the spaces between the person's neurons. The neuron that releases the serotonin then takes it back almost immediately. This is called reuptake. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors work by preventing serotonin's reuptake. The longer serotonin remains in the space between neurons (known as the synapse), the better the person feels. People who are depressed may feel less so because the serotonin remains in the synapse for longer. (...)

Psykiater dømt til drøyt 8 års fengsel for svindel bl.a. i Seroxat-forsøk

Maria Carmen Palazzo: Debarment Order (Maria Carmen Palazzo: Kjennelse om utelukkelse)
federalregister.gov 28.3.2011
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing an order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Maria Carmen Palazzo, M.D. from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application. We base this order on a finding that Dr. Palazzo was convicted of felonies under Federal law for conduct relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any drug product or otherwise relating to the regulation of any drug product under the FD&C Act. Dr. Palazzo was given notice of the proposed permanent debarment and an opportunity to request a hearing within the timeframe prescribed by regulation. (...)

FDA's finding that debarment is appropriate is based on the felony convictions referenced herein for conduct relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any drug product and otherwise relating to the regulation of any drug product under the FD&C Act. The factual basis for those convictions is as follows: Dr. Palazzo was a licensed medical doctor with offices located in New Orleans, Louisiana. SmithKline Beecham, Corporation, d.b.a. GlaxoSmithKline (SKB) was a pharmaceutical company engaged in developing, testing, and marketing pharmaceutical products including Paroxetine, also known as “Paxil.” Under the FD&C Act and its implementing regulations, SKB had to apply to FDA for approval to market Paxil. SKB was required to demonstrate, through clinical investigations in which Paxil was given to human subjects, the safety and effectiveness of the drug in order to receive approval from FDA. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

Paxil Researcher Pleads Guilty to Charges (Seroxat-forsker erklærer seg skyldig i anklager)
lawyersandsettlements.com 2.9.2010
Washington, DC: GlaxoSmithKline er gjenstand for mer dårlig publisitet etter at en forsker angivelig har forfalsket data i forsøk på Seroxat (Paxil). Samtidig er legemiddelfirmaet saksøkt grunnet påstander om at nyfødte er påført fødselsskader grunnet eksponering for Seroxat (Paxil) i svangerskapet. (Washington, DC: GlaxoSmithKline is the subject of more bad publicity after a researcher was allegedly found to have falsified data in trials about Paxil. Meanwhile, the drug maker faces lawsuits alleging newborns suffered Paxil Birth defects when they were exposed to Paxil prior to birth.)

The psychiatrist who reportedly falsified clinical data, Dr. Maria Carmen Palazzo, was a clinical investigator on studies conducted by SmithKline Beecham (doing business as GlaxoSmithKline). According to CNBC on 8/20/10, Palazzo has now pleaded guilty to 15 counts of failing to prepare and maintain records with the intent to defraud and mislead.

Palazzo reportedly included children in a study that involved diagnoses the children did not have. Prosecutors claimed that Palazzo also reported symptoms that her study subjects did not exhibit. She was sentenced to 13 months in prison, which she is serving at the same time as an 87-month term for healthcare fraud.

Ifølge BNET (08/19/10) ble Palazzo anklaget av den amerikanske legemiddelkontrollen FDA (Federal Drug Administration) for hennes innrullering av barn i studier med tvangslidelser (OCD) og tyngre depressive lidelser til tross for at barna hun undersøkte ikke hadde en egnet diagnose for inkludering i studien. (According to BNET (08/19/10), Palazzo was charged after the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) accused her of enrolling children in studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder even though the children she studied did not have the proper diagnosis for inclusion in the study.)

Paxil now carries a black box warning about the risk of suicide in children. It also carries a warning about the risk of birth defects in babies exposed to the antidepressant prior to birth. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

Jailed psychiatrist pleads guilty (Fengslet psykiater erkjenner seg straffeskyldig)
cnbc.com 20.8.2010
NEW ORLEANS – En 58 år gammel psykiater involvert i to kliniske forsøk som evaluerte legemidlet Seroxats (Paxils) sikkerhet og effekt hos barn og ungdommer har i forbindelse med disse kliniske forsøk erkjent seg straffeskyldig på 15 statlige tiltalepunkter for manglende utarbeidelse og oppfølging av protokoller, med den hensikt å bedra og villede. (NEW ORLEANS - A 58-year-old psychiatrist involved in two clinical trials evaluating the drug Paxil's safety and effectiveness in children and adolescents has pleaded guilty to 15 federal counts of failing to prepare and maintain records, with intent to defraud and mislead, in connection with those clinical trials.)

Dr. Maria Carmen Palazzo var klinisk forsker hos SmithKline Beecham som utførte arbeider under GlaxoSmithKline. Aktorene sa at hun i løpet av disse studier inkluderte psykiatriske diagnose uten overensstemmelse med pasienters psykiatriske historier; utarbeidet atskillige psykiatriske evalueringer på studiedeltakere som inneholdt forskjellige diagnoser og rapporterte symptomer hun visste studiedeltakerne ikke hadde. (Dr. Maria Carmen Palazzo was a clinical investigator for SmithKline Beecham doing business as GlaxoSmithKline. Prosecutors say that during those studies she included psychiatric diagnoses inconsistent with patients' psychiatric histories; prepared multiple psychiatric evaluations on study patients which contained different diagnoses and reported symptoms she knew the study subject did not demonstrate.)

Hennes tilståelse kom torsdag for den amerikanske distriktsdommeren Mary Ann Vial Lemmon, som dømte henne til 13 måneders fengsel. Denne tiden løper samtidig som hun soner en fengselsdom på 87-måneders for svindel innen helsevesenet. (...) (She entered the plea Thursday before U.S. District Judge Mary Ann Vial Lemmon, who sentenced her to 13 months in prison. That term will run at the same time as her current 87-month prison term for health care fraud.)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

(Anm: Uredelighet og fusk (juks/forskningsjuks) i medisinsk forskning. (mintankesmie.no).)

JAILED PSYCHIATRIST PLEADS GUILTY AND IS SENTENCED ON CHARGES OF FALSIFIED RECORDS OF CLINICAL TRIALS INVOLVING CHILDREN (FENGSLET PSYKIATER ERKLÆRER SEG SKYLDIG OG ER DØMT FOR ANKLAGER OM FORFALSKNING AV JOURNALER FOR KLINISKE FORSØK SOM INVOLVERER BARN)
justice.gov 19.8.2010
DR. MARIA CARMEN PALAZZO, age 58, pled guilty in federal court today before U. S. District Judge Mary Ann Vial Lemmon to fifteen (15) counts of failing to prepare and maintain records, with intent to defraud and mislead, in connection with clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Paxil in children and adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), announced U. S. Attorney Jim Letten.

According to court documents, PALAZZO, who specialized in psychiatry, was a clinical investigator for SmithKline Beecham d/b/a GlaxoSmithKline, was involved in two clinical trials evaluating Paxil’s safety and effectiveness in children and adolescents. Some of the study records indicated that PALAZZO included psychiatric diagnoses inconsistent with patients’ psychiatric histories; prepared multiple psychiatric evaluations on study patients which contained different diagnoses and treatment plans; reported symptoms of OCD when PALAZZO knew that the study subject did not demonstrate such symptoms; and reported that PALAZZO examined study subjects when she had not.

PALAZZO is currently serving an 87 month prison sentence after being convicted of 39 counts of health care fraud following a 12-day trial in April 2008. In the instant case, PALAZZO was sentenced to thirteen (13) months in prison to run concurrent to the previous sentence as well as serve one (1) year of supervised release during which time she will be under federal supervision and risk additional imprisonment should she violate any rulesof the release. Additionally, PALAZZO was ordered to pay restitution to GlaxoSmithKline in the amount of $91,824 and $1,500 in special assessments.

The case was investigated by the Food and Drug Administration’s Office of Criminal Investigations, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Louisiana Medicaid Fraud Control Unit.

The case was prosecuted by Assistant U. S. Attorney Patrice Harris Sullivan, the Health Care Fraud Coordinator in this District.

(Download Factual Basis) (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

10 Years Later, Glaxo Still Haunted by Faked Studies of Paxil in Kids (Glaxo 10 år senere fortsatt hjemsøkt av forfalskede studier på Seroxat hos barn)
bnet.com 19.8.2010
A crooked doctor who faked data in a GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) study of the antidepressant Paxil in children pled guilty to criminal charges today, causing groans among GSK’s senior management as the company hopes to fend off a different criminal investigation into whether it manipulated clinical data on its diabetes drug, Avandia. She was sentenced to 13 months in prison. (...) (A crooked doctor who faked data in a GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) study of the antidepressant Paxil in children pled guilty to criminal charges today, causing groans among GSK’s senior management as the company hopes to fend off a different criminal investigation into whether it manipulated clinical data on its diabetes drug, Avandia. She was sentenced to 13 months in prison.)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

Psychiatrist indicted for fraud in Paxil trials (Psykiater anklaget for svindel i Seroxat-forsøk)
dailycomet.com 14.6.2007
NEW ORLEANS Dr. Maria Carmen Palazzo was indicted by a federal grand jury on 55 counts of health care fraud and false documentation in connection with a clinical trial of Paxil in children and adolescents, U.S. Attorney Jim Letten said on Thursday. (...)

According to the indictment, Palazzo, as a clinical investigator for SmithKline Beecham doing business as GlaxoSmithKline, fraudulently failed to maintain and prepare records required by the FDA for evaluation the drug's safety and effectiveness in children and adolescents.

If convicted, Palazzo faces a maximum term of 445 years, and a fine of $10.15 million, Letten's office said. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

- Utviklingen av et potensielt livstruende serotonergt syndrom eller nevroleptisk malignt syndrom (NMS)-lignende reaksjoner er rapportert for SNRI-er og SSRI-er alene, inkludert Celexa-behandling, men spesielt ved samtidig bruk av serotonerge legemidler (inklusive triptaner) og legemidler som svekker metabolisme av serotonin (inklusive MAO-hemmere), eller med antipsykotika eller andre dopaminantagonister

January 2009 Safety Labeling Changes (Januar 2009 sikkerhetsendringer pakningsvedlegg (Seroxat (Paxil), Celexa, Cipramil, Zoloft, Cybalta, Efexor, Prozac, Venlafaxine, Pristiq etc.)
fda.gov 6.3.2009
- Oppsummering av sikkerhetsrelaterte revisjoner for seksjonene "BOXED"-ADVARSEL, KONTRAINDIKASJONER, ADVARSLER, FORHOLDSREGLER OG BIVIRKNINGER som informasjon for legemiddelforskrivning, samt innleggsseddel/(pakningsvedlegg og reningslinjer for legemidler. (Lagt ut 3.6.2009) (…) (- Summary of safety-related revisions to the BOXED WARNING, CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS sections of drug Prescribing Information, plus Patient Package Inserts and Medication Guides. (Posted 03/06/2009) )

WARNINGS (ADVARSLER)
Serotonergt (serotonin) syndrom eller nevroleptisk malignt syndrom (NMS)-lignende reaksjoner (Serotonin Syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)-like Reactions)

WARNINGS(ADVARSLER)
Utviklingen av et potensielt livstruende serotonergt syndrom eller nevroleptisk malignt syndrom (NMS) -lignende reaksjoner er rapportert for SNRI-er og SSRI-er alene, inkludert Celexa-behandling, men spesielt ved samtidig bruk av serotonerge legemidler (inklusive triptaner) og legemidler som svekker metabolisme av serotonin (inklusive MAO-hemmere), eller med antipsykotika eller andre dopaminantagonister (The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)-like reactions have been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs alone, including Celexa treatment, but particularly with concomitant use of serotonergic drugs (including triptans) with drugs which impair metabolism of serotonin (including MAOIs), or with antipsychotics or other dopamine antagonists.) (...)

(Anm: Serotonin syndrom (SS), kramper, parkinsonisme osv. (forhøyet kroppstemperatur) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Serotonin and dopamine transporter PET changes in the premotor phase of LRRK2 parkinsonism: cross-sectional studies. INTERPRETATION: Dopaminergic and serotonergic changes progress in a similar fashion in LRRK2 mutation carriers with manifest Parkinson's disease and individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease, but LRRK2 mutation carriers without manifest Parkinson's disease show increased serotonin transporter binding in the striatum, brainstem, and hypothalamus, possibly reflecting compensatory changes in serotonergic innervation preceding the motor onset of Parkinson's disease. Increased serotonergic innervation might contribute to clinical differences in LRRK2 Parkinson's disease, including the emergence of non-motor symptoms and, potentially, differences in the long-term response to levodopa. Lancet Neurol. 2017 Mar 20. pii: S1474-4422(17)30056-X.)

(Anm: Venlafaxine-Induced Cytotoxicity Towards Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Involves Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial/Lysosomal Dysfunction. Purpose: Depression is a public disorder worldwide. Despite the widespread use of venlafaxine in the treatment of depression, it has been associated with the incidence of toxicities. Hence, the goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms of venlafaxine-induced cell death in the model of the freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. (…) Conclusion: Therefore, our data indicate that venlafaxine induces oxidative stress towards hepatocytes and our findings provide evidence to propose that mitochondria and lysosomes are of the primary targets in venlafaxine-mediated cell damage. Adv Pharm Bull. 2016 Dec;6(4):521-530.)

(Anm: Akutt toksisitet for 8 antidepressiva: hva er deres virkningsmekanismer? (Acute toxicity of 8 antidepressants: what are their modes of action? Currently, the hazard posed by pharmaceutical residues is a major concern of ecotoxicology. Most of the antidepressants belong to a family named the Cationic Amphipathic Drugs known to have specific interactions with cell membranes. The present study assessed the impact of eight antidepressants belonging to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.) Chemosphere. 2014 Aug;108:314-9. Epub 2014 Feb 14. (PDF).)

(Anm: Cytotoxic immune cell in sick and healthy skin a key to understanding vitiligo. With the aid of thousands of skin biopsies and over a hundred kilograms of skin, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have observed how two subgroups of immune cell behave in healthy skin. This functional dichotomy is preserved in the inflammatory diseases psoriasis and vitiligo. The study, which is published in the journal Immunity, opens the way for more targeted local treatments for patchy inflammatory skin disorders. (medicalnewstoday.com 22.2.2017).)

(Anm: Vitenskapens psykedelika-pushere. Stadig mer penger blir gitt til forskning på LSD, ecstasy og fleinsopp. (…) Forskningen har derfor flyttet bort fra dansegulvet og inn i laboratorier og terapirom. Nye forskningsgrupper etableres, sist ved Yale University, og i Norge har det det siste året dukket opp to studentforeninger i regi av interesseorganisasjonen Emmasofia, på Universitetet i Oslo og ved NTNU. (forskning.no 6.4.2016).)

(Anm: Chronic SSRI stimulation of astrocytic 5-HT2B receptors change multiple gene expressions/editings and metabolism of glutamate, glucose and glycogen: a potential paradigm shift. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 2015 (20 February 2015).)

(Anm: Gene mutation linked to reckless drunken behaviour. (…) Led by researcher and psychiatrist Roope Tikkanen, PhD, a new study has now demonstrated that a point mutation in a gene of serotonin 2B receptor can render the carrier prone to impulsive behaviour, particularly when drunk. Published in the journal Translational Psychiatry (Tikkanen et al., 2015), the discovery follows an original observation from 2010 on the mutation of serotonin 2B receptor among Finns (Bevilacqua et al., 2010). (medicalnewstoday.com 17.11.2015).)

(Anm: Har funnet sjelden genmutasjon hos finner. Ekstra disponert for vold og impulsiv sex. Vil spre seg med tiden. GENMUTASJON: Genmutasjonen er knyttet til signalsubstansen serotonin, og resultatet av forandringen kan ifølge artikkelforfatter Roope Tikkanen beskrives som en ekstra følsomhet for, og et karakteristisk adferdsmønster i forbindelse med inntak av, alkohol. Genforandringen finnes i omlag 2,2 prosent av den finske befolkningen. (…) «Impulsiv seksuell adferd». Genmutasjonen er knyttet til signalsubstansen serotonin, og resultatet av forandringen kan ifølge Tikkanen beskrives som en ekstra følsomhet for, og et karakteristisk adferdsmønster i forbindelse med inntak av, alkohol. (dagbladet.no 20.11.2015).)

(Anm: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and delirious mania as malignant catatonia in autism: prompt relief with electroconvulsive therapy.Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015 Oct;132(4):319-320. Epub 2015 May 28.).)

- Antidepressiva kan øke kvinners risiko for hjerneslag

Antidepressants May Raise Women's Stroke Risk (Antidepressiva kan øke kvinners risiko for hjerneslag)
minorityhealth.hhs.gov 14.12.2009
(…) It found that women on selective serotonin uptake inhibitors (SSRIs, which include Celexa, Paxil, Prozac and Zoloft) had a 45 percent increase in risk for stroke and a 32 percent increase in risk for death from any cause, compared to non-users. Similar results were found for women on tricyclic antidepressants. (…)

(Anm: Bare én av ti nordmenn som rammes av hjerneslag får behandling i tide (tv2.no 16.2.2014).)

(Anm: – Får du hjerneslag har du dårlig tid. Dersom du rammes av hjerneslag risikerer du å miste to millioner hjerneceller hvert minutt. Får du ikke behandling innen 4,5 timer, er risikoen for invaliditet og uførhet stor. (…) Slagambulanse med CT. (nrk.no 8.2.2016).)

(Anm: Ja til ny akuttmetode: Flere slagpasienter kan få tilbud om å «fiske ut» blodpropp av hjernen. To år etter mange andre land gis det nå klarsignal til å videreføre ny og effektiv behandlingsmetode for slagpasienter. I fjor fikk bare 150 pasienter inngrepet - som opptil tusen kan ha nytte av hvert år. (aftenposten.no 2.5.2017).)

(Anm: - Plutselig oppstått dobbeltsyn (- Visuelle komplikasjoner er vanlig etter hjerneslag) Sudden onset double vision BMJ 2014;348:g3286 (19 May 2014).)

(Anm: En av tre blev dement efter återkommande stroke. (…) Den nya analysen, som publiceras i dag, torsdag, på tidskriften Lancet Neurologys hemsida, baseras på 22 sjukhusstudier och åtta populationsstudier. Undersökningarna är utförda mellan 1950 och 2009. (dagensmedicin.se 24.9.2009).)

Antidepressant Use and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Among Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative Study
Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(22):2128-2139 (Dec 14/28)
(...) Background Antidepressants are commonly prescribed medications, but their effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains unclear. (...)

Conclusions In postmenopausal women, there were no significant differences between SSRI and TCA use in risk of CHD, stroke, or mortality. Antidepressants were not associated with risk of CHD. Tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs may be associated with increased risk of mortality, and SSRIs with increased risk of hemorrhagic and fatal stroke, although absolute event risks are low. These findings must be weighed against quality of life and established risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with untreated depression. (...)

Immune cells cause more post-stroke brain damage: study (Immunceller forårsaker ytterligere hjerneskade etter slag, ifølge studie)
reuters.com 2.8.2009
HONG KONG (Reuters) - Scientists have identified a class of immune cells that floods the brain soon after a stroke, causing inflammation and more neurological damage.

In an experiment, Japanese researchers showed how mice that were deficient in these immune cells suffered far less brain damage after a stroke compared to normal mice.

The lead author of the study, Akihiko Yoshimura at Keio University's School of Medicine in Tokyo, explained that while the initial damage from a stroke cannot be prevented, drugs can be used to limit secondary damage caused by immune cells that rush to the site of the infarction, or stroke.

"The first damage happens immediately after a stroke, we can't block this because it is very rapid," Yoshimura said. (...)

Stroke May Trigger Memory Trouble
healthfinder.gov 10.4.2006
Decline can happen in the absence of other cognitive problems, such as dementia, researchers note

-- Stroke may harm memory without necessarily causing dementia or other cognitive impairment, researchers report.

Columbia University researchers in New York performed an initial assessment of nearly 1,300 people, averaging just over 76 years of age, with no cognitive impairment or dementia. The evaluations were done between January 1992 and December 1994, and the study volunteers were then re-examined at 18-month intervals until November 1999. (...)

- SSRI-utløst ITP (idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura)

Alternativer til Seroxat?
lommelegen.no 20.8.2000
Jeg er en kvinne på 36. Jeg har brukt Seroxat mot angst i ca.3 år med utmerket effekt. For 3mnd. siden fikk jeg påvist ITP (idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura), og måtte slutte brått med Seroxat i tilfelle den var årsaken til ITP. Behandles nå med prednison. Jeg har vansker med å klare meg uten seroxat. Kan du anbefale evt. annen anti-depressiva med samme effekt? Er det mulig jeg kan fortsette med Seroxat? (...)

Seroxat er en medisin som tilhører gruppen som kalles selektive serotonin reopptakshemmere. Det finnes flere andre medisiner som virker på samme måten som Seroxat, men som ikke inneholder samme virkestoffet. Du skulle da ha alle muligheter til å få god effekt av en slik medisin. Du kan lese mer om selektive serotonin reopptakshemmere her på Lommelegen.

ITP er riktignok en veldig sjelden bivirkning av Seroxat. Men siden du har fått ITP, er det vel grunn til å være forsiktig med å bruke medisinen igjen. I hvert fall med tanke på at det finnes flere andre medisiner du kan bruke som virker på samme måten.

Jeg synes du skal oppsøke legen din og ta opp problemet.

Vennlig hilsen Farmasøyt Arne Yndestad (...)

(Anm: trombocytopeni; minka mengd blodplater i blodet; årsaker kan vera mange, noen finst under oppslag for purpura; plateunderproduksjon finst ved pancytopeni, auka platedestruksjon ved ITP, LED, etter transfusjonar, pga kjemikaliar, stråling, medikamentbruk m v, trombocytopeni kan elles koma ved konsumpsjonskoagulopati, ved ulike infeksjonar, hemolytisk uremisk syndrom, kreftspreiing, DIC m v, platene kan vera få pga hypersplenisme, TTP eller bloddilusjon; blødingsfare når trombocytt-talet er mindre enn 0,04 × 1012/l; jf oppslag på thrombocytopenia, oppslag på purpura, amegakaryocytisk trombocytopeni, neonatal alloimmun trombocytopeni; stundom brukast uttrykket trombopeni. EN thrombocytopenia. ET [trombocytt + gr penia fattigdom]. Kilde: Norsk medisinsk ordbok.)

(Anm: Primær immun trombocytopeni (ITP) Små hudblødninger eller store blåmerker som oppstår uten noen kjent skade kan skyldes redusert mengde blodplater (nhi.no).)

(Anm: What Causes Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura? In idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), the immune system treats a person's own platelets as if they were invaders in the body, attacking and destroying them. The immune system attacks platelets by making proteins called antibodies. The antibodies bind to platelets (attach) and then are removed by the spleen (an organ that is part of the immune system and helps fight infection). US Department of Health and Human Services. nhlbi.nih.gov.)

(Anm: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Scientists create serotonin-releasing neurons from human skin cells. Serotonin is an important chemical that brain cells, or neurons, use to communicate with each other. It plays a key role, for example, in helping to regulate mood, appetite, and sleep. (…) The team found that the lab-made serotonin-releasing neurons - which they dub "induced serotonergic neurons" (iSNs) - also responded to SSRIs in the same way as brain serotonin-releasing neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com 23.11.2015).)

(Anm: Subtyping Serotonergic Neurons. SEROTONERGIC neurons are brain cells that produce the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is involved in the regulation of an individual’s mood, appetite, breathing rate, and body temperature. Scientists have recently identified a number of diverse subgroups of serotonergic neurons, and have learnt that the differences between the various types may be important in dysfunction and disease. European Medical Journal 2015 (November 30, 2015).)

- Hypertensive paroxysm induced by paroxetine leading to detection of phaeochromocytoma has been reported.

Phaeochromocytoma unearthed by fluoxetine. (Feokromocytom avslørt av fluoksetin (Prozac).)
Postgrad Med J. 2000 May;76(895):303.
Abstract Non-specific noradrenaline reuptake inhibition by high dose selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, along with catecholamine release from phaeochromocytoma, may lead to a hypertensive paroxysm. This may unmask a clinically silent phaeochromocytoma. Hypertensive paroxysm induced by paroxetine leading to detection of phaeochromocytoma has been reported. The first patient in whom fluoxetine unmasked a phaeochromocytoma is reported. (…)

(Anm: Feokromocytom. Et feokromocytom er en katekolaminproduserende svulst som i 80-85% av tilfellene utgår fra binyremarg. I 15-20% av tilfellene er svulstvevet lokalisert utenfor binyrene, og kalles da paragangliomer. Eventuelle paragangliomer finnes vanligvis i bukhulen. (nhi.no 23.2.2015).)

- Kalde arkivbevis - Seroxatrelaterte fødselsdefekter

Antidepressants 'could be risk to unborn babies' (Antidepressiva kan "være risiko for ufødte babyer")
bbc.co.uk 23.6.2013
The risk posed by some popular antidepressants in early pregnancy is not worth taking for women with mild to moderate depression, an expert has warned.

Professor Stephen Pilling says evidence suggests SSRIs can double the risk of a child being born with a heart defect.

The drugs have been used by up to one in six women of child-bearing age.

A manufacturer contacted by the BBC denies any link to major foetal malformations.

Panorama has spoken to eight mothers who had babies born with serious heart defects after taking a commonly used SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) antidepressant while pregnant. Currently, prescription guidelines for doctors only warn specifically against taking the SSRI, paroxetine, in early pregnancy.

But Prof Pilling, expert adviser to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), says that advice is about to be updated.

"The available evidence suggests that there is a risk associated with the SSRIs. We make a quite a lot of effort really to discourage women from smoking or drinking even small amounts of alcohol in pregnancy, and yet we're perhaps not yet saying the same about antidepressant medication, which is going to be carrying similar - if not greater - risks," he said. (...)

Prof Pilling says the guidance will now be re-written to take in to account evidence that the SSRI antidepressants, as a group, are linked to heart defects.

He says the risk of any baby being born with a heart defect is around two in 100; but the evidence suggests if the mother took an SSRI in early pregnancy that risk increases to around four in 100. (...)

2010 a Year for Paxil Birth Defects Plaintiffs to Remember (2010 et år å huske for saksøkere av fødseldefekter forårsaket av Seroxat)
lawyersandsettlements.com 25.12.2010
Dallas, TX: Plaintiffs who filed lawsuits alleging Paxil side effects such as Paxil birth defects and PPHN (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) may look back on 2010 as a year to remember. Hundreds of Paxil lawsuits were reportedly settled and a million-dollar award handed out in at least one other lawsuit. For plaintiffs who still have Paxil lawsuits pending, 2010 might be a year that provides them with hope that they will receive either a settlement or an award. (...)

(Anm: Does SSRI Use During Pregnancy Increase the Risk for PPHN? Yes, though perhaps more modestly than previously suggested. (…) Comment This is the most comprehensive analysis to date of the relationship between SSRI use and PPHN in the U.S. Although questions remain about whether SSRI use is associated with milder versus severe PPHN, this is the first study to rigorously control for maternal depression and provides important data indicating that the overall risk for PPHN following maternal SSRI use might be more modest than previously described. NEJM 2015 (July 13, 2015).)

Hundreds of Paxil Birth Defect Cases Reported Settled (Hundrevis av fødselsdefekt-saker for Seroxat (Paxil) rapportert forliket)
1888pressrelease.com 30.6.2010
New York, NY (1888PressRelease) June 30, 2010 - An order signed on June 15, 2010 by Justice Sandra Moss, has paved the way for the settlement of of hundreds of Paxil birth defect cases pending against GlaxoSmithKline, GSK. No Paxil birth defect cases have been tried since the October 13, 2009, verdict where a jury awarded $2.5M to the family of Lyam Kilker, a child born with a congenital heart defect caused by Paxil use during pregnancy.

Approximately 600 cases have been filed against GSK, most in the Mass Tort Program in the Court of Common Pleas in Philadelphia. It has been reported by the Legal Intelligencer that Judge Moss, the coordinating judge of Philadelphia's mass tort program, the Complex Litigation Center, said the philosophy of GSK "is to try and settle what they can and to settle in groups." (...)

The most common injuries caused by Paxil are (De mest vanlige skader forårsaket av seroxat (Paxil)):

Heart Birth Defects (Pulmonary Stenosis, Pulmonary Atresia, Atrial or Ventricular Septal Defects, Murmurs, etc)
Lung Birth Defects (Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension)
Craniosynostosis (resulting in an abnormally shaped head)
Abdominal Birth Defects (Omphalocele)
Cranial Birth Defects (Craniosynostosis)

If you or someone you know had a child who was born with a congenital heart defect or other birth defect, and the child was exposed to Paxil (paroxetine) during pregnancy, they may be entitled to significant compensation. For more information go to www.DrugSettlement.com. (...)

Use of antidepressants during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion (Bruk av antidepressiva under svangerskapet og risiko for spontanabort)
CMAJ 2010; 182 (10) (July 13)
(...) Interpretation: The use of antidepressants, especially paroxetine, venlafaxine or the combined use of different classes of antidepressants, during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

Plaintiffs Hoping for More Paxil Birth Defects Settlements (Saksøker håper på flere flere forlik i saker om fødselsdefekter utløst av Seroxat (Paxil))
lawyersandsettlements.com 5.7.2010
Boston, MA: Although very little information has been released concerning the settlement of Paxil birth defects lawsuits, news reports indicate that approximately 190 cases have been settled while another 100 are in various stages of settlement.

At issue in the lawsuits is whether or not Paxil caused the birth defects of infants whose mothers took the antidepressant while pregnant. Scientific studies concerning the link between Paxil and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to birth defects have returned mixed results. Further studies have suggested a link between SSRIs and behavioral problems, withdrawal symptoms and developmental delays.

GlaxoSmithKline, however, has defended its drug and its own actions regarding Paxil. A spokeswoman for GlaxoSmithKline, Sarah Alspach, said in an e-mail statement that the company agreed to settle to avoid the costs and uncertainties of ongoing litigation

"GSK believes it acted properly and responsibly in conducting its clinical trial program for Paxil, in marketing the medicine, in monitoring its safety once it was approved for use and in updating pregnancy information in the medicine's label as new information became available," Alspach wrote, as published in the Legal Intelligencer on 6/23/10.

Plaintiffs, however, disagree. They argue that GlaxoSmithKline failed to adequately warn physicians and patients about the risks of birth defects when babies are exposed to Paxil prior to birth. They allege those birth defects include Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN) and atrial or septal defects—holes in the heart. (...)

(Anm: New study to help people withdraw from inappropriate long-term antidepressant treatment. One in 10 adults are being given antidepressants each year, but up to 50 per cent of patients could be given an alternative treatment, a University Professor suggests. (…) "We appreciate that stopping antidepressants is not easy," he said. "Withdrawal symptoms, including anxiety and low mood, are usually temporary but feel similar to the reason why patients were first put on antidepressants. (…) Professor Kendrick added: "Antidepressant prescribing rates are rising very quickly and some don't need to be prescribed at all. (medicalnewstoday.com 27.7.2016).)

Scores of Paxil Birth Defects Cases Settled (Inngår forlik i saker som omhandler Seroxat (Paxil)-relaterte fødselsdefekter)
consumeraffairs.com 24.6.2010
Terms of agreements kept confidential

The manufacturer of Paxil has agreed to settlements in nearly 200 individual cases claiming that the antidepressant caused birth defects.

Most of the cases allege that babies born to mothers taking Paxil suffered from heart defects. The leading case, brought on behalf of Lyam Kilker, contended that he was born with no fewer than three cardiac defects, including a hole between the two chambers of his heart that disrupted the aorta. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

Common antidepressants 'increase miscarriage risk' (Vanlige antidepressiva "øker risiko for abort")
telegraph.co.uk 1.6.2010
Taking common antidepressants while pregnant significantly increases the chances of suffering a miscarriage, a new study warns.

The risk rose by more than two thirds if expectant mothers were taking the drugs, researchers found.

Previous studies have also found a link between antidepressants and birth defects.(...)

Dr. Anick Berard, from the University of Montreal, who led the research, said: "These results, which suggest an overall class effect of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, are highly robust given the large number of users studied.

They found an increased risk associated with SSRIs, especially Seroxat (also called paroxetine) and Efexor (also called venlafaxine). (...)

Overall, the increased risk was 68 per cent. (...)

Antidepressants Associated With Miscarriage Researchers find antidepressant use during pregnancy may increase risk of spontaneous abortion
modernmedicine.com 1.6.2010
TUESDAY, June 1 (HealthDay News) -- Use of antidepressants during pregnancy, particularly paroxetine, venlafaxine, or a combination of different antidepressant classes, may increase the risk of miscarriage by 68 percent, according to research published online May 31 in CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

(Anm: Use of antidepressants during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion. CMAJ 2010 (Published online ahead of print May 31, 2010).)

Cold Case Files - Paxil Birth Defects (Kalde arkivbevis - Seroxatrelaterte fødselsdefekter)
by Evelyn Pringle
scoop.co.nz 2.3.2010
Almost like an episode of the TV show, Cold Case Files, the first Paxil birth defect trial was dominated by a story about what happened to the rat pups that died around 1979 and1980, involved in a study in which Paxil was being tested on pregnant female rats. (...)

The family's lead attorney in the case of Kilker v Glaxo, Sean Tracey from Houston, brought in the world-famous neuropsychopharmocology expert from Wales, Dr David Healy, to testify extensively about rat pup study 295.

In summary, Healy told the jury that all the rat pups born to mothers who received Paxil were dead four days after they were born, while eighty-eight percent of the pups not exposed to Paxil were still alive on day four.

In fact, of the 415 rat pups born to mothers who received Paxil, Healy testified that, “One in every ten or actually maybe more like possibly one in every eight or so were born dead.”

As far as he could make make out, all the rats were not autopsied, Healy said, so the question was why the pups died.

“It's clearly the drug that has caused the death,” he told the jury.

“One of the possible reasons for their death is they're born with birth defects that lead to them actually dying early in infant life,” he testified. “A responsible approach to data like this is to investigate it further and find out just what the cause is.”

Doctor Suzanne Parisian, a former FDA scientist, also served as an expert for the plaintiffs. She testified that the first safety signals that indicated Paxil could cause birth defects were seen in the animal studies conducted in 1979-1981 period, as well.

Parisian said the studies showed birth defects, embryos that died, and rat pups that did not survive.

Adam Peavy, of the Houston firm of Bailey, Perrin and Bailey, handled her testimony. While testifying, Peavy had Parisian review comments in a memo by a Doctor John Baldwin to Glaxo in 1980, discussing the Ferrosan studies, which stated: “There remains the possibility that this compound could be teratogenic at high-dose levels.”

“We need to ascertain whether Ferrosan have conducted or are conducting or intend to conduct a peri- and postnatal study and a neonatal acute toxicity study,” Baldwin wrote.

Based on her review the documents, Parisian told the jury, Glaxo never ascertained whether Ferrosan did the studies and Glaxo never conducted the studies.

As far as she knew, the company never told the FDA about Baldwin's statements either, she said, but “they should have.” (...)

Spontanaborter er nå listet blandt Seroxats sideeffekter

Miscarriage Now Listed Among Paxil Side Effects (Spontanaborter er nå listet blandt Seroxats (Paxils) sideeffekter)
lawyersandsettlements.com 6.6.2010
Montreal, Quebec: While the risks involved in the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants among pregnant women have been well documented, a new study is adding miscarriage to the list of potential Paxil side effects.

The study, performed by researchers at the Universite de Montreal, followed a number of expectant mothers who had been prescribed antidepressants throughout their pregnancy. The researchers found that the usage of SSRIs, in particular paroxetine (Paxil) and venlafaxine (Effexor), led to a 68 percent increase in the risk of miscarriage.

The general risk of miscarriage for women is only 20 percent, but according to the study's head researcher, Dr. Anick Berard, the medications can push the risk up to 34 percent. (...)

Storbritannia krever alle SSRI-data

U.K. demands all SSRI data (Storbritannia krever alle SSRI-data)
FIERCEPHARMA.COM 3.3.2008
NICE, you'll recall, is reviewing its guidelines for the use of SSRI drugs, aiming to issue new treatment advice this fall. Failing to hand over that data "would leave the inevitable impression they had something to hide," the minister said. In the past, another official said, the government has been unable to get access to unpublished trials.

The request comes on the heels of last week's study showing that SSRIs were effective only in the most severely depressed patients. Despite the U.K.'s official position that drugs shouldn't be the first line of defense against depression, they're among Britain's most prescribed meds with more than 31 million scrips in 2006. (...)

Drug firms pressed on secret pill data (Legemiddelfirmaer presset på hemmelige pilledata)
guardian.co.uk 2.3.2008
The big pharmaceutical companies are to be 'shamed' into handing over their secret data on the effects of antidepressant medications, amid growing concern that the 'sunshine pills' may not work as well as originally promised.

A government minister has taken the unprecedented step of calling on the drugs companies to give the data to the body that will review the current depression guidelines, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (Nice). Ivan Lewis, the minister with responsibility for mental health, said that 'a failure to do so would leave the inevitable impression they had something to hide'. (...)

Backed by the government, Nice is now set publicly to ask for all the data, which would leave the companies facing huge criticism if they did not hand it over. The toughening stance towards the companies follows the publication last week of a major review that examined all available data on the drugs, including trials that had not been published. (...)

Innrapporterte legemiddelreaksjoner tredoblet i USA

U.S. Reports of Drug Reactions Triple (Innrapporterte legemiddelreaksjoner tredoblet i USA)
ap.google.com 11.9.2007
CHICAGO (AP) — Rapporter om alvorlige sideeffekter og dødsfall grunnet legemidler ble ifølge en analyse av amerikanske data nesten tredoblet i perioden 1998 til 2005. (CHICAGO (AP) — Reports of dangerous side effects and deaths from widely used medicines almost tripled between 1998 and 2005, an analysis of U.S. drug data found.)

Antallet innrapporterte dødsfall og alvorlige skader grunnet reseptbelagte legemidler og ikke-reseptbelagte legemidler til Food and Drug Administration i studieperioden økte fra 34 966 til 89 842. (...) (The number of deaths and serious injuries from prescription and over-the-counter drugs climbed from 34,966 to 89,842 during the study of reports to the Food and Drug Administration.)

Legemidler hyppigst linket til alvorlige ikke-dødelige komplikasjoner, inkludert insulin, er artritislegemidlene Vioxx og Remicade, og antidepressivaet Seroxat (Paxil). (Drugs frequently linked with serious nonfatal complications included insulin, the arthritis drugs Vioxx and Remicade, and the antidepressant Paxil.)

(Anm: Serious Adverse Drug Events Reported to the Food and Drug Administration, 1998-2005. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(16):1752-1759. (10.9.2007).)

- Här får du ett medel och dina personlighetsdrag kommer att förändras

Medicin ändrar personligheten
sr.se 8.12.2009
En typ av antidepressiva medel, så kallade SSRI preparat, ger en personlighetsförändring. Det handlar om minskad ängslighet. Det visar en mindre amerikansk studie på totalt 240 personer. (...)

Elias Eriksson som är professor i farmakologi vid i Göteborg. Han menar att problemet är att SSRI preparat först lanserades som antidepressiva läkemedel, även om de inte har störst effekt där. De ska absolut inte ska användas för personer som är ledsna:

– Om man är ledsen av yttre orsaker bör man inte äta sådant här. Det tror jag är ett av de vanligaste felen till överförskrivning, det är att man skriver ut det här till personer som varken har någon depressions sjukdom eller något ångesttillstånd utan som har en nedstämdhet orsakad av yttre omständigheter. Då ska man inte förskriva de här medlen. Däremot vid depression eller ångettillstånd bör de användas.

Men kan du förstå då om det kan låta obehagligt för personer att höra "här får du ett medel och dina personlighetsdrag kommer att förändras"? (...)

(Anm: Personality Change During Depression Treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(12):1322-1330 (December).)

(Anm: personlighetsendring; varig endring i en persons måte å tenke, reagere og være på i personlige og sosiale situasjoner (jfr. personlighet). (…)

Årsaker - Personlighetsendring kan være forårsaket av legemlige sykdommer eller skader som rammer hjernen (bl.a. organisk betingede psykiske lidelser som f.eks. demens), skyldes langvarig misbruk av stoff eller andre rusmidler (f.eks. alkohol), eller forekomme som en del av utviklingen av en alvorlig psykisk lidelse som f.eks. schizofreni. Tilstander som kan minne om varig personlighetsendring, finnes også hos psykologisk sett selvusikre, søkende individer som på jakt etter klare verdier og med behov for å tilhøre et fellesskap trekkes inn i enkelte ekstreme religiøse bevegelser. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: - SSRI-utløst aggresjon, tenåringsvold, massemord etc.? (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Pilot i dødelig krasj brukte forbudt legemiddel. (Pilot in fatal crash was using banned drug.) The Chilkat Valley News. (28.02.2002).)

(Anm: Final Report. Accident on 24 March 2015 at Prads-Haute-Bléone (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France) to the Airbus A320-211 registered D-AIPX operated by Germanwings (bea.aero D-AIPX - 24 March 2015).)

(Anm: Gåten Lubitz (...) Kan antidepressiva ha forårsaket Germanwings-tragedien (- Could antidepressants have caused the Germanwings tragedy?) (forbes.com 29.3.2015).)

(Anm: More Than 1 in 10 Pilots Suffer From Depression, Survey Finds. THURSDAY, Dec. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- More than one-tenth of professional airline pilots may suffer from depression, and a small percentage might experience suicidal thoughts, a new survey reveals. The findings come in the wake of the Germanwings air crash in 2015. In that tragedy, a co-pilot with depression deliberately crashed an airliner in the French Alps, killing all 150 people onboard. (medicinenet.com 15.12.2016).)

(Anm: 50.000 nordmenn vil utvikle schizofreni i løpet av livet. - De som lider av denne psykoselidelsen har tanker om verden som ikke stemmer, sier ekspert. (…) Uklare symptomer i starten. Symptomer på Schizofreni utvikler seg over tid, og er i starten litt uklare. Ofte blir de mer fremtredende etter hvert. - Da vises blant annet sosial tilbaketrekning, man mister kontakt med virkeligheten, har vrangforestillinger, hallusinasjoner, tap av matlyst og tap av hygiene. Det er store individuelle variasjoner og mange opplever det som en berg- og dalbane, sier Tove Gundersen, som er generalsekretær i Rådet for psykisk helse. (kk.no 26.9.2016).)

(Anm: Katteparasitt kan gi schizofreni og tvangslidelser. Forskere har funnet en sammenheng mellom katteparasitten Toxoplasma gondii og utviklingen av forskjellige psykiske lidelser hos mennesker. (…) En parasitt fra katteavføring, T. gondii, kan sette fast seg i menneskehjernen og føre til schizofreni, manisk depressiv sinnslidelse, avhengighet og tvangstanker. (nrk.no 29.6.2015).)

(Anm: No, Your Cat Isn't a Threat to Your Mental Health. (…) But mental health worries aside, pregnant women should still be cautious about exposure to cat litter boxes, another researcher warned. "There is good evidence that T. gondii exposure during pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects and other health problems in children," said study senior author Dr. James Kirkbride. (medicinenet.com 21.2.2017).)

(Anm: Angstbehandling spres til utlandet. Her er nederlandske psykologer i Bergen for å lære om behandlingen som kan kurere tvangstanker på fire dager. Nå spres behandlingsopplegget til andre sykdommer og utover Norges grenser. (dagensmedisin.no 21.12.2016).)

(Anm: Schizofreni kopplas till TBE-smitta. Det kan finnas en koppling mellan virusinfektioner som TBE och neuropsykiatriska sjukdomar som schizofreni. Det har svenska forskare kommit fram till i en studie som presenterades på en konferens i San Diego på måndagen. (svd.se 6.11.2007).)

(Anm: Scientists find chemical pathway responsible for schizophrenia symptoms. Recent studies have suggested that kynurenic acid (KYNA) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia have been shown to possess higher levels of KYNA than healthy individuals. KYNA helps to metabolize tryptophan - an essential amino acid that, in turn, helps the body to produce the "happiness" neurotransmitter serotonin, and the vitamin niacin. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.2.2017).)

(Anm: Psykose. Alle mennesker kan utvikle psykose. - Balansegangen mellom opplevd stress og ballast til å stå imot, er avgjørende, forteller psykiater. (…) - Stress er et sentralt tema. For eksempel har vi forskjellige måter å takle en belastende hendelse på jobb på. (…) - Man kan kalle det en forvirringstilstand, selv om heller ikke det er helt dekkende. (…) Symptomer ved psykose. Tidlige tegn kan være at man: (…) - Det er en kjempebelastning å ha en psykose. Mange blir redde og opplever ting de ikke forstår. Man vet at noen mennesker kan få tanker og impulser om å ta sitt eget liv, legger hun til. (lommelegen.no 13.6.2016).)

(Anm: Samtaleterapi styrker hjernens forbindelser for behandling av psykose. (Talk therapy strengthens brain connections to treat psychosis. Cognitive behavior therapy is used to help treat a number of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. For the first time, researchers have shown how this type of therapy triggers brain changes to produce long-term benefits for patients with psycosis. Researchers have found evidence to suggest that talk therapy can alter the brain in a way that leads to long-term recovery from psychosis. Lead study author Dr. Liam Mason, of King's College London in the United Kingdom, and colleagues report their findings in the journal Translational Psychiatry.) (medicalnewstoday.com 22.1.2017).)

(Anm: Forskningen på schizofreni og psykose er i dyp krise | Paul Møller, dr. med. og spesialist i psykiatri. Hjernen kan måles, veies og avbildes eksakt og detaljert. Psyken er derimot subjektiv, flytende, flyktig og abstrakt, og derfor langt mer krevende å forske på. (aftenposten.no 26.1.2017).)

(Anm: Fem myter om schizofreni | Bjørn Rishovd Rund, professor, Psykologisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo Fem myter om schizofreni. Begrepet schizofreni er sterkt belastet. Det skyldes til dels noen myter som er vanskelige å knekke. Bjørn Rishovd Rund professor, Psykologisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo (aftenposten.no 5.2.2017).)

(Anm: Det vakreste mennesket jeg kjenner, har diagnosen schizofreni. Likevel kaller du ham gal | Karoline Kongshaug (aftenposten.no 29.6.2017).)

(Anm: Probiotics may help treat yeast infections, bowel problems in men with schizophrenia. The findings, published in the May 1 issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, support growing evidence of close links between the mind and the gut. (…) The commercially available probiotic contained over 1 billion colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis in each pill. PANSS scores were reassessed every two weeks, and the participants self-reported on the ease of their bowel movements weekly on a scale of 0 to 4. At the end of the study, the researchers collected another blood sample. Using the blood samples, the researchers measured antibody levels to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as brewer's yeast, and Candida albicans, known to cause yeast infections, before and after the probiotic treatment. Both types of yeast are elevated in people with schizophrenia. (news-medical.net 5.4.2017).)

(Anm: Psychosis: Link to brain inflammation antibodies raises new treatment hope. For the first time, researchers reveal that some people presenting with a first episode of psychosis have specific antibodies in their blood. The antibodies are the same ones known to cause encephalitis or brain inflammation. The discovery raises the question of whether the removal of these antibodies could be an effective treatment for psychosis as it is for encephalitis. The researchers - led by Belinda R. Lennox, a professor in the department of psychiatry at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom - report their findings in The Lancet Psychiatry. (…) Previous studies have already fueled discussion about the role antibodies targeting neural proteins may play in psychosis. For example, a study reported in 2015 of children experiencing their first episode of psychosis, also found links to an antibody response to NMDAR. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.12.2016).)

(Anm: Psykose som målestokk for tvungent psykisk helsevern. Sammendrag Abstract  Denne artikkelen handlar om vilkåra for tvungent psykisk helsevern. Det er særleg fokusert på ei drøfting omkring det såkalla hovudvilkåret etter lov om psykisk helsevern (phvl.) § 3-3 (1) nr. 3. I artikkelen vert det drøfta om dagens rettsregel og dei vurderingstema den set opp, gjer ei god avgrensing sett i høve til føremåla med tvungent psykisk helsevern. Det vert òg skissert ei betre løysing for tolking av vilkåret. Kritisk juss03 / 2016 (Volum 2) Side: 217-237DOI: 10.18261/issn.2387-4546-2016-03-03.)

(Anm: Psykose forbundet med lave nivåer av fysisk aktivitet. (Psychosis associated with low levels of physical activity. A large international study of more than 200,000 people in nearly 50 countries has revealed that people with psychosis engage in low levels of physical activity, and men with psychosis are over two times more likely to miss global activity targets compared to people without the illness.) (medicalnewstoday.com 26.8.2016).)

Antidepressiva kan endre din personlighet
nrk.no 7.12.2009
Ifølge en studie utført på vegne av det amerikanske helsevesenet kan medisiner med virkestoffet Paroxetine gjøre folk både mindre nevrotiske og mer utadvendte, skriver Reuters.

Paroxetine finnes i blant annet Paroxat, Paroxetin og Seroxat, som selges som reseptbelagte midler i Norge. (...)

- Det er en dramatisk forskjell, sier Tang, og forklarer at man tidligere har trodd at endring i personligheten kom fordi man fikk depresjonen mer under kontroll. (...)

www.paxilpayback.org

Public Citizen launched www.paxilpayback.org as a public service Did your child take Paxil? Get a refund. (www.paxilpayback.org)
http://www.citizen.org/

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

Sterk link funnet mellom to antidepressiva og spedbarns hjerteproblemer

Strong Link Found Between Two Antidepressants and Infant Heart Problems (Sterk link funnet mellom to antidepressiva og spedbarns hjerteproblemer)
depression.about.com 25.11.2008
Women who took the antidepressants Prozac (fluoxetine) or Paxil (paroxetine) in their first trimester were significantly more likely to give birth to babies with heart problems than women who did not take them, according to a new study published in the November issue of the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. (...)

(Anm: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Paroxetine and fluoxetine in pregnancy: a prospective, multicentre, controlled, observational study 2008;66: 695-705.)

Legger antidepressiva en demper på kjærlighetslivet?

Sexgale ældre bliver kastreret med lykkepiller
bt.dk 9.3.2008
Gamle kan være så demente, at de mister hæmningerne og får ustyrlig lyst til sex. Lægerne giver dem lykkepiller og anden medicin, som kan lægge låg på lysterne. (...)

(Anm: Effect of citalopram in treating hypersexuality in an Alzheimer's Disease case. Neurol Sci. 2008 Sep;29(4):269-70. Epub 2008 Sep 20.)

Dette dreper de unges sexlyst
dinside.no 5.5.2008
Hasj kan ødelegge sexlysten for unge.

Det er én ting som tar knekken på selv tenåringenes potens. (...)

- Mange som bruker hasj, blir sløve, tiltaksløse og får ikke hverdagen til å fungere, verken med jobb eller skole. Mange får etter hvert nedbrutt selvbilde, noe som kan resultere i depresjon og angst. At de som går på antidepressiva, også kan få potensproblemer, er noe vi kjenner til. Men dette er problemer som først kommer frem etter noen ganger med behandling, sier han. (...)

Are antidepressants taking the edge off love? (Legger antidepressiva en demper på kjærlighetslivet?)
latimes.com 30.7.2007
Sure, we know about the sexual side effects of SSRIs. But researchers now wonder if that's the only aspect of romance the drugs can influence. (...)

Any drug that has sexual side effects, Thomson says, could well blunt other chemicals the brain uses to intently focus on one person or to work up the obsession necessary to fall in love in the first place.

Then there was the 42-year-old single woman who had not been on a date in the eight years she had been taking an antidepressant. "She had not felt any desire [to date] for at least that period of time," he says. (...)

At that time, reports were that only about 6% of patients suffered sexual side effects, but the low rate is now understood to have resulted because doctors failed to ask questions about sex and patients were reluctant to bring it up. A later analysis put that figure at about 30%, and a 2001 study at as high as 73%. It is one of the top reasons that people stop taking the drugs. (...)

(Anm: Love is blue. (magicvalley.com 13.8.2007).)

5 Questions for 'Doctor of Love' Researcher Helen Fisher
popularmechanics.com 13.2.2008
(...) Are there certain advancements in, say, new drugs or antidepressants that can have an adverse on this quest you’re speaking about?
Yes. I think we’ve evolved through distinctly different brain systems involved for mating and reproducing. One is the sex drive, one is romantic love, and the third is attachment—that sends the sense of calm and security you can feel with a long-term partner. And when you take the serotonin-enhancing antidepressants like Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, etc., what you’re doing is driving up serotonin in the brain, and we know that that affects the sex drive. In almost 75 percent of people it kills the sex drive. (...)

Paedophiles offered 'happy pills' to curb their sex drive (Pedofile tilbudt "lykkepiller" for å dempe sexlyst)
dailymail.co.uk 14.11.2007
Det er kommet frem at pedofile tilbys gratis Prozac som alternativ til "kjemisk kastraksjon". (Paedophiles are to be offered free Prozac as a softer alternative to 'chemical castration', it has emerged.)

The Government secured headlines this summer when it promised offenders would be given - on a voluntary basis - strong medication to curb their sex drive.

However, these drugs, which amount to chemical castration by making it difficult to have sex, have a number of side-effects which could deter potential users. (...)

Brain Chemical Could Spur Lovesickness
healthfinder.gov 15.10.2008
A monogamous rodent could shed light on romantic loss. (...)

Examination of the brains of the lovesick voles revealed heightened activity of a chemical messenger called corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in an area of the hypothalamus, a center for emotions in the brain.

When the researchers administered a drug that blocked CRF activity, voles who'd been separated from their mate began to perform just as vigorously in the stress tests as all the other voles tested. It seemed the drug "switched off" the mechanism -- and their lovesickness, as well. (...)

(Anm: Pharmacologic differences among the SSRIs: focus on monoamine transporters and the HPA axis. CNS Spectr. 2004 Jun;9(6 Suppl 4):23-31.)

- Antidepressiva kan skade menns fruktbarhet (DNA), ifølge studie

Antidepressants may damage male fertility: study (Antidepressiva kan skade menns fruktbarhet, ifølge studie)
reuters.com 24.9.2008
LONDON (Reuters) - Common antidepressant drugs may reduce some men's fertility by damaging the DNA in their sperm, according to scientists.

A study of 35 healthy men given paroxetine -- sold as Paxil or Seroxat by GlaxoSmithKline -- found that, on average, the proportion of sperm cells with fragmented DNA rose from 13.8 percent before treatment to 30.3 percent after just four weeks.

Similar levels of sperm DNA damage have been linked to problems with embryo viability in couples trying to have children. (...)

Allan Pacey, Senior Lecturer in Andrology at the University of Sheffield, said the apparent increase in sperm DNA damage was "alarming," although he noted the level at which damage becomes clinically significant was open to debate. (...)

Anti-Depressant-Associated Changes In Semen Parameters
medpagetoday.com 28.11.2008
SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA (UroToday.com) - The authors previously reported an effect of antidepressants on semen parameters. The current study was designed to assess/confirm their prior report of the effects of an SSRI, paroxetine (Paxil), on semen parameters. (...)

As opposed to prior report, semen parameters (volume, concentration, motility, morphology) were not significantly altered during SSRI treatment. However, mean DNA fragmentation TUNEL score was significantly higher on SSRI (30.3%) versus baseline (13.8%). Multivariate logistic regression, correcting for age and body mass index, confirmed that SSRI treatment was significantly correlated with increased DNA fragmentation Up to 35% of men noted significant changes in erectile function and up to 47% of subjects reported ejaculatory difficulties while on paroxetine. (...)

(Anm: Poor semen quality linked to hypertension, other health problems (medicalnewstoday.com 10.12.2014).)

Antidepressants may reduce male fertility (Antidepressiva kan redusere menns fruktbarhet)
endocrinetoday.com 18.11.2008
ASRM 64th Annual Meeting
Treatment with paroxetine was associated with increased DNA fragmentation in sperm, according to study results presented at the American Society for Reproductive Medicine 64th Annual Meeting in San Francisco.

“In volunteer male patients with normal semen parameters, paroxetine induced abnormal sperm DNA fragmentation in a significant proportion of patients. … The fertility potential of a substantial proportion of men on paroxetine may be adversely affected by these changes in sperm DNA integrity,” wrote the researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital and Weill Medical College of Cornell University.

They enrolled 35 healthy men aged 18 to 65 years in the prospective clinical trial. Volunteers were assigned daily paroxetine for five weeks in varying doses: week one, 10 mg; week two, 20 mg; weeks three and four, 30 mg; and week five, 20 mg. The researchers analyzed semen at baseline, weeks two and four and one month after treatment with paroxetine was stopped.

Treatment with paroxetine increased the mean DNA fragmentation score from 13.8% at baseline to 30.3% (P=.0002). Before starting treatment with paroxetine, 9.7% of men had a fragmentation score ≥30% compared with 50% of men at week four (P=.001).

The drug was associated with an OR of 9.33 (95% CI, 2.3-37.9) for abnormal DNA fragmentation, which persisted after adjustment for age and BMI (P=.0003).

Up to 35% of men reported significant changes in erectile function and up to 47% reported ejaculatory problems while receiving paroxetine, according to volunteer responses from the Brief Sexual Function Inventory. However, partial recovery of sexual function was observed one month after cessation of paroxetine. (...)

(Anm: Poor semen quality linked to hypertension, other health problems (medicalnewstoday.com 10.12.2014).)

(Anm: Study finds men's health may be 'strongly correlated' with semen quality (medicalnewstoday.com 11.12.2014).)

Antidepressants 'Could Damage Sperm' (Antidepressiva "kan skade sædceller")
cbs4denver.com 26.9.2008
(CBS4) Antidepressants could be damaging men's sperm and their chances of fathering a baby, new research suggests.

Fertility experts said new evidence that some anti-depression drugs may cause fragmentation of the sperm DNA could help explain why so many couples are struggling to conceive. (...)

Father Wonders if Paxil caused Two Holes in Daughter's Heart (Far undrer på om Seroxat forårsaket to hull i datterens hjerte)
lawyersandsettlements.com 11.11.2008
Lebanon, IN: Mark's daughter was born with two holes in her heart. Although his wife was not taking Paxil during her pregnancy, he was. He wonders if the heart defects, which match the Paxil-related birth defects, may be related to his use of the antidepressant. He can find no other plausible explanation.

Mark has depression, and his doctor prescribed the selective serotonin receptor inhibitor (SSRI) Paxil, also called paroxetine, in the hope that it would help. Mark had been taking the drug for about 3 months when his wife became pregnant. "I started taking Paxil around April 2005, and our daughter was conceived in August," Mark said. (...)

Svårare bli pappa med antidepressiva
sr.se 26.9.2008
(...) Antidepressiva läkemedel kan göra det svårare för män att få barn. Det tycks bero på att spermierna drabbas av skador i sitt DNA, visar en första, mindre undersökning från Cornell Medical Centre i New York. (...)

Paxil could make men infertile, researchers suggest
pharmatimes.com 25.9.2008
US scientists have claimed that one of the most commonly used selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, GlaxoSmithKline's Seroxat/Paxil, causes serious DNA damage in sperm cells, according to the report in New Scientist. (...)

- Uten oksygen vil dens elastiske fibre omdannes til bindevev...

- Frist den eller mist den
vg.no 5.10.2008
Advarsel: Menn kan miste muligheten til å få ereksjon hvis de går lenge uten sex. (...)

Normalt sett har menn i gjennomsnitt tre ereksjoner i søvne per natt, hvilket er nok til å opprettholde reisningsfunksjonen.

Men dersom du for eksempel går på sovemedisin, hjertemedisin eller tar antidepressive midler, forsvinner nattlige ereksjoner.

Søvnen blir ikke dyp nok, ifølge Mortensen. Det samme gjelder prostataopererte, nevrologisk syke, rusavhengige og menn med diabetes. (...)

- Du kan få penis til å virke igjen ved å pumpe den opp med vakuumpumpe tre ganger i uken, men dette er en møysommelig prosess.

- Går i dvale
Penis består av delikate svamplegemer som trenger oksygentilførsel. Det fås gjennom ereksjon. Uten oksygen vil dens elastiske fibre omdannes til bindevev, ifølge Purvis.

- Bindevevet gjør penis slapp. Du kan sammenligne det med et punktert bildekk, sier Purvis. (...)

- Antidepressiva kan fremkalle eller forsterke seksuell dysfunksjon

Seksuelle bivirkninger av antidepressive legemidler
Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2010; 130:1930-1 (7.10.2010)
Seksuell dysfunksjon er vanlig hos pasienter med depresjon. Samtidig kan antidepressive legemidler fremkalle eller forsterke seksuell dysfunksjon som bivirkning. Hvilke antidepressiver er særlig assosiert med seksuell dysfunksjon, og hvilke mekanismer ligger til grunn for slike bivirkninger? Hvordan skal bivirkningene håndteres i klinisk praksis? (...)

Forekomst
Alt i alt er forekomsten av seksuelle bivirkninger anslagsvis 40 % ved bruk av SSRI-preparater, mot 10 % ved placebo (2). Det finnes få studier som har sammenliknet frekvensen av seksuelle bivirkninger hos ulike SSRI-preparater. En gjennomgang fra 2008 konkluderte med at det ikke foreligger sikre holdepunkter for at noe SSRI-preparat har færre seksuelle bivirkninger enn andre, selv om det finnes visse data som antyder at slike bivirkninger er vanligere ved paroksetin enn ved andre midler i gruppen (4). (...)

Antidepressants may damage more sex lives (Antidepressiva kan skade mange menneskers sexliv)
boston.com 15.12.2008
Sexual "numbness." Lack of libido. Arousal that stalls. (...)

Current warnings on the labels of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs, cite early studies in which the prevalence of sexual side effects was lower: 4 percent for Prozac, for example, and ranging from 0 to 28 percent for Paxil.

But more recent studies, in which patients were more likely to be asked about specific sexual side effects and thus more likely to report them, suggest that the ballpark range of those affected by SSRIs is between 30 percent and 50 percent, said researchers including Dr. Richard Balon, a psychiatry professor at Wayne State University who studies the symptoms.

That would translate into millions of affected sex lives among the estimated 1 in 8 American adults who have tried these antidepressants in the past decade or so. Some studies have found the range still higher. (...)

Balon and other researchers agree that the issue is complex and the science imperfect: Mental illness can often impair sexuality, and the studies on SSRI-related sexual dysfunction have been small. "The [pharmaceutical] industry, understandably, has no interest in funding this," Balon noted. (...)

For example, Dr. Cigdem Tanrikut a Massachusetts General Hospital urologist, reported last month at the annual meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine that when 35 normal, healthy men were put on Paxil for five weeks, up to 35 percent of them reported new problems with erections and up to 47 percent reported difficulty ejaculating while on the medication. (...)

But in a small number of patients, it appears, the symptoms continue after stopping the drugs. Based on recent case reports of persistent effects, an article earlier this year in the Journal of Sexual Medicine said patients should "be told that in an unknown number of cases, the side effects may not resolve with cessation of the medication." (...)

Erektil dysfunksjon kan innlede Parkinsons

Erectile dysfunction may precede Parkinson's (Erektil dysfunksjon kan innlede Parkinsons)
reuters.com 26.12.2007
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Results of a study suggest an association between erectile dysfunction and an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease.

The autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary bodily functions like heart rate and digestion, is often affected in Parkinson's disease, and erectile function, which is controlled by the autonomic system, is commonly compromised, the study team notes in a report.

"An important question," according to Dr. Xiang Gao, of Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, and colleagues, "is whether erectile dysfunction precedes the onset of motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease." (...)

SOURCE: American Journal of Epidemiology, December 2007. (...)

Slapp penis gir Parkinsons
side2.no 26.12.2007
Manglende evne til ereksjon kan gi økt risiko for Parkinsons sykdom, hevder studie. (...)

- They describe these effects as a "nightmare" and like "torture"

Antidepressants Now No. 1 Drug Prescribed For Women 18-44
nbc4.com 16.11.2007
High Number Of Prescriptions Worrying Some Experts (...)

But not everyone is so lucky. In fact, about two-thirds of people on these drugs experience side effects, which can be severe and devastating.

Internet bloggers are even sharing their experiences with antidepressants online. They describe these effects as a "nightmare" and like "torture." Common reactions include "weight gain, decreased sex drive and severe stomach cramping."

"Something is going on with these drugs," Zuckerman said. "Not everybody metabolizes them the same way. It doesn't have the same effect on every person and some people are harmed by them."

Casalihno is now exercising to combat her depression. She says a pill wasn't the answer for her.

"I was overloaded with everything and I wasn't really addressing the root of the problems," Casalihno said. (...)

Hvordan leger gjør millioner av oss avhengige

How doctors are turning millions of us INTO addicts (Hvordan leger gjør millioner av oss avhengige)
dailymail.co.uk 19.8.2008
Gina Loxam was feeling a bit low, so she went to see her GP and was prescribed the anti-depressant, Seroxat.

Ten years later, she is still on the drug because the severe mood swings, headaches, fatigue and weight gain she suffers when she tries to come off are unbearable.

Gina, a 52-year-old finance and quality manager, is one of more than 600 people now suing the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline for damages on the grounds that they were not warned of the possible side-effects, such as personality changes, as well as addiction. (...)

Woman sues over drugs ‘hell’

City women suing over 'addiction' to pills
scotsman.com 31.1.2008
TWO Edinburgh women who claim they became addicted to an antidepressant are heading for a High Court battle with a pharmaceutical giant. (...)

Woman takes on drugs giant
ilkestonadvertiser.co.uk 23.1.2008
AN ILKESTON woman is headed for a High Court showdown with pharmaceutical giant Glaxosmithkline UK in a bid for compensation.
Susannah Anthony says in a writ issued at London's High Court and just made publicly available she has suffered undisclosed personal injuries after taking the drug Seroxat, also known as paroxetine.

Now Miss Anthony is claiming damages of up to £50,000 from the manufacturers in a David and Goliath legal battle. (...)

However, Glaxowsmithkline said : "We believe there is no merit in this litigation. Seroxat has benefited millions of people worldwide who have suffered from depression." (...)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (nytteverdi) (mintankesmie.no).

Woman issues write against drugs company
iccheshireonline.icnetwork.co.uk 22.1.2008
A WESTON woman is headed for a High Court showdown with pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline UK in a bid for compensation.

Irene Barnes says in a writ issued at London's High Court and just made publicly available that she has suffered undisclosed personal injuries after taking the drug Seroxat, also known as paroxetine. (...)

Punk rocker sues over anti-depressant
theargus.co.uk 22.1.2008
A famed punk rocker claims his life has been ruined by addiction to an anti-depressant drug

Kirk Brandon, perhaps best known for his time with 1980s legends Spear of Destiny, is the latest in a string of people to claim damages against pharmaceutical giants. (...)

Woman sues over drugs ‘hell’
icnewcastle.icnetwork.co.uk 18.11.2007
A NORTH woman who claims her life has been made “hell” after using a controversial drug used to treat depression is suing the manufacturers for £50,000, in what could be a landmark case for the UK if it is successful.

Joanne Luongvan, of Bedlington, Northumberland, has launched a legal battle against pharmaceutical giant Glaxosmithkline (GSK) after using anti-depressant Seroxat . . . which has been linked to at least 50 suicides. Ms Luongvan, who is taking her case to the High Court in London, said she has suffered months of torment as a result of suing the company.

Seroxat was banned for under-18s in 2003 after a Government watchdog found it trebled the risk of suicidal thoughts.

And in January this year, the BBC’s Panorama claimed GSK — the UK’s biggest drugs company — had covered up evidence about the drug’s safety. The programme alleged GSK attempted to show the drug worked for depressed children despite failed clinical trials. The company rejected the claims, but has been bombarded by lawsuits in the US.

Ms Luongvan’s representatives, Cardiff-based legal firm, Hugh James Solicitors, said her case is part of a “group legal action”.

A GSK spokesman said: “We believe there is no merit in this litigation. Seroxat has benefited millions of people worldwide.” (...)

Mor saksøker legemiddelfirma

Mother Sues Drug Company (Mor saksøker legemiddelfirma)
cknw.com 1.3.2008
VANCOUVER/CKNW(AM980) - A Surrey woman and her infant daughter are launching a class-action lawsuit against the manufacturer of a commonly-used anti-depressant medication.

Faith Gibson alleges drug company Glaxo-Smith-Kline didn't adequately warn of the potential side effects for pregnant women taking the drug Paxil. (...)

Seroxat (Paxil i USA) - skader - søksmål -rettssaker

Paxil Side Effects Lawsuit (Søksmål relatert til sideeffekter fra Seroxat)
paxillawsuitsinfo.com 16.9.2011
Many Paxil side effects lawsuit cases have been filed due to extreme severity of health problems or even death experienced by people who took the SSRI antidepressant as prescribed.

Large settlements have been awarded to people through these Paxil side effects lawsuits, as well as settlements awarded to states, through Paxil class action lawsuits.

The FDA has mandated several label changes for this drug because of the outcome of research studies showing increased side effects for some people while using Paxil.

Severe Problems Lead to Paxil Side Effects Lawsuit
There are many Paxil side effects listed on the labeling of this drug. Many of the side effects are not too serious or harmful, like feeling more nervous; feeling drowsy or dizzy, upset stomach or nausea and insomnia.

Paxil Side Effects Lawsuit
A bit more concerning Paxil side effects are muscle problems and rigid muscles, fevers, too much sweating, and memory loss.

However, some people experience extremely dangerous side effects which have been researched by experts and are life altering. These severe Paxil side effects include suicidal ideas as well as tendencies (especially amoung young people), self destructive behavior and violent behavior, and among the worst — birth defects, especially of the hearts of babies. (...)

SSRIs: When anti-depressants go wrong (SSRI-er: Når antidepressiva feiler)
independent.co.uk/ 10.8.2009
Rebekah Beddoe was a young mum who went to her GP for help. A routine prescription for anti-depressants later and her life was spiralling out of control (...)

But it was not until I managed to wean myself off the medication that I realised that the drugs were not a cure for the hell I was going through – they were the cause of it. (...)

The dangers surrounding anti-depressants – particularly SSRIs, which help prolong the effects of neurotransmitters that can lighten mood – are well-publicised. I now know that, in many people, such drugs can create problems, rather than alleviate them. Hundreds of High Court writs have been served against GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), the manufacturer of the anti-depressant Seroxat, since the medication was first prescribed in Britain in 1990. Since then it has been linked to some 50 suicides of adults and children. In 2002, BBC's Panorama programme "The Secrets of Seroxat" alleged that GSK covered up fears about Seroxat's safety, something the firm vehemently denies. It was this documentary that proved to be the turning point for me, even though I live many thousands of miles away. (...)

SEBASTIAN COUNTY: Sides dispute delirium led to husband’s killing of wife
nwanews.com 30.10.2008
GREENWOOD — A Fayetteville psychiatrist said Wednesday that 85-year-old Autry Basham suffered from delirium brought on by pneumonia and a sleep disorder when he slashed the throat of his 83-year-old wife last year. (...)

Ross pointed out that Autry Basham had pneumonia, took the drug Paxil for anxiety and suffered from obstructive sleep apnea. All those factors, which were present on the day of Marie Basham’s death, inhibited his ability to get oxygen to his brain. A lack of oxygen can trigger delirium, she said, especially in the elderly. (...)

(Anm: Delirium is associated with 5-fold increased mortality in acute cardiac patients. (medicalnewstoday.com 16.3.2017).)

Killer claims antidepressant may have caused him to kill (Drapsmann hevder antidepressiva mulig fikk ham til å begå drapet)
by F.T. Norton - Nevada Appeal Staff Writer
nevadaappeal.com 24.10.2008
Convicted murderer Anthony Echols listens to proceedings Thursday in district court on his appeal for a new trial. Echols, who was convicted in 2003 of killing Rick Albrecht, now says withdrawal from Paxil may have caused him kill.

ENLARGE Defense attorney Tod Young testifies Thursday in the First Judicial Court on Anthony Echols’ appeal for a new trial. Young represented Echols in 2003 when he was tried and convicted for the murder of Richard Albrecht.

Paxil withdrawal may have caused a Carson City man in 2000 to shoot his estranged wife's suspected lover to death, and the defense attorney's failure to explore that as a theory should be enough to garner a new trial, an attorney for Anthony Echols argued before the First Judicial District Court on Thursday.

Defense Attorney Richard Cornell offered three witnesses to support the theory that Echols, now 46, was suffering from mental symptoms related to quitting the brand-name antidepressant "cold turkey" when he went to the home of Rick Albrecht on Aug. 5, 2000, and shot the Carson City contractor twice in the head.

The Federal Drug Administration in 2005 issued a recommendation that all patients "should be observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior," when starting, changing or stopping a dosage of the drug. (...)

Glaxo settles U.S. Paxil lawsuit for $40 mln (Glaxo forliker amerikansk Seroxat-søksmål på 40 millioner dollar)
reuters.com 2.10.2008
LONDON, Oct 2 (Reuters) - GlaxoSmithKline (GSK.L: Quote, Profile, Research, Stock Buzz) has agreed to settle a long-standing U.S. case over its antidepressant Paxil by paying insurers $40 million to reimburse health plans that paid for children and adolescents to receive the drug.

Baum, Hedlund, Aristei & Goldman, a law firm representing the plaintiffs, said on Thursday the settlement was approved in the U.S. District Court in Minneapolis.

The agreement ends class-action litigation against Glaxo over the issue, after the British-based drugmaker was sued for allegedly suppressing studies showing the drug was not suitable for children.

Last year, Glaxo agreed to pay $64 million to consumers in another class-action settlement. In both cases Glaxo did not admit liability. (...)

DrugSettlement.com Reports That The First Federal Paxil Birth Defect Case Has Been Set For Trial
1888pressrelease.com 1.10.2008
DrugSettlement.com reports that in the case of Hayes v. SmithKline Beecham Corporation, Justice Claire V. Eagan of The United States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma, has ordered that the case begin trial on January 20, 2009.

New York, NY (1888PressRelease) October 01, 2008 - DrugSettlement.com, LLC, http://drugsettlement.com, reports that one of its member firms, Nix & McIntyre, LLP, http://oklahomainjurylaw.com, has been ordered by Judge Claire V. Eagan of the United States District Court for the Norther District of Oklahoma, to commence the first federal Paxil Birth Defect trial on January 20, 2009. (...)

US District Court in Pennsylvania Rules Wrongful Death Claim Against Paxil Maker Can Proceed
redorbit.com 23.9.2008
The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act does not preempt a state-law wrongful death claim that a teenager's suicide was caused by the antidepressant Paxil, a U.S. District Court in Pennsylvania has ruled. During 2001 and 2002, a 15-year-old suffering from body dysmorphic disorder was prescribed Paxil. In September 2002, he committed suicide. (...)

Ingar Holst i kinesisk helse-eksil
vg.no 8.9.2008
(...) Holst mener norsk helsevesen for ofte gjør en dårlig vurdering av pasienter som oppsøker lege med tidlige symptomer på ME, men innrømmer at det er en svært vanskelig sykdom både å diagnostisere og å behandle.

Han mener det er en sammenheng mellom utskriving av SSRI-preparater (Selective Serotonine Reuptake Inhibitors) og utbredelsen av ME. Han sier at Tidsskrift for den norske Lægeforening nekter å ta inn en artikkel der han beskriver det han mener er sammenhengen mellom reseptmedisiner og den enorme utbredelsen av ME i Norge. Les artikkelen på http://me.holst.no.

Holst mener dette kan føre til permanente problemer i serotoninstoffskiftet og dermed en forverring av ME-utviklingen. (...)

Baum, Hedlund, Aristei & Goldman Achieves 3rd Preemption Win This Year on Behalf of Their Clients in Paxil Suicide Case
expertclick.com 3.9.2008
A federal judge in Pennsylvania ruled on Friday, August 29, 2008, that a lawsuit filed by the parents of a 16-year-old New Jersey boy who committed suicide while taking Paxil is not preempted by federal law, as Paxil’s manufacturer, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), had hoped. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

Parkersburg family files Paxil lawsuit
wvrecord.com 14.8.2008
PARKERSBURG -- A Wood County family has filed a federal lawsuit against GlaxoSmithKline over its drug Paxil after their son was born with birth defects.

Gerald and Paula McGee of Parkersburg filed the lawsuit in U.S. District Court on Aug. 11. (...)

UNDERSTANDING PAXIL LAWSUIT GETS BETTER (Forståelsen av Seroxat-søksmål blir bedre)
BESTSYNDICATION.COM 8.8.2008
There are many antidepressant drugs available. These drugs are used to affect the chemicals that carry information and signals to the brain called neurotransmitters. Among one of the most common drugs used to treat depression is Paxil. (...)

There have been increasing amounts of Paxil users that are complaining about the serious side effects that go hand in hand with this drug. Paxil is reported to be highly addictive, cause even more manic behavior, and can even increase feelings of suicide. Withdrawal from Paxil can cause anxiety, panic attacks and a relapse of worsening depression. There have even been reports done to show that Paxil causes abnormal bleeding and brain tumors.

If you have been prescribed Paxil and are now experiencing the deadly side effects of the drug you are eligible to file a Paxil Lawsuit. (...)

Paul Justice gives advice to clients who are looking for attorneys to handle injury related cases such as Paxil birth defect,Paxil side effect. To know more about Paxil attorneys, Paxil Lawsuit and paxil birth defect lawyers visit www.paxilattorneys.com (...)

Lancs women sue over 'sunshine' pill
lep.co.uk 2.6.2008
Two Lancashire women face a High Court showdown with a pharmaceutical giant over claims their lives were blighted by a so-called wonder drug.
Designed to restore confidence, GlaxoSmithKline UK's Seroxat was billed as the "sunshine pill" as it helped patients with their depression.

But several hundred people want to sue the drug manufacturer claiming the anti-depressant ruined their lives with horrendous side-effects, while others say they have become addicted to it.

Michelle Dewhurst, 38, of Grimsargh, Preston, is one of the many claimants seeking up to £50,000 for personal injuries and other losses suffered as a result of using Seroxat.

The mum-of-one claims the drug's "terrible side-effects" robbed her of years of her life and says she found it difficult to come off the anti-depressants. (...)

Four years ago David Carmichael killed his son. Now free, he is crusading against 'happy drugs,' saying they -- not him -- are to blame
torontosun.com 25.5.2008
He popped his antidepressants like candy and believes Paxil made him kill his son.

And now David Carmichael is worried drug companies will soon have the go-ahead to push their potentially dangerous "happy pills" on more unsuspecting Canadians, with similarly dire results.

With new Bill C-51, the Conservative initiative to overhaul Canada's food and drug act, critics like Carmichael worry it will open the door to big pharma circumventing the current ban on direct-to-consumer advertising. (...)

Withdrawal Symptoms From Paroxetine May Last For A Long Time (Seponeringssymptomer fra Seroxat (paroxetine) kan vare i lang tid)
medicalnewstoday.com 17.1.2008
(...) Now researchers at the University of Bologna headed by Prof. G.A. Fava confirm their account in an article published in the December 2007 issue of the International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. (...)

Now researchers at the University of Bologna headed by Prof. G.A. Fava confirm their account in an article published in the December 2007 issue of the International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. (...)

Patients were assessed with the Discontinuation-Emergent Signs and Symptoms (DESS) checklist 2 wk, 1 month and 1 yr after discontinuation. Nine of the 20 patients (45%) experienced a discontinuation syndrome, which subsided within a month in all but three patients who had been taking paroxetine for a long time. Discontinuation syndromes appeared to be fairly common even when performed with slow tapering and during clinical remission. In some cases disturbances persisted for months after discontinuation. (...)

(Anm: Vedvarende sponeringslidelser (bivirkninger) indusert av paroxetine (Seroxat; paroksetin), en selektiv serotonin reopptakshemmer (SSRI), og behandlet med spesifikk kognitiv atferdsterapi (Persistent Postwithdrawal Disorders Induced by Paroxetine, a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor, and Treated with Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.) De første månedene av paroksetinavbrudd, inkludert nedtrapping og 1 måned med fullstendig seponering, var kjennetegnet av vedvarende post-abstinensforstyrrelser som består av kontinuerlig agitasjon, depersonalisering, generalisert angst, fysisk svakhet, humørsvingninger og søvnproblemer. (The first months of paroxetine withdrawal, including tapering and 1 month of complete discontinuation, were characterized by persistent postwithdrawal disorders consisting of continuous agitation, depersonalization, generalized anxiety, physical weakness, mood swings and sleep difficulties.) Psychother Psychosom 2014;83:247-248).)

(Anm: seponering; det å stansa ei behandling, slutta med eit legemiddel, vanleg forkorting: sep. EN cessation of medication; withdrawal. ET [lat. seponere setja til side] Kilde: Norsk medisinsk ordbok.)

CITY BUSINESS ACE TO SUE DRUG GIANT OVER MEDICINE thisisnorthscotland.co.uk 29.1.2008
An award-winning young entrepreneur from the north-east is ready to do battle in court with one of the biggest drug companies in the world.

Stuart Ebdy wants to sue GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) for £50,000 because he claims one of its products caused him "personal injuries". (...)

The 25-year-old and hundreds of other Seroxat users worldwide claim their lives have been blighted by addiction to the drug - GSK's biggest-selling antidepressant.

Some users say they have contemplated suicide after taking it, although it is designed to restore their happiness and confidence. (...)

During her trial, Kerry Magee said: "I had been suffering from depression for some time. I was put on Seroxat, which I did not feel helped any."

A TV documentary team investigated the drug and its side effects in 2003 and claimed it had a "dark side" that led to users suffering "serious" withdrawal symptoms when they tried to stop using it. (...)

However, Mark Harvey, a solicitor acting for people in a similar situation, said: "All the claimants allege that they tried to withdraw from Seroxat and have suffered discontinuation syndrome." (...)

£50,000 bid in drug case
thestar.co.uk 26.1.2008
A SECOND Sheffield resident is launching legal action against medical giants GlaxoSmithKline UK in a bid to net up to £50,000 in compensation.
The man, from Firth Park, claims he suffered undisclosed personal injuries after taking the widely prescribed anti-depressant drug Seroxat which is manufactured by the global company. (...)

Solicitor Mark Harvey, who is acting for many of the claimants, said: "All the claimants allege that they tried to withdraw from Seroxat and have suffered discontinuation syndrome." (...)

(Anm: Personal Injury Experts Investigate Claims Against Addictive Antidepressant - Hugh James and Secretary of the Association of Personal Injury Lawyers (APIL). antidepressantsfacts.com (26.1.2008).)

MAKER OF 'HAPPY PILL' SEROXAT IS SUED BY MAN WHO KILLED WIFE WHILE ON DRUG
THISISLONDON.CO.UK 20.1.2008
Murderer Colin Dorey, who battered his wife to death with a hammer, is suing pharmaceuticals giant GlaxoSmithKline over his use of the anti-depressant Seroxat.

From his cell at Gartree prison in Leicestershire, Dorey, 48, has joined nearly 500 other users of the drug in a lawsuit against the multi-national, each seeking compensation of up to £50,000.

Their case is funded by legal aid at an estimated cost of hundreds of thousands of pounds to the taxpayer. (...)

CITY FATHER CLAIMS DRUG MADE HIM SUICIDAL
thisisexeter.co.uk 20.11.2007
A CLAIM for thousands of pounds in compensation has been made by a father-of-two who says he felt suicidal after becoming addicted to a controversial anti-depressant.

Colin Channing claims Seroxat also made him angry, extremely emotional and severely depressed.

The 49-year-old has filed claims against the drug's manufacturer, GlaxoSmithKline, at the High Court. He is hoping to get up to £50,000 damages for loss of earnings and prescription costs.

Seroxat was banned for under-18s in 2003 after a Government watchdog found it trebled the risk of suicidal thoughts in depressed children. (...)

Sufferers sue happy pill firm for 30million (Skadelidte saksøker lykkepillefirma for 30 millioner pund)
dailymail.co.uk 17.11.2007
'Happy pill': Users say GSK's drug Seroxat is addictive and they want compensation

Pharmaceutical giant Glaxo-SmithKline is facing a £30million damages claim from users of its anti-depressant Seroxat.

Lawyers representing patients who insist the bestselling drug is addictive have issued the first of 600 High Court writs against the company, each seeking compensation of up to £50,000.

Since first prescribed in Britain in 1990, Seroxat has been linked to at least 50 suicides of adults and children. (...)

GlaxoSmithKline said: "Seroxat has benefited millions of people worldwide.
"We believe the product is not defective and that there is therefore no merit in this litigation." (...)

Talking with a Paxil Attorney Could Save your Life!
attorney.lawreferenceonline.com 9.11.2007
Have you recently been harmed or injured in some way because of the Paxil medication that you have been taking? Do you suffer from heart problems, breathing problems or a number of other problems that was initiated by using the Paxil medication? Do you have increased thought of suicide even while you are taking Paxil? If you answered yes, then talking with a Paxil attorney could possible save your life or the life of your loved ones. Today, there are several Paxil lawyers available to help you with your Paxil related claim. (...)

It is important to know that the drug Paxil is manufactured by a company known as GlaxoSmithKline Company. Many lawyers believe that the GlaxoSmithKline Company may have hidden some very important, yet dangerous facts about the Paxil medication. (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.)

GlaxoSmithKlines er saksøkt over antidepressivaet Seroxat

City women suing over addiction to pills
scotsman.com 2.2.2008
TWO Edinburgh women who claim they became addicted to an antidepressant are heading for a High Court battle with a pharmaceutical giant.

Barbara Hood, from Newhaven, and Josephine Isles, from Meadowbank, are claiming damages of up to £50,000 from GlaxoSmith-Kline UK. They claim they became ill after stopping taking the drug Seroxat, one of the world's best selling antidepressants. (...)

Happy pills’ case to go to high court (Lykkepillesak til høyesterett)
dailypost.co.uk 28.1.2008
(...) The government has announced an inquiry into Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibited drugs, known as SSRI, such as Seroxat and Prozac.

GlaxoSmithKline said: “We believe there is no merit in this litigation. Seroxat has benefited millions of people worldwide who have suffered from depression.”

The writ was issued by South Wales law firm Hugh James in November. (...)

GSK says UK lawsuit on Seroxat is without merit (GSK sier det britiske Seroxat-søksmålet er grunnløst)
pharmatimes.com 10.1.2008
GlaxoSmithKline has again spoken out in defence of Seroxat as reports re-emerged concerning lawsuits being filed in the UK against the firm and its blockbuster antidepressant. (...)

GlaxoSmithKline Is Sued in U.K. Over Antidepressant Seroxat (GlaxoSmithKlines er saksøkt i Storbritannia over antidepressivaet Seroxat)
bloomberg.com 8.1.2008
Jan. 8 (Bloomberg) -- GlaxoSmithKline Plc is being sued for as much as 15.7 million pounds ($31 million) by several hundred U.K. patients who said it was difficult to stop taking the antidepressant Seroxat.

``The claims are being brought here by people who allege they've had withdrawal,'' Mark Harvey, the lawyer who filed the suit in London, said today.

The U.K. lawsuit seeks between 15,000 pounds and 50,000 pounds each on behalf of 314 people who allege personal injury from Seroxat, known in the U.S. as Paxil, according to the Dec. 19 filing and the London High Court register. The patients claim negligence or statutory breach of duty dating back to 1997.

GlaxoSmithKline is also the target of more than 4,000 lawsuits in the U.S., combined in a federal court in Los Angeles, that allege Paxil users suffered withdrawal symptoms. While Harvey said he was aware of the U.S. lawsuits, the U.K. action is separate.

"We believe there is no merit in this litigation,'' GlaxoSmithKline said in an e-mailed statement today. "Seroxat has benefited millions of people worldwide who have suffered from depression.'' (...)

Seroxat (Paxil) og andre SSRI-er kan utløse personlighetsendringer, aggresjon og drap

Courtney Love apologises for her wild and inappropriate behaviour (including recent naked interview)
dailymail.co.uk 11.11.2010
Courtney Love has apologised for behaving in a wild and inappropriate manner during a recent interview with a newspaper reporter.

The singer's interview with New York Times reporter Eric Wilson lived 'right up to my worst reputation,' as she put it.

Love, 46, claims she was drunk and on antidepressant Zoloft when she met Wilson in her hotel room for the interview, which explains why she wasn't wearing any clothes at the time. (...)

KTLA SPECIAL REPORT: Fmr. Cop Accused Of Rape Blames Anti-Depressant Medication
ktla.com 10.11.2010
Anthony Orban's wife stands by her husband and says, "Something happened to his brain. There's no denying what happened."

ONTARIO ( KTLA) -- Former Westminster police officer Anthony Orban is accused of kidnapping and raping a woman but his defense attorney says he was taking zoloft and neurontin -- anti-depressant medication -- that rendered him incapable of rational thought.

Orban -- an Iraq War vet and former cop -- has been in jail since April of this year. On April 3rd, Orban and a friend -- Jeff Jelinek -- spent the afternoon in Ontario, drinking margaritas and beer.

Orban was on prescription anti-depressants and in an exclusive interview with KTLA, his wife Tracy says, "Something happened to his brain. There's no denying what happened." (...)

Orban's sister, Tisha, his mother Margaret, and his wife are convinced that Orban snapped because of the anti-depressant prescription drugs he was taking.

His attorney, Jim Blatt says, "He has absolutely no recollection of the events. The reason here... The use of psychotropic drugs. Zoloft and Neurontin, causing a psychotic break from reality." (...)

Grapevine woman: Emotional distress caused her to kill grandmother
star-telegram.com 26.5.2008
(...) About that time, Courtney Dunkin said, she was prescribed Paxil, an antidepressant on which she would intentionally overdose on a few occasions. In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration began requiring its strongest label warning for Paxil and other antidepressants because they increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children.

Dunkin says she was suicidal at the time of her grandmother's death and irrational because of the medication and the death of her grandfather. (...)

Accused murderer's sister blames crime on antidepressants
ksl.com 5.3.2008
Family members of murder suspect David Ragsdale today proclaimed they believe he is innocent of the murder of his estranged wife, Kristy. They believe he was under the influence of antidepressants, which clouded his judgment and led him to kill his wife. (...)

Tamara Ragsdale, David's sister, said, "She was writing him different prescriptions. He was on Paxil, Doxopine, Ritalin, Provigil; two of those are speeds, two are anti depressants, and he was on two forms of testosterone. He was having severe, adverse reactions before the shooting, blacking out and that sort of activity." (...)

(Anm: paroksetin (paroxetine); markesføres i Norge under handelsnavn som bl.a. Seroxat; Paxil i USA.).)

(Anm: Testosterontillskott höjer inte potensen. Det funkar inte att ta testosteron för att bli ett vilddjur i sängen. När ett antal män lottades till att få antingen testosterontillskott eller placebo syntes ingen skillnad i potens eller sexlust mellan de båda grupperna. (netdoktor.se 12.8.2015).)

Psychiatrists testify in nail gun murder trial
theunion.com 15.11.2007
Defense says Williams didn't know what he was doing (...)

In 2002, he testified in a civil case against pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline, which was claiming in advertisements that Paxil is non-habit forming. Shipko testified the company was misleading consumers into thinking they could stop taking the drug at any time, but that withdrawal symptoms can be severe.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, possible side-effects of Paxil therapy include changes of mood and suicidal thoughts or actions when the drug is first taken or when the dose is changed. There is no mention in the FDA's patient information sheet on Paxil regarding homicidal thoughts or actions.

Deputy District Attorney Kathryn Francis, with former Assistant District Attorney Ron Wolfson assisting her in court, called on psychiatrist Dr. Eric Raimo of San Diego to refute Shipko's testimony. (...)

'He shot her, reloaded, then shot her again'
theunion.com 3.11.2007
(...) Williams found out about the affair while he eavesdropped on a call between his wife and her friend a month before the killing. The stress of the betrayal combined with side effects from withdrawal of his anti-depressant medication Paxil drove him to kill, he said.

"Rather than a cold, calculated, angry plan, his decision to stop taking Paxil led to an incredible state of unconsciousness," Munkelt said. "He was trapped inside his own living nightmare." (...)

Baum Hedlund tar ut søksmål mot Seroxat-produsent på vegne av barn født med alvorlige hjertedefekter

Baum Hedlund Files Lawsuit Against Paxil-Maker on Behalf of Child Born with Severe Heart Defects
pharmalive.com 28.7.2006
LEGAL ACTIONS
PHILADELPHIA--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jul 28, 2006 - Baum Hedlund filed a lawsuit today against Philadelphia-based GlaxoSmithKline ("GSK"), the maker of Paxil, in Pennsylvania State Court, on behalf of its clients Anthony and Matilda Vasquez of Bedford, Texas, and their son Adrian. The family alleges that Mrs. Vasquez's ingestion of Paxil during her pregnancy resulted in her son being born with severe heart defects. The Vasquez family is seeking an unspecified amount of damages against GSK for failing to warn about the risks associated with Paxil for pregnant women and their unborn children. (...)

Gardener's terror rampage with chainsaw and petrol

Gardener's terror rampage with chainsaw and petrol
scotsman.com 26.8.2006
A GARDENER brought terror to neighbours and police when he went on a rampage with a chainsaw, a court heard yesterday.

James Aitken, 33, sawed his way through doors and furniture as a family barricaded themselves in a bedroom. He also sawed the wing mirror from a van before torching it.

When police were called to the scene in Whitecraig, East Lothian, Aitken doused officers with petrol and threatened them by flicking his lighter before he was finally brought down by baton blows and CS gas.

At the High Court in Edinburgh, judge Lord Brodie described the events of the early house of 26 February as "bizarre". Solicitor advocate John Scott, defending, said attempts had been made to link Aitken's behaviour to a controversial anti-depressant, seroxat. (...)

Glaxo May Have Shipped Inactive Paxil Antidepressants

Glaxo May Have Shipped Inactive Paxil Antidepressants (Update2)
bloomberg.com 4.10.2006
Oct. 4 (Bloomberg) -- GlaxoSmithKline Plc, the world's second biggest drugmaker, recalled Paxil CR antidepressants last month because the pills may have lacked an active ingredient, and didn't warn patients. (...)

Doctors said the lack of a warning could mean that patients may face a sudden withdrawal that can spur suicidal thoughts, shooting pain and flu-like symptoms. The Paxil CR pills Glaxo recalled, the highest dose sold, can cause severe withdrawal symptoms, said Stephen Ellen of the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester.

"If it is true that patients might have gotten dummy pills without knowing it, it is outrageous,'' said Ellen, a psychiatrist who is medical director of the Counseling Center of Nashua, New Hampshire, the largest private psychiatric group practice in New England with about 6,000 patients annually. (...)

SSRI-preparater og mulige MS-liknende hjerneskader

Antidepressant linked to worsening white matter in elderly (Antidepressiva linket til forverring av hvit substans hos eldre)
rehabpub.com/reuters_article.asp 17.3.2008
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The results of a study employing serial cranial MRI suggest that elderly adults who use tricyclic antidepressants may be at increased risk for progression of white matter lesions, which have been linked with late-life depression by previous studies. (...)

The use of an antidepressant from any class during the study period hastened the progression of white matter disease, according to the report in the March issue of Stroke.

Contrary to what the investigators had hypothesized, SSRI use did not reduce, but slightly increased the risk of worsening white matter on multivariate analysis. Still, the 36% increased risk seen with these agents was not statistically significant.

The use of a tricyclic antidepressant, however, was associated with a significantly elevated risk of worsening white matter lesions. Compared with those who used no antidepressants, patients receiving an agent in this drug class had an increased risk of 77%. (...)

(Anm: Behandling med antidepressiva og forverring av hvit substans påvist ved MRI hos eldre. (…) Resultater — Bruk av hvilken som helst antidepressiva i løpet av studien ble assosiert med forverring av hvit substans.) (Antidepressant Treatment and Worsening White Matter on Serial Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Elderly. (…) Results— Use of any antidepressant during the period of study was associated with worsening white matter.) (Stroke 2008; 39: 857-862).)

(Anm: PTSD og psykoaktive legemidler knyttet til økt risiko for demens. (PTSD and psychoactive drugs linked to increased risk for dementiaI) (…) I denne studien oppdaget forskerne at det å ta visse antidepressiva, sedativer, beroligende midler eller antipsykotika økte veteranernes risiko for å utvikle demens sammenlignet med risikoen for veteraner som ikke tok slike legemidler. (…) En ny studie, publisert i Journal of the American Geriatrics Society undersøkte denne forbindelsen. (newmedpagetoday.com 9.5.2017).)

(Anm: Veterans with PTSD have an increased 'fight or flight' response. Young veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have an increased 'fight or flight' response during mental stress, according to new findings published in The Journal of Physiology. (medicalnewstoday.com 16.5.2017).)

(Anm: NY NORSK FORSKNING: Etter bare én natt uten søvn endrer noe seg i hjernen din. (…) – Vi vet fra før at søvnmangel svekker hjernens funksjoner, men våre og andre forskeres resultater tyder på at også hjernens struktur kan endre seg, sier Elvsåshagen. (…) – Vi fant tegn til forandringer i hjernens hvite substans. Den inneholder blant annet nervecellenes utløpere, som overfører signaler fra et hjerneområde til et annet. Jo større forandringene i den hvite substansen var, desto søvnigere følte deltakerne seg. (tv2.no 17.3.2016).)

(Anm: hvit substans; hvit substans, margkledde nervefibrer, utløpere fra nervecellene i hjerne og ryggmarg. Den hvite fargen skyldes myelin, et fettholdig stoff som danner margskjeder omkring nervefibrene. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: white matter (hvit substans); Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common disease which affects white matter (wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Physical fitness in childhood improves white matter in the brain (medicalnewstoday.com 21.8.2014).)

(Anm: Brukere av kodein-holdig hostesirup funnet å ha underskudd på hvit substans (Users of codeine-containing cough syrups found to have white-matter deficits) (medicalnewstoday.com 23.8.2014).)

(Anm: Barn i god fysisk form får bedre hjernekapasitet - Barn med god kondisjon har mer hvit materie i hjernen og mer hjernevolum i områder som er forbundet med hukommelse, læring og oppmerksomhet, enn barn med dårlig kondisjon har. (nhi.no 21.8.2014).)

(Anm: Magnetic resonance imaging MRI findings in white matter disease of brain. Demyelinating and dysmyelinating white matter diseases are important components of neurological problems. Recently, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has played a key role in diagnoses of white matter diseases. J Pak Med Assoc. 2008 Feb;58(2):86-8.)

(Anm: Relationships between personality traits, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and white matter lesion in subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Front. Aging Neurosci 2014 (29 July 2014).)

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use associates with apathy among depressed elderly: a case-control study (Bruk av selektive serotoninreopptakshemmere er assosiert med apati blant deprimerte eldre: en case-control studie)
Annals of General Psychiatry 2007, 6:7
Background (Bakgrunn)
Det er det siste ti år rapportert at bruk av selektive serotoninreopptakshemmere (SSRI-er) kan være assosiert med forekomst av apati. (...) (It has been reported for over the past decade that the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's) may associate with the emergence of apathy.)

Conclusion (Konklusjon)
Selv om depresjon ble bedre hos eldre pasienter som fikk antidepressiva, opptrådte apati oftere hos pasienter som ble behandlet med SSRI enn hos pasienter som ikke ble behandlet. Dysfunksjon i frontal lobe på grunn av serotonerge endringer er ansett som en av mulighetene. (...) (Even though depression was improved in elderly patients receiving antidepressants, apathy appeared to be greater in patients who were treated with SSRI than that found in patients who were not. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to alteration of serotonin is considered to be one of the possibilities.)

(Anm: apati (av gr. nektende a og 'affekt'), psykologisk og psykiatrisk begrep som betyr mangel på sjelelige følelser (affekter). Som regel ledsaget av interesseløshet. Sees særlig ved svære depressive og schizofrene tilstander.

(Anm: pannelappen; lobus frontalis, hjernens frontallapp; jf frontallappssyndromet EN frontal lobe.

frontallappssyndromet; eit særleg huglag (sinnelag) som kan koma etter skade i ein pannelapp i hjernen, t d etter lobotomi; pasienten får eit grunt kjensleliv, vert urimeleg overflatisk og lett til sinns, likesæl og godtruande; også kalla frontal psyke; jf Witzelsucht (ty.) EN frontal lobe syndrome. Kilde: Norsk medisinsk ordbok.)

(Anm: Kristian Gundersen: Atombomber, lobotomi og raseteori var anvendt forskning. Vitenskapens feilgrep blir ikke begått av ensomme Frankenstein-forskere i mørke laboratorium, de blir bestilt av samfunnet. (aftenposten.no 18.2.2015).)

(Anm: Den besatte kirurgen: Utførte 2900 lobotomier. Walter Freeman oppfant en enkel og hurtig metode til «det hvite snitt»: Med en syl hamret han hull opp til hjernen. Freeman skal han ha utført 2900 lobotomier i USA. (vg.no 1.11.2016).)

(Anm: Ondskapens filosofi (“rule by nobody”) (mintankesmie.no).)

Vanlige utfall etter ervervet hjerneskade
sunnaas.no 26.2.003
(...) Det er rapportert at noen pasienter blir passive og apatiske. Noen er det fordi de har blitt deprimerte, mens det for andre er et direkte resultat av skaden. Noen blir også urolige og kritikkløse. Ofte er slike endringer i oppførsel det de pårørende synes er vanskeligst å forholde seg til. (...)

THE PEOPLE'S PHARMACY
infoweb.newsbank.com 14.7.2007 (The Dallas Morning News)
Serotonin has become a household word, thanks to Prozac. Millions of people take this popular antidepressant or related drugs such as Zoloft and Paxil every day.

These medications are known scientificallyas SSRIs: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. They allow serotonin to accumulate between nerve endings. This brain chemical helps to regulate mood and appears to be important for sleep, learning, appetite, sexual behavior, pain, perception and movement.

But although serotonin is essential for good health, it has a darker side. Too much serotonin can cause bizarre behavior, and some people taking these medications might be at risk of life-threatening drug interactions.

Serotonin syndrome can cause a range of problems, from anxiety, agitation and muscle twitches to nausea, sweating, confusion, convulsions and even coma. (...)

- Forstyrret følesans og opplevelser av "elektriske støt" i hodet" (...) "...følelse av elektriske støt i hodet, andre blir svimmel og psykisk urolig"

Hva er antidepressivt nedtrappingssyndrom?
nhi.no 28.11.2013
Stans i behandlingen med antidepressiv medikasjon (antidepressiva) er noen ganger forbundet med utvikling av et såkalt "antidepressivt nedtrappingssyndrom" (syndrom betyr samling av mange symptomer). Symptomene kan være forkjølelsesliknende, søvnproblemer, kvalme, svimmelhet, forstyrret følesans og opplevelser av "elektriske støt" i hodet. Alle typer antidepressiva er rapportert å kunne gi slike reaksjoner, enten som følge av brå stans eller for rask nedtrapping av behandlingen. De mest brukte antidepressiver betegnes SSRI (Fluoxetin, Fontex, Citalopram, Cipramil, Paroxetin, Seroxat, Sertralin, Zoloft, Fevarin, Cipralex, Escitalopram), trisykliske antidepressiver (Klomipramin, Anafranil, Surmontil, Sarotex, Noritren, Sinequan) og MAO-hemmere (Moclobemid, Aurorix). Atypiske antidepressiver er Mianserin, Tolvon, Mirtazapin, Remeron, Wellbutrin, Zyban, Efexor, Venlafaxin, Venlix, Edronax, Cymbalta.

Kjennskap til antidepressivt nedtrappingssyndrom er viktig fordi selv om symptomene ofte er milde, kan tilstanden gi mye ubehag, fravær fra jobb, andre psykososiale problemer og unntaksvis kreve sykehusinnleggelse. Oversett diagnose kan føre til medisinske og psykiatriske feildiagnoser, og eventuelt utsette deg for unødvendige undersøkelser og medisinske behandlinger. Dessuten kan slike plager skape en motvilje hos deg mot bruk av slike medikamenter i fremtiden, og derved øke din sårbarhet ved eventuelle fremtidige angst- og depresjonsplager.

Det er få sikre data på forekomst av tilstanden. I ulike rapporter varierer forekomsten fra 9% til 66%. Et rimelig anslag er at hver tredje pasient som behandles med antidepressiva, utvikler milde til moderate symptomer på antidepressivt nedtrappingssyndrom. (…)

- Hjerneslag: Hjerneceller forsterker skadelige elektriske utladninger.

Stroke: Brain cells potentiate harmful electrical discharges. (Hjerneslag: Hjerneceller forsterker skadelige elektriske utladninger.)
medicalnewstoday.com 22.12.2016
In the aftermath of stroke, brain damage is exacerbated by electrical discharges. Researchers at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) have investigated the mechanisms of these "spreading depolarizations" in mice, and found that brain cells termed astrocytes potentiate the fatal discharges. The study highlights potential counter-measures: a signaling pathway that acts upon the calcium concentration in astrocytes may be a potential starting point for treating stroke in humans. Dr. Cordula Rakers and Prof. Gabor Petzold report on these findings in The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

The brain depends on a constant supply of oxygen. This is why a stroke can have fatal consequences. Whether caused by cerebral hemorrhage or a blocked artery, the oxygen deficit triggers a rapid loss of nerve cells. Stroke is, therefore, one of the most common causes of death, and even if the patient survives, paralysis, speech difficulties or other disabilities may remain depending on which part of the brain was injured.

The damaged area can even expand to some extent. This is due to "spreading depolarizations", which can occur minutes after a stroke and may recur over the following days. They start at the infarct core and engulf the surrounding tissue like an avalanche. These electrical discharges put the cells under severe stress. "The spreading depolarizations radiate into the healthy tissue. Each wave can increase the volume of the brain affected by stroke," says Petzold. "Incidentally, these depolarizations do not occur only in stroke but also in other severe brain injuries. A therapy might therefore be relevant for many neurological diseases."

Favourable opportunities for treatment might arise from the fact that the discharges spread over several days. Petzold notes: "Each wave is potentially harmful. However, the damage occurs gradually as there is a cumulative effect. Treatment could therefore have a positive impact, even if it is given days after the stroke. The time window for treating spreading depolarizations might therefore be larger than in established therapies against stroke."

Harmful interaction between nerve cells and astrocytes
DZNE researchers have now discovered how various events and cell types interact during spreading depolarizations, thereby intensifying the discharge. Cells known as astrocytes play a key role. These cells form a dense network with the brain's nerve cells and are involved in various metabolic processes.

"When nerve cells depolarize, they release large quantities of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate then diffuses to other cells, in particular to neighboring astrocytes," explains Petzold. "This was known before. However, we have now been able to show what follows this event. The glutamate causes calcium levels in the astrocytes to soar. As a result, the astrocytes release glutamate as well. This in turn can act on nerve cells. A vicious circle emerges that potentiates the spreading depolarizations. This process is amplified by the astrocytes."

The neuroscientists were also able to show that certain drugs can interrupt this chain of events. Ultimately, these drugs reduce the abnormally elevated calcium levels in astrocytes. "At present, there is no established treatment that directly affects spreading depolarizations. Our results show that it is possible to reduce the frequency and severity of these discharges by modulating the astrocytes' calcium metabolism. In theory, this could also be possible in humans. This could lead to a new approach to treating stroke," says Petzold. (...)

(Anm: Astrocytic calcium release mediates peri-infarct depolarizations in a rodent stroke model. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 2016 (published 19 December 2016).)

- Hvilke symptomer ser vi ved MS?

Hvilke symptomer ser vi ved MS?
MS.NO 4.12.2002
SYMPTOMER
MS omfatter inflammasjon i sentralnervesystemet som etterfølges av tap av de beskyttende myelin skjedene som omgir nervefibrene [demyelinisering]. Myelinet virker som isolasjonsmateriale som omgir og beskytter elektriske ledninger. Når myelinet tar skade vil ikke nerveimpulsene kunne overføres så hurtig og effektivt som de skal. Som et resultat av den inflammatoriske prosessen vil det oppstå skadde områder [lesjoner eller plaques] i hjerne og ryggmarg som i sin tur gir ulike nevrologiske symptomer.

Vanlige symptomer kan være synstap, nummenhet og vissenhet, kraftsvekkelse, ustø gange, dobbeltsyn, økt trøttbarhet, varmeintoleranse, delvise eller fullstendige lammelser og en fornemmelse av elektrisk støt langs ryggsøylen ved bøyning i nakken. Symptomene kan forsvinne etter et akutt attakk, men kan også bli værende. (...)

- Bruk av antidepressiva ble assosiert med et betydelig eldre utseende og forskere fant også ut at vekten spilte en viktig faktor. (- I tillegg mistenker forskerne at den vedvarende avslapping av ansiktsmuskler som antidepressiva forårsaker kan forklare årsaken til at ansiktet faller sammen (henger).)

(Anm: Bruk av antidepressiva ble assosiert med et betydelig eldre utseende og forskere fant også ut at vekten spilte en viktig faktor. I de sett med tvillinger som var yngre enn 40 år ble tyngre tvillinger oppfattet som eldre. (…) I tillegg mistenker forskerne at den vedvarende avslapping av ansiktsmuskler som antidepressiva forårsaker kan forklare årsaken til at ansiktet faller sammen (henger). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Legemiddelinduserte mitokondrielle skader og sykdom. (Medication-induced mitochondrial damage and disease.) (mintankesmie.no).)

- Konklusjoner. Bruk av SSRI var assosiert med vektøkning og forekomst av usunn atferd, inkludert vestlig diett, "sedentarisme" (blir stillesittende/inaktiv) og røyking.

(Anm: Konklusjoner. Bruk av SSRI var assosiert med vektøkning og forekomst av usunn atferd, inkludert vestlig diett, "sedentarisme" (blir stillesittende/inaktiv) og røyking. (Conclusions SSRIs use was associated with weight gain in the presence of unhealthy behaviours including Western diet, sedentarism and smokng. BMJ Open 2017;7:e016224.)

Anm: Antidepressiva (SSRI-er) kan utløse sentral fatigue (sentral utmattelse) (mintankesmie.no).)

- Mitokondriell aldring og aldersrelatert mitokondriell dysfunksjon.

(Anm: Mitokondriell aldring og aldersrelatert mitokondriell dysfunksjon. Abstrakt. Alderselaterte endringer i mitokondrier er knyttet til redusert i mitokondriell funksjon. Med fremskyndet aldring reduseres mitokondrielt DNA-volum, integritet og funksjonalitet på grunn av akkumulering av mutasjoner og oksidativ skade fremkalt av reaktive oksygensubstanser (ROS). Hos eldre mennesker er mitokondriene preget av redusert funksjon som redusert oksidativ kapasitet, redusert oksidativ fosforylering, redusert ATP-produksjon, betydelig økning i ROS-generasjon og redusert antioksidantforsvar. (Abstract Age-related changes in mitochondria are associated with decline in mitochondrial function. With advanced age, mitochondrial DNA volume, integrity and functionality decrease due to accumulation of mutations and oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In aged subjects, mitochondria are characterized by impaired function such as lowered oxidative capacity, reduced oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, significant increase in ROS generation, and diminished antioxidant defense.) Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:238463. Epub 2014 Apr 10.)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) indusert av sertraline (Zoloft), et antidepressiva (Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sertraline, an antidepressant agent) Toxicol Sci. 2012 Jun;127(2):582-91. Epub 2012 Mar 2.)

(Anm: Kan Lupus øke risikoen for demens? Could lupus raise dementia risk? People living with lupus may be at significantly greater risk of developing dementia than those without the autoimmune disease, a new study suggests. (…) Study co-author Daniela Amital, of the Sackler Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University in Israel, and colleagues recently reported their results in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.11.2017).)

(Anm: Antipsykotika forårsaker ansiktsgrimasering og andre typer mulige varige hjerneskader (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Lykkepille (Seroxat) utløser tilfeller av aggresjon ("aggression er iagttaget efter markedsføring") (ema.europa.eu 22. januar 2015).)

(Anm: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Factors Contributing to the Facial Aging of Identical Twins (Note: This study is appearing in a raw, publish-ahead-of-print format and will be published in final form in the April 2009 issue of PRS.) (February 2009).)

Trikset for å unngå rynker
dinside.no 4.2.2009
Forskning viser at du selv kan påvirke.

Det er langt fra bare alder og genetiske faktorer som avgjør om du blir rynkete i ansiktet. Det kommer fram i en fersk studie publisert i tidsskriftet Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. (...)

Stress er synderen
Testpersoner som hadde brukt antidepressiva eller som hadde gått kraftig opp og ned i vekt også så eldre ut enn tvillingen sin. (...)

Antidepressiva kan dessuten føre til at ansiktshuden henger mer, fordi medisinen gjør at ansiktsmuskulaturen blir mer avslappet. (...)

What happens when minnows take a chill pill? (Hva skjer når småfisk tar en avslapningspille)
startribune.com 22.12.2008
Meghan McGee, a graduate student at St. Cloud State University, tested minnow larvae reaction time to vibrating movement.

St. Cloud State University research found that minnows exposed to antidepressants, whose residues end up in local waters, are more laid back - which is not so great for survival. (...)

FIKK 2,2 MILL. etter ansiktskramper (PDF)
Av JORUN SOFIE F. AARTUN og MAY LINN GJERDING
VG 22.05.2006 (Side: 9. Emne: Helse. Kategori: HELSE OG MEDISIN)
En 51 år gammel kvinne fikk utbetalt hele 2,2 millioner kroner i erstatning, etter at «lykkepiller» ga henne kroniske rykninger i ansiktet. Informasjonssjef Torill Svoldal Stæhr i Norsk pasientskadeerstatning (NPE) ser svært alvorlig på saken.

- Kvinnen har fått store skader. I tillegg til de kroniske muskeltrekningene i ansikt, hals og mellomgulv har kvinnen store pustebesvær, sier Svoldal Stæhr i NPE.

Hun mener det er overveiende sannsynlig at kvinnen fikk de lumske skadene som følge av såkalte SSRI-preparater, som «lykkepillene» heter på fagspråket.

- Store smerter
- Kvinnen har store smerter og er delvis eller helt ufør etter å ha tatt preparatet Fontex, sier Svoldal Stæhr.

Fontex, bedre kjent som Prozac, skal virke mot depresjon, angst, spiseforstyrrelser, narkolepsi og andre psykiske lidelser.

Det foreligger en potensiell risiko for kramper ved behandling med antidepressive legemidler. (...)

(Anm: Serotonin syndrom (SS), kramper, parkinsonisme osv. (forhøyet kroppstemperatur) (mintankesmie.no).)

- Deprimerade patienter misstros av vården

Deprimerade patienter misstros av vården
tv4.se 12.11.2004
Karin Sörensen fick kramper men misstroddes av läkarna.

Patienter blir inte trodda när dom berättar om sina biverkningar av antidepressiva medel - som att de får självmordstankar, blir apatiska och känner sig beroende av medicinen. (...)

Karin Sörensen är av de drabbade
- Bemötandet var det värsta. Att inte bli trodd av läkarna. De sade att den här medicinen kommer att fungera, men sen när den inte fungerade så sade de aha, men då är det något annat än medicinen, säger hon. (...)

- Sedan spred det sig så jag fick riktiga krampanfall i hela kroppen. Och när jag talar om det för läkare så sade de att det kan inte vara medicinen men jag slutade med den och sen har jag aldrig haft krampen igen. (...)

Dementeras av läkare
Kilen är en intesseorganisation dit konsumenter kan rapportera läkemedelsbiverkningar. Många är desperata när de ringer om biverkningar som dementeras av läkare, trots att biverkningarna ibland finns nämnda i Fass, uppslagsboken för läkemedel.

- Det här är ju oerhört förvirrande för en patient att det står i Fass trots att doktorn säger att det inte är det. Och då förlorar man förtroendet för läkaren, man förlorar förtroendet för läkemedlet och man slutar en behandling som kanske kunnat hjälpa, säger Jan Albinson på Kilen. (...)

Lyckopiller får många att må ännu sämre
tv4.se 11.11.2006
Över en halv miljon svenskar använder antidepressiva läkemedel, så kallade lyckopiller. Men mer än hälften måste byta medicin för att biverkningarna är för svåra. (...)

Kända biverkningar är illamående, sexualstörningar och känslan av vara avskärmad från omgivningen. (...)

Veteraner som tar PTSD-legemidler dør under søvn

Vets taking PTSD drugs die in sleep (Veteraner som tar PTSD-legemidler dør under søvn)
wvgazette.com 25.5.2008
Hurricane man's death the 4th in West Virginia

A Putnam County veteran who was taking medication prescribed for post-traumatic stress disorder died in his sleep earlier this month, in circumstances similar to the deaths of three other area veterans earlier this year.

Derek Johnson, 22, of Hurricane, served in the infantry in the Middle East in 2005, where he was wounded in combat and diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder while hospitalized.

Military doctors prescribed Paxil, Klonopin and Seroquel for Johnson, the same combination taken by veterans Andrew White, 23, of Cross Lanes; Eric Layne, 29, of Kanawha City; and Nicholas Endicott of Logan County. All were in apparently good physical health when they died in their sleep.

Johnson was taking Klonopin and Seroquel, as prescribed, at the time of his death, said his grandmother, Georgeann Underwood of Hurricane. Both drugs are frequently used in combination to treat post-traumatic stress disorder. Klonopin causes excessive drowsiness in some patients. (...)

(Anm: Prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders has risen among US veterans. A new study found a six-fold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence of any sleep disorder diagnosis over an 11-year period among U.S. veterans. The largest increases were identified in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other mental disorders, or combat experience. Results also show that the prevalence of PTSD tripled during the study period. (medicalnewstoday.com 18.7.2016).)

Veterans' families question cause of deaths
wvgazette.com 1.3.2009
Post-traumatic stress syndrome treatment cited

CHARLESTON, W.Va. -- Stan and Shirley White's son Andrew, a Marine reservist, died at home 2 1/2 years after he returned from Iraq. Janette Layne lost her husband, Eric, in similar circumstances after his return from Iraq.

More than a year later, they still don't know if the medication their loved ones were taking for post-traumatic stress disorder contributed to their deaths. (...)

The prescriptions were given by doctors at VA facilities in Huntington, Charleston and a residential program in Cincinnati where Layne had just completed an eight-week in-patient treatment. White's doctor instructed him to take as much Paxil and Seroquel as needed, Shirley White said.

"They said he had lethal amounts in his system," she said. "So, no, we don't have answers."

A second look
Stan White hopes to convince policy-makers in Washington to take a second look at pharmaceuticals prescribed to PTSD sufferers.

How safe are the combinations? How carefully should they be dosed? Should people with PTSD, which sometimes includes forgetfulness and memory loss, be given prescriptions that require careful monitoring? (...)

(Anm: Paxil (Seroxat; generisk navn paroxetine; paroksetin i Norge).

Kramper (convulsions) og hjernehinnebløding (subarachnoid haemorrhage) etter inntak av SSRI (lykkepiller)

Neonatal convulsions and subarachnoid hemorrhage after in utero exposure to paroxetine. (Kramper og subaraknoidalbløding (hjernehinnebløding) hos nyfødte etter bruk av Seroxat under svangerskapet)
Rev Neurol 2003;36:724-6
CASE REPORT. One newborn whose mother had been treated with paroxetine 20 mg/day during pregnancy, presented convulsions and subarachnoid haemorrhage in the first six hours of life. The newborn did not present symptoms of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, withdrawal syndrome, infection, metabolic alterations, cerebral malformations or coagulopaties. DISCUSSION. The most probable etiology is that the paroxetine could decrease the seizure threshold, taking place the first seizure during delivery. The difficult fetal extraction would have provoked the subarachnoid haemorrhage in a patient with an impaired haemostatic function due to a depletion of platelet serotonin and may also contribute the increased vascular fragility due to paroxetine and reported in adults or in animals. CONCLUSION. Neonatal convulsions and subarachnoid haemorrhage may occur after paroxetine treatment in the third trimester of pregnancy. An accurate follow up of these newborns in the firsts days of life is strongly recommended.” (...)

(Anm: subaraknoidalbløding; hemorrhagia subarachnoidalis; hjernehinnebløding, d e bløding mellom araknoidea og pia, oftast frå ei rivna utposing eller utviding (divertikkel, aneurisme) på ei av hjernepulsårene; slike alvorlege blødingar kan koma hos unge eller eldre, ter seg gjerne med sterk brå hovudverk, stiv nakke som ter seg etter om lag 6 timar, kvalme/oppkast, uklar sinnstilstand og andre teikn på hjerneskade etter kor stor blødinga er; ekstra hjerneskade kan koma etter 4–12 dagar pga sviktande blodforsyning til hjernevev; kan utløysast av tunge tak, samleie e a; i spinalvæska er det blod og væska er gul etter sentrifugering; jf berry aneurysm, aneurysma intracraniale; EN subarachnoid hemorrhage; BM subaraknoidalblødning. Kilde: Norsk medisinsk ordbok.)

(Anm: PTSD og ikke traume øker selvmordsrisiko (reuters.com 5.3.2009).)

Antidepressiva kan skade menns sædceller (DNA)

Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants (Unormal sæd med SSRI antidepressiva)
english.prescrire.org 1.1.2015
Several studies have found altered semen parameters after exposure to SSRI antidepressants. Although the role of SSRIs is uncertain, it is justified to take into account the observed effects on sperm quality and to inform exposed patients.

Abstract

  • Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of “selective” serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated.
  • Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility.
  • Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen parameters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation.
  • One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRIs. SSRIs may have endocrine disrupting properties.
  • Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility.
  • In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. (…)

(Anm: Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants. Prescrire Int 2015; 24 (156): 16-17. (Pdf, subscribers only).)

Data fra dyreforsøg vedrørende SSRI og nedsat sædkvalitet
lmst.dk 19.4.2012
På baggrund af publicerede studier (1,2) har Den Europæiske Bivirkningskomité, PhVWP, gennemgået de tilgængelige data vedrørende effekten af selektive serotonin genoptagshæmmere (SSRI’er) på sædkvaliteten og vurderet, om behandling med SSRI kan have indflydelse på fertiliteten hos mænd.

I den forbindelse har dyrestudier vist, at SSRI-præparater, bortset fra sertralin, i højere doser end de almindeligt anbefalede til mennesker, kan påvirke sædkvaliteten. Endvidere foreligger kasuistiske meddelelser om, at visse SSRI’er har en negativ effekt på sædkvaliteten hos mænd, og at effekten er reversibel ved behandlingsophør. Effekten på fertiliteten er ukendt.

Produktinformationen for SSRI’er bliver opdateret med den nye information
PhVWP har konkluderet, at produktresumeer og indlægssedler for alle SSRI-præparater i EU, der indeholder citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetin, fluvoxamin, paroxetin og sertralin skal opdateres. Fremover skal produktinformationen, i henhold til data for de aktive indholdsstoffer – indeholde information om, at dyrestudier har vist, at SSRIer kan påvirke sædkvaliteten, at effekten er reversibel hos mennesker, samt at nedsat fertilitet hos mænd ikke er påvist. Læs mere i PhVWP’s månedsrapport marts 2012.

Referencer
1 Tanrikut C, Schlegel PN. Antidepressant-associated changes in semen parameters. Urology. 2007; 69: 185.e5-7.
2 Safarinejad MR. Sperm DNA damage and semen quality impairment after treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors detected using semen analysis and sperm chromatin structure assay. J Urol. 2008; 180: 2124-2128. (...)

Anti-depressants can damage men's sperm (Antidepressiva kan skade menns spermie)
chicagotribune.com 12.6.2009
Add anti-depressants to the list of substances that can damage men’s sperm and potentially impair their fertility.

In a new study, New York researchers report that as many as half of men taking the anti-depressant paroxetine (brand names, Seroxat and Paxil) have higher levels of sperm fragmentation.

The study was published online to