Parkinson's Drugs May Have More Risks (forbes.com 3.1.2007)

Studier finner skade ved bruk av to parkinsonlegemidler (nytimes.com 4.1.2007)

Kabergolin och pergolid – risk för skada på hjärtklaffarna (lakemedelsverket.se 30.3.2007)

FDA Public Health Advisory Pergolide (marketed as Permax) (fda.gov)

Parkinsons legemiddel trukket fra det amerikanske markedet (REUTERS.COM 30.3.2007)

Spilleavhengighet (spilleavhengige/problemspillere) (mintankesmie.no)

Søvnforstyrrelse linket til demens, Parkinsons sykdom (ivanhoe.com 5.1.2009)

- Rask gange / trening kan bedre symptomene på Parkinsons sykdom

AAN: 'Big' Exercise Has Big Benefits in Parkinson's (AAN (American Academy of Neurology): "Masse" trening har stor nytte ved Parkinsons sykdom)
medpagetoday.com 16.4.2010
TORONTO -- Patients with Parkinson's disease who participated regularly in exaggerated-movement exercises showed marked reductions in many symptoms, suggesting a degree of neuroprotection, researchers said here.

After 12 weeks, the 20 patients in the study had a mean 58% reduction from baseline in physician-assessed motor impairment as scored on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), according to Air Force Maj. Maria Alvarez, MD, of Wilford Hall Medical Center at Lackland AFB in San Antonio.

And all six patients considered at high risk of falling at baseline -- defined as a score less than 19 on the Tinetti Gait and Balance index -- had scores above this threshold following the program, she reported at a poster session during the American Academy of Neurology meeting. (...)

(Anm: Brisk Walking May Improve Symptoms of Parkinson’s (American Academy of Neurology 2.7.2014).)

(Anm: Exercise may improve balance, mobility and quality of life in people with Parkinson's (medicalnewstoday.com 1.1.2015).)

(Anm: Probiotics and prebiotic fiber for constipation associated with Parkinson disease: An RCT. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and constipation. (…) CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of a fermented milk containing multiple probiotic strains and prebiotic fiber was superior to placebo in improving constipation in patients with PD.Neurology. 2016 Aug 19. pii: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003127. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Nytt hopp om effektiv behandling vid parkinson. En studie visar nu att en viss typ av stamceller skulle kunna användas vid behandling av nervsjukdomen Parkinson. (netdoktor.se 31.8.2017).)

- Kognitiv dysfunksjon kan fortelle om tidlig Parkinsons risiko.

(Anm: Biotin Supplements May Interfere with Blood Tests. Supplements linked to false results in biotinylated assays. Cognitive dysfunction is associated with an increased risk of parkinsonism, and should be considered a prodromal sign of Parkinson's disease, researchers argued. In an analysis of data from 7,386 participants in the Rotterdam Study, poor global cognition at baseline was associated with an almost twofold higher risk of incident parkinsonism (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.33) compared normal cognitive functioning at baseline, according to Arfan Ikram, MD, PhD, of Erasmus MC University Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and colleagues. This association remained robust after 8 years (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.59) of follow-up, and after excluding patients with the onset of dementia before parkinsonism (HR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.28 to 2.27), the study authors reported online in JAMA Neurology. (medpagetoday.com 27.9.2017)

- Parkinsons gjennombrudd: Ny sykdomsfremkallende mekanisme funnet.

(Anm: Parkinson's breakthrough: New disease-causing mechanism found. Parkinson's breakthrough: New disease-causing mechanism found. (…) Voluntary movement is known to be regulated by a brain region called the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia modulates locomotion by shifting between instructions to trigger motion and instructions to suppress it. (…) Study yields 'breakthrough' findings Using optogenetics - a technique wherein neurons are genetically modified to respond to light, enabling the researchers to track and control the behavior of the cells - the scientists stimulated inhibitory basal ganglia inputs. In other words, they intensified the motor suppression instructions. However, they found that this made ventrolateral thalamic neurons - which are involved in motor control - hyperactive. (…) As the authors explain, this is the phenomenon called "rebound firing," which seems to be triggered by intensifying inhibitory basal ganglia inputs. (…) Surprisingly, mice with abnormally low levels of dopamine but no rebound firing displayed normal movement and no Parkinson's disease symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com 2.10.2017).)

– Brudd i forbindelser i hjernen hos parkinsonpasienter kan føre til visuell hallusinasjon, ifølge studie.

(Anm: Brain disconnections in Parkinson’s patients might lead to visual hallucination, study says. A new study published in the online journal Radiology suggested that disconnections in the areas of the brain, which are involved in attention and visual processing might lead to visual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson’s disease. (news-medical.net 27.9.2017).)

- Preklinisk studie antyder at Parkinson sykdom kan starte i tarm-endokrine celler. (- Ifølge funnene som er publisert i tidsskriftet JCI Insight hevder forskere og samarbeidspartnere fra University of California, San Francisco, at et stoff i tarmen kan forstyrre alfa-synuclein i endokrine celler i tarmen, og deformere proteinet. Det deformerte eller misfoldede proteinet kan da spre seg via nervesystemet til hjernen som et prion eller infeksjonsprotein, på samme måte som kugalskap.)

(Anm: Pre-clinical study suggests Parkinson's could start in gut endocrine cells. Recent research on Parkinson's disease has focused on the gut-brain connection, examining patients' gut bacteria, and even how severing the vagus nerve connecting the stomach and brain might protect some people from the debilitating disease. But scientists understand little about what's happening in the gut - the ingestion of environmental toxins or germs, perhaps - that leads to brain damage and the hallmarks of Parkinson's such as tremors, stiffness and trouble walking. According to findings published in the journal JCI Insight, Duke researchers and collaborators from the University of California, San Francisco, hypothesize that an agent in the gut might interfere with alpha-synuclein in gut endocrine cells, deforming the protein. The deformed or misfolded protein might then spread via the nervous system to the brain as a prion, or infectious protein, in similar fashion to mad cow disease. (medicalnewstoday.com 19.6.2017).)

(Anm: Two new studies expand understanding of link between PD and gastrointestinal dysfunction. (news-medical.ne 31.7.2017).)

(Anm: Bacterial community in the gut of Parkinson's patients differs from that of healthy people. Parkinson's disease is an insidious disease: by the time it manifests as the typical motor dysfunctions such as tremors or muscle rigidity, portions of the brain have already been irreversibly destroyed. (news-medical.net 29.8.2017).)

- Endrede bakterielle samfunn i tarmen kan være en indikator for Parkinsons sykdom.

(Anm: Altered bacterial communities in the gut could be an indicator for Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is an insidious disease: by the time it manifests as the typical motor dysfunctions such as tremors or muscle rigidity, portions of the brain have already been irreversibly destroyed. (…) It turned out that the bacterial community of the gut differed considerably between all three groups. "Parkinson's patients could be differentiated from healthy controls by their respective gut bacteria," explains the first author Dr. Anna Heintz-Buschart from the Eco-Systems Biology Group. And the majority of the differential bacteria showed similar trends in the iRBD group. For example, certain germs were more prevalent in one group while the count was lower in others. In the samples from the subjects' nasal cavities, however, the researchers found no such differences. The study also revealed that certain gut microbes are associated with non-motor Parkinson's symptoms, for example depression. (medicalnewstoday.com 1.9.2017).)

(Anm: The nasal and gut microbiome in Parkinson's disease and idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Movement Disorders 2017 (published online 26 August 2017).)

- Lundbeck-rival dykker 40 pct efter dødsfald i Parkinsons-studier. (- Ifølge nyhedsbureauet havde selskabet observeret 7 tilfælde af sepsis, også kaldet blodforgiftning, med 5 dødsfald til følge på tværs af en række mellem- og senfasestudier med kandidaten.) (- Studierne med tozadenant vil fortsætte, men Acorda meddeler, at man nu vil øge overvågningen af patienternes blodtal i studierne.)

(Anm: Lundbeck-rival dykker 40 pct efter dødsfald i Parkinsons-studier. Et amerikansk selskab, der ligesom danske Lundbeck udvikler lægemidler mod Parkinsons sygdom, har set sin aktiepris falde med omkring 40 pct. onsdag, efter man meldte om fem dødsfald i kliniske studier med en lægemiddelkandidat. Det amerikanske biotekselskab Acorda Therapeutics meddelte onsdag, at flere forsøgspersoner er gået bort i kliniske studier med en lægemiddelkandidat mod Parkinsons sygdom.Det skriver Reuters.De kliniske problemer, som sendte selskabets aktiepris ned med små 40 pct. til 17 dollars stykket, skete i et fase 3-studie med kandidaten tozadenant. Ifølge nyhedsbureauet havde selskabet observeret 7 tilfælde af sepsis, også kaldet blodforgiftning, med 5 dødsfald til følge på tværs af en række mellem- og senfasestudier med kandidaten. Studierne med tozadenant vil fortsætte, men Acorda meddeler, at man nu vil øge overvågningen af patienternes blodtal i studierne. (medwatch.dk 16.11.2017).)

- Stort gjennombrot: Astmamedisin kan hjelpe mot Parkinson. (- I mange typar astmamedisin er verkestoffet salbutamol. Det er dette som ser ut til å bremse utviklinga av Parkinson.)

(Anm: Stort gjennombrot: Astmamedisin kan hjelpe mot Parkinson. UIB (NRK): Forskarane jubla då dei fann resultatet som gir nytt håp til folk med Parkinson-diagnose. (…) I mange typar astmamedisin er verkestoffet salbutamol. Det er dette som ser ut til å bremse utviklinga av Parkinson. – Dette stoffet ser ut til å hindre produksjonen av eit protein som øydelegg hjernen til menneske med Parkinson. Vi trur at ein medisin med salbutamol vil vere meir effektiv og ha færre biverknader enn medisinane som vert brukt i dag, seier Riise. (nrk.no 31.8.2017).)

(Anm: Parkinsons-gjennombrudd gir pasienter håp om å få livet tilbake. En ny UiB-studie viser at medisiner mange nordmenn allerede har i skapene sine i dag kan opp mot halvere risikoen for å utvikle Parkinsons. Andre vanlige medisiner kan øke risikoen. (…) Blodtrykksmedisiner kan øke risikoen. Baksiden av medaljen er at andre vanlige medisiner mange nordmenn også bruker i dag kan bidra til å øke risikoen for å utvikle sykdommen. Dette gjelder en type betablokkere, som blant annet brukes til å håndtere høyt blodtrykk. (…) Noe som bekymrer forskeren, er at pasienter som har skjelvinger som ikke er Parkinsons, ofte får utdelt betablokkere for å redusere dette. – Hvis de som tar betablokkere mot skjelving har en høyere risiko for Parkinsons i utgangspunktet er det en dårlig idé at de får denne medisinen. Dette blir en diskusjon fagmiljøet er nødt til å ta, sier han. (vg.no 31.8.2017).)

- Link mellom Parkinsons og melanom (ondartet pigmentsvulst) går begge veier.

(Anm: Link between Parkinson's and melanoma runs both ways. A study published this week in Mayo Clinic Proceedings confirms that Parkinson's disease can, perhaps surprisingly, increase the risk of melanoma. The researchers also show that the link is a two-way relationship, with melanoma also suspected to increase the risk of Parkinson's. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition that affects around 1 million people in the United States. At first glance, it seems entirely removed from cancer. However, melanoma - a type of skin cancer with more than 80,000 new diagnoses each year in the U.S. - seems to be entwined with the condition. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.7.2017).)

- Studien finner link mellom øvre gastrointestinal (mage- og tarm) infeksjoner og protein som er involvert i Parkinsons sykdom

(Anm: Study finds link between upper GI infections and protein implicated in Parkinson’s disease. Acute and chronic infections in a person's upper gastrointestinal tract appear to be linked to Parkinson's disease, say scientists at Georgetown University Medical Center and their collaborators at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions. Their study, published in the Journal of Innate Immunity, finds that alpha-Synuclein (αS), the protein implicated in Parkinson's disease and other forms of neurodegenerative diseases, is released when an infection occurs in the upper GI tract (the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) inducing an immune response as part of the body's innate immune system. The researchers say that these findings suggest that frequent or chronic upper GI infections could overwhelm the body's capacity to clear αS, leading to disease. (news-medical.net 28.6.2017).)

(Anm: Protein assosiert med Parkinsons sykdom knyttet til øvre gastrointestinalinfeksjoner. Protein Associated with Parkinson’s Disease Linked to Human Upper GI Tract Infections.  WASHINGTON (June 27, 2017) — Acute and chronic infections in a person’s upper gastrointestinal tract appear to be linked to Parkinson’s disease, say scientists at Georgetown University Medical Center and their collaborators at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions. Their study, published in the Journal of Innate Immunity, finds that alpha-Synuclein (αS), the protein implicated in Parkinson’s disease and other forms of neurodegenerative disease is released when an infection occurs in the upper GI tract (the esophagus, stomach and duodenum) inducing an immune response as part of the body’s innate immune system. The researchers say that these findings suggest that frequent or chronic upper GI infections could overwhelm the body’s capacity to clear αS, leading to disease. (gumc.georgetown.edu 27.6.2017).)

(Anm: Pasienter behandlet med antipsykotika (nevroleptika) har signifikant senket platelet complex I aktivitet i mitokondrier i likhet med det som er observert ved idiopatisk Parkinsons sykdom. (...) Antipsykotika (nevroleptika) hemmer kompleks I i elektrontransportkjeden. (Neuroleptic medications inhibit complex I of the electron transport chain. (...) Neuroleptic treated patients have significant depression of platelet complex I activity similar to that seen in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Complex I inhibition may be associated with the extrapyramidal side effects of these drugs.) Ann Neurol. 1993;33:512-7).)

(Anm: Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I exhibits aberrant hyperactivity in diabetes. (…) Highlights • Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I shows hyperactivity in diabetes. • Complex I hyperactivity is associated with increased NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance. • Complex I hyperactivity is associated with increased oxidative stress and cell death. • Complex I hyperactivity is linked with compromised cellular anti-oxidative stress capacity such as decreased sirt3 and NQO1 expressions. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2017 Sep;11:119-129.)

- Brukere av metamfetamin er tre ganger mer utsatt for å få Parkinsons sykdom enn folk som ikke bruker illegale rusmidler

Meth users 'three times more likely' to develop Parkinson's
medicalnewstoday.com 17.12.2014
Users of methamphetamine are at three times more risk for getting Parkinson's disease than people who do not use illegal drugs, according to new research from the University of Utah and Intermountain Healthcare

A previous study that examined nearly 250,000 California hospital discharge records found that meth users had an increased risk for Parkinson's. The new study - published in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence - includes both inpatient and outpatient clinic records, and so draws data from a wider sample of the population. (…)

(Anm: Metamfetamin er et syntetisk sentralstimulerende narkotikum. Det har mye av de samme virkningene og ligner kjemisk på amfetamin. (no.wikipedia.org).)

- Metamfetaminbruk knyttet til økt risiko for hjerneslag hos de unge.

(Anm: Methamphetamine use linked to heightened stroke risk in the young. The stimulant methamphetamine, also popularly known as 'speed,' 'ice' and 'meth,' is linked to a heightened risk of stroke among young people, reveals a review of the available evidence, published online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 25.8.2017).)

(Anm: Stroke and methamphetamine use in young adults: a review. Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 2017 published online 23 August 2017.)

- Søvnforstyrrelser hos personer med parkinsonisme må tas på alvor. Over halvparten lider av insomni eller av økt søvnighet på dagtid.

(Anm: Søvnforstyrrelser hos personer med parkinsonisme må tas på alvor. Over halvparten lider av insomni eller av økt søvnighet på dagtid. (…) Sykdommen rammer sentralnervesystemet, og mangelen på dopamin gir skjelvinger, treghet, stivhet og endret kroppsholdning. Søvnforstyrrelser er blant de viktigste årsaker til redusert livskvalitet for mange. – Sykelig tretthet på dagtid (EDS) øker over tid. I løpet av en periode på åtte år hadde over 50 % av pasientene utviklet dette. Tilstanden er relatert til sykdomsprogrediering, bruk av dopaminantagonister og aldring, og er hyppigst hos menn. Insomni, som forekommer hos ca. 60 % av pasientene, er relatert til sykdomsvarighet og depresjoner og er hyppigst hos kvinner, sier Gjerstad. 15 – 27 % av pasientene hadde en søvnforstyrrelse knyttet til REM-fasen (REM sleep behaviour disorder, RBD). En slik søvnforstyrrelse fører til utagering av drømmer på en måte som kan skade pasienten selv eller sengekameraten. – Over halvparten av personer med Parkinsons sykdom har plagsomme søvnforstyrrelser. Det er viktig at disse tas på alvor og behandles, sier hun. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2007 127:2350 (20.9.2007).)

(Anm: Søvn (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Brain rewiring due to dopamine loss may be source of impaired movement in Parkinson's disease. The brain's own mechanisms for dealing with the loss of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease may be a source of the disorder's abnormal movement, according to a Northwestern Medicine study published in Neuron. (medicalnewstoday.com 14.9.2017).)

- Forskere finner nytt bevis på at autoimmunitet spiller rolle i Parkinsons sykdom.

(Anm: Researchers find new evidence that autoimmunity plays role in Parkinson's disease. Researchers have found the first direct evidence that autoimmunity- in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues- plays a role in Parkinson's disease, the neurodegenerative movement disorder. The findings raise the possibility that the death of neurons in Parkinson's could be prevented by therapies that dampen the immune response. The study, led by scientists at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, was published today in Nature. "The idea that a malfunctioning immune system contributes to Parkinson's dates back almost 100 years," said study co-leader David Sulzer, PhD, professor of neurobiology (in psychiatry, neurology and pharmacology) at CUMC. "But until now, no one has been able to connect the dots. Our findings show that two fragments of alpha-synuclein, a protein that accumulates in the brain cells of people with Parkinson's, can activate the T cells involved in autoimmune attacks.  (news-medical.net 21.6.2017).)

- Parkinsons er delvis en autoimmun sykdom, ifølge studie.

(Anm: Parkinson’s Is Partly An Autoimmune Disease, Study Finds. First direct evidence that abnormal protein in Parkinson’s disease triggers immune response. New York, NY (June 21, 2017)—Researchers have found the first direct evidence that autoimmunity—in which the immune system attacks the body’s own tissues—plays a role in Parkinson’s disease, the neurodegenerative movement disorder. The findings raise the possibility that the death of neurons in Parkinson’s could be prevented by therapies that dampen the immune response. The study, led by scientists at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, was published today in Nature. “The idea that a malfunctioning immune system contributes to Parkinson’s dates back almost 100 years,” said study co-leader David Sulzer, PhD, professor of neurobiology (in psychiatry, neurology, and pharmacology) at CUMC. “But until now, no one has been able to connect the dots. Our findings show that two fragments of alpha-synuclein, a protein that accumulates in the brain cells of people with Parkinson’s, can activate the T cells involved in autoimmune attacks. (cumc.columbia.edu 21.6.2017).)

(Anm: T cells from patients with Parkinson’s disease recognize α-synuclein peptides. Nature 546, 656–661 (29 June 2017).)

(Anm: Parkinson’s disease-related proteins PINK1 and Parkin repress mitochondrial antigen presentation. Cell 166, 314–327 (2016).)

(Anm: Parkinsons-lignende symptomer hos sveisere forverres med mer mangan-eksponering. Parkinson-like symptoms in welders worsen with more manganese exposure. The study - led by the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO - is published in the journal Neurology. Lead author Brad A. Racette, a neurology professor at the School, says that the welders they studied "are developing parkinsonian symptoms even though their exposure to manganese is below the current regulatory limits." («utvikler parkinsonsymptomer selv om deres eksponering for mangan er under gjeldende myndighetskrav.») (medicalnewstoday.com 3.1.2017).)

- Parkinson, parkinson, Parkinsons, Parkinsons sykdom eller parkinsonisme?

(Anm: Parkinson, parkinson, Parkinsons, Parkinsons sykdom eller parkinsonisme? Parkinsonisme (med liten p) er en bevegelsesforstyrrelse som skyldes svikt i basalgang-liene, og er et klinisk syndrom hvor minst to av fire kardinaltegn er til stede: hviletremor, rigiditet, bradykinesi og posturale endringer (2). Parkinsons sykdom (med stor p) er en nevrodegenerativ sykdom, og er den vanligste årsaken til parkinsonisme. Andre årsaker kan være progredierende supranukleær parese, multippel systematrofi, demens med Lewy-legemer, medikamentutløst parkinsonisme og vaskulær parkinsonisme (3). Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2017; 137:298 (16.2.2017).)

(Anm: Hjerneforsker: Trening bra for alvorlig syke. Og du kan gjerne ta hardt i, er norske forskere enige om. Denne uken skrev DN om Inge Tangen Odland (44), som i fjor fikk diagnosen parkinsons. Nå trener han for livet og skal debutere i Birkebeinerrennet. Andre med sykdomsdiagnoser kan med fordel også trene, ifølge hjerneforsker Espen Dietrichs. Han er sjef for Nevrologisk avdeling ved Oslo universitetssykehus. (dn.no 3.3.2016).)

(Anm: Fysisk trening (aktivitet / løping / jogging). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Stages and Treatment (medicinenet.com 3.5.2016).)

- Koblingen mellom Parkinsons sykdom og tarmbakterier

The link between Parkinson’s disease and gut bacteria
theconversation.com 6.12.2016
What do the contents of your stomach have to do with Parkinson’s disease? A new study from a group of researchers at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) in Los Angeles suggests more than you might think.

The scientists looked at mice that have been genetically engineered to develop some of the changes in the brain and symptoms that are linked to Parkinson’s disease. This includes the build up in the brain of a sticky protein called alpha synuclein into lumps called Lewy bodies, and the death of cells in a bit of the brain called the substantia nigra (which is important for controlling movement). When this happens in humans, it causes the symptoms that we associate with Parkinson’s, such as shaking or slowed movement. The team at CalTech found that changing the number and type of bacteria in the gut of these mice could influence what happened in the mouse brain.

They used antibiotics to get rid of most of the bacteria in the gut of the mice, or used mice that don’t have any bacteria in their stomachs at all. In these mice, they found that accumulation in the brain of alpha synuclein was decreased. They also found that there was less of an immune response (one of the main ways that the body reacts to damage) in the brain, and that the mice had fewer problems with their movement. (…)

(Anm: Study provides preliminary evidence that Parkinson's disease may start in the gut. Parkinson's disease may start in the gut and spread to the brain via the vagus nerve, according to a study published in the April 26, 2017, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The vagus nerve extends from the brainstem to the abdomen and controls unconscious body processes like heart rate and food digestion. (news-medical.net 27.4.2017).)

(Anm: Parkinson’s disease-related proteins PINK1 and Parkin repress mitochondrial antigen presentation. Cell 166, 314–327 (2016).)

- Ganglag (gange) forutsier kognitiv svikt i tidlig Parkinsons sykdom

Gait predicts cognitive decline in early Parkinson’s (Ganglag (gange) forutsier kognitiv svikt i tidlig Parkinsons sykdom)
pm360online.com 29.9.2016
PORTLAND, ORE. (FRONTLINE MEDICAL NEWS) – Gait characteristics, rather than cognition, in early Parkinson’s disease predicted cognitive decline 3 years later in a small longitudinal study, suggesting that gait measures may provide a low cost clinical biomarker when combined with other predictors of cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease.

Cognitive decline and dementia take a significant toll on patients’ personal, social, and economic affairs. Being able to identify at-risk individuals may allow for early behavioral and possibly pharmacological interventions. Gait has been shown to be a sensitive measure of cognitive decline in older adults, and the investigators here tested it as a predictor of cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Led by Rosie Morris, PhD, of Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, researchers assessed gait characteristics and cognition in 119 patients within 4-6 months of a diagnosis of idiopathic PD and then 18 and 36 months later. The patients were recruited from the Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Cohorts with Longitudinal Evaluation – Parkinson’s Disease (ICICLE-PD) study. (…)

(Anm: Gait predicts cognitive decline in early Parkinson’s. Key clinical point: Gait characteristics, not cognition, predict cognitive decline in early Parkinson’s. Major finding: Gait pace, variability, and postural control predict cognitive decline. Data source: Observational study of 119 patients with early idiopathic Parkinson’s disease assessed at baseline and at 36 months. (clinicalpsychiatrynews.com 3.11.2016).)

(Anm: ”Tydlig rekommendation finns redan”. Företrädare för Socialstyrelsen svarar om kraven på fysisk träning vid MS och parkinson. (…) Gångförmågan är ett bra exempel. Att drabbas av nedsatt förmåga att gå, eller bara kunna gå långsamt och ha svårt att hålla balansen medför bland annat ökad risk att falla. Konditions- och styrketräning har visat sig ha positiva effekter för gångförmåga både vid MS och parkinson. Även rehabiliteringsinsatser i form av träning på gång- eller löpband kan vara värdefulla, liksom balansträning. Inga negativa biverkningar finns. Socialstyrelsen har därför gett olika typer av träning riktade mot gångförmågan hög prioritering (prioritet 4). (dagensmedicin.se 18.3.2016).)

(Anm: First-of-kind dopamine measurements in human brain reveal insights into how we learn. (...) The study was published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (medicalnewstoday.com 24.11.2015).)

(Anm: We need to move more: Neurobiological hypotheses of physical exercise as a treatment for Parkinson's disease. Med Hypotheses. 2015 Jul 17. pii: S0306-9877(15)00275-3. [Epub ahead of print]).)

(Anm: Man walks again as cancer drug is trialled for Parkinson's. The drug, nilotinib, improved and even reversed impaired cognition, motor skills and non-motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia, in a small phase 1 clinical trial. (medicalnewstoday.com 19.10.2015).)

(Anm: Behandling med celler testas mot parkinson. Sex svenska patienter med parkinson ska behandlas med fosterceller som förs in i hjärnan. På sikt hägrar behandling med patientegna celler. Lundaprofessorn Malin Parmar driver forskningen. (nyteknik.se 14.3.2016).)

(Anm: Singing improves Parkinson's symptoms and quality of life (medicalnewstoday.com 18.4.2016).)

(Anm: Neuropsychiatric Features of Parkinson’s disease with Cognitive Impairment: An Overview (…) Parkinson’s disease (PD) is known to cause neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). It has been established that the more advanced the motor stage of PD is, the more frequent and severe the NPS may be. However, the relationship between NPS and stage of cognitive decline is less well understood. (emjreviews.com July 14, 2014).)

- Studie knytter Parkinsons sykdom til tarmbakterier

Study links Parkinson's disease to gut bacteria
medicalnewstoday.com 18.12.2014
A new study finds that compared to healthy controls, people with Parkinson's disease appear to have distinctly different gut bacteria. They have hardly any bacteria from one family and the amount present from another family seems to increase with disease severity.

old lady sitting with walking stick
The gut bacteria of people with Parkinson's disease is different to that of healthy people.

The study, led by the University of Helsinki Institute of Biotechnology in Finland, is published in the journal Movement Disorders. (…)

(Anm: Parkinson’s disease-related proteins PINK1 and Parkin repress mitochondrial antigen presentation. Cell 166, 314–327 (2016).)

(Anm: Antibiotika (tarmbakterier, probiotika, mikrobiota etc.) (Dysbiose; dysbiosis (also called dysbacteriosis (dysbakteriose)). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Signaler fra tarmens mikrobiotika til fjerntliggende organer mht. fysiologi og sykdom. (Signals from the gut microbiota to distant organs in physiology and disease.) (Nat Med. 2016 Oct 6;22(10):1079-1089.)

(Anm: Gut check: Newest microbiome startup concentrates on autism, Parkinson’s disease. What kind of relationship exists between the gut microbiome and diseases of the brain? A new startup called Axial Biotherapeutics has set out to find some answers, with $19.15 million in venture backing. (endpts.com 30.11.2016).)

(Anm: Gut Microbiota Regulate Motor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease. "Coupled with emerging research that has linked gut bacteria to disorders such as anxiety, depression, and autism, we propose the provocative hypothesis that certain neurologic conditions that have classically been studied as disorders of the brain may also have etiologies in the gut." Cell 2016;167(6):1469–1480.e12 (1 December 2016).)

(Anm: Probiotics and prebiotic fiber for constipation associated with Parkinson disease: An RCT. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and constipation. (…) CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of a fermented milk containing multiple probiotic strains and prebiotic fiber was superior to placebo in improving constipation in patients with PD.Neurology. 2016 Aug 19. pii: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003127. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: - Hadde medisinerne på et tidligere tidspunkt hatt et evolusjonært perspektiv på sin medisinering, ville vi ikke vært i den kritiske situasjon vi er kommet i med hensyn til resistens. (aftenposten.no 22.8.2016).)

- Mikrobiomet i tarmer kan åpne opp for Parkinson-diagnostikk, behandling

Gut microbiome could unlock new Parkinson’s diagnostics, treatments
fiercepharma.com 1.12.2016
Caltech researchers have shown in mouse models that gut bacteria can encourage the progression of some Parkinson’s disease hallmarks. These bacteria could serve as biomarkers or therapeutic targets for the neurodegenerative disease.

Previous research has shown that communication between the gut and brain plays a role in neurological disorders, such as anxiety and depression. This study, led by Caltech microbiology professor Sarkis Mazmanian and published in the journal Cell, is the first to suggest that changes in the gut microbiome have a bearing on the onset and severity of Parkinson’s disease. (…)

(Anm: Antibiotika kan gi flere kroniske sykdommer. (…) Folkehelseinstituttet: – Faren er underkommunisert. – Advarslene er høyst betimelige, sier lege og seniorforsker Merete Eggesbø ved Folkehelseinstituttet. (…) Ifølge Blaser viser ny forskning at det er en sammenheng mellom endringen av den naturlige tarmfloraen vår og utvikling av nye sykdommer som fedme, diabetes, astma,(...) Advarslene er høyst betimelige, sier lege og seniorforsker Merete Eggesbø ved Folkehelseinstituttet. (…) Ifølge Blaser viser ny forskning at det er en sammenheng mellom endringen av den naturlige tarmfloraen vår og utvikling av nye sykdommer som fedme, diabetes, astma, allergi, autisme og mageinfeksjoner. (nrk.no 30.10.2016).)

(Anm: Researchers explore link between gut microbiome and nutrition in autism spectrum disorder. (…) Sharon Donovan, a professor of nutrition at the University of Illinois explains that researchers have started to look at more specific disease states and the microbiome. "We are starting to see links with autism, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and almost every disease that is looked at. (news-medical.net 28.4.2017).)

(Anm: Researchers discover new mechanism that causes chronic intestinal inflammation. Researchers at the University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and the German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München have discovered that too much of the oncogene Bcl-3 leads to chronic intestinal diseases. They describe in Nature Communications exactly how it throws the immune system off-balance. Chronic intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are caused by the body's own immune defense system. (news-medical.net 28.5.2017).)

(Anm: Forsiktighet kreves ved samtidig forskrivning av antibiotika med psykofarmaka hos eldre pasienter. (…) Antibiotika har flere legemiddelinteraksjoner med psykofarmaka som kan føre til bivirkninger eller behandlingssvikt og betydelig øke kostnadene for behandlinger. (dgnews.docguide.com 3.4.2017).)

(Anm: Antibiotika associeras med högre risk för tarmcancer. (…) Det här är första studien som visar på sambandet mellan antibiotikaanvändning och utveckling av adenom i tjock- och ändtarmen. Studien publiceras i den vetenskapliga tidskriften Gut. (…) Resultatet visade att långvarig antibiotikaanvändning tidigare i livet, i åldern 20 till 59 år, hade samband med diagnostiserade adenom. (lakemedelsvarlden.se 5.4.2017.)

(Anm: Ny forskning viser hvor raskt bakterien blir motstandsdyktig mot antibiotika. E. coli bakterien muteres raskt i kraftig antibiotikadose. Forskere ved Harvard-universitetet har registrert hvor raskt E. coli bakterien klarer å bli motstandsdyktig og overleve antibiotika. I Harvards pressemelding står det at på ti dager overlevde bakterien en antibiotikadose som var 1000 ganger sterkere enn det som vanligvis dreper bakterien. (dagbladet.no 12.9.2016).)

(Anm: Prebiotika kan hjelpe å behandle anstrengelsesutløst astma (Prebiotics could help treat exercise-induced asthma) (medicalnewstoday.com 6.8.2016).)

(Anm: PTSD kan forebygges med tarmbakterier, antyder studie. (PTSD could be prevented with gut microbes, study suggests.) (medicalnewstoday.com 2.5.2016).)

(Anm: PTSD kan være fysisk og ikke bare psykologisk. PTSD may be physical and not only psychological. The part of the brain that helps control emotion may be larger in people who develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after brain injury compared to those with a brain injury without PTSD, according to a study that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's Sports Concussion Conference in Jacksonville, Fla., July 14 to 16, 2017. "Many consider PTSD to be a psychological disorder, but our study found a key physical difference in the brains of military-trained individuals with brain injury and PTSD, specifically the size of the right amygdala," said Joel Pieper, MD, MS, of University of California, San Diego. "These findings have the potential to change the way we approach PTSD diagnosis and treatment." (medicalnewstoday.com 14.7.2017).)

(Anm: Ny tilnærming kan snart spille nøkkelrolle for å hjelpe veteraner å overvinne PTSD. Novel approach could soon play key role in helping veterans overcome PTSD. A novel approach of using visual and physical stimulus to help military veterans address their traumatic experiences could soon play a significant role in helping British veterans overcome post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), thanks to a new Cardiff University research project. (…) The researchers hope that exposure to traumatic memories, enhanced with walking, music and high effect pictures, will eliminate cognitive avoidance – a coping strategy that can contribute to the worsening of PTSD symptoms. (news-medical.net 24.7.2017).)

(Anm: PTSD and cognitive decline linked in 9/11 responders. A study, published in Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, investigates the long-term effects of trauma on the cognitive performance of responders to the World Trade Center on 9/11. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that can arise in individuals who have experienced shocking, dangerous, or frightening events. (medicalnewstoday.com 30.8.2016).)

(Anm: Tarmbakterier fjerner autisme i mus. Sykdommer: Ny studie viser at man kan behandle mus med autismesymptomer ved hjelp av ekskrementer fra friske mus. (…) Det var særlig én tarmbakterie, Lactobacillus reuteri, de syke musene manglet. (illvit.no 29.6.2016).)

(Anm: Risikovurdering av kosttilskudd med Lactobacillus Reuteri Protectis. Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet (VKM) har vurdert probiotika som brukes i kosttilskudd til friske barn fra fødsel til tre år. Mangel på kunnskap gjør at VKM ikke kan trekke konklusjoner om hvilke langtidseffekter bruk av denne typen probiotika kan ha for barns helse. Risikovurderingen er gjort på oppdrag for Mattilsynet, med bakgrunn i kravet om mattrygghet. (…) Ukjente langtidseffekter. Mangel på kunnskap om effekt av langvarig bruk gjør at VKM ikke kan vurdere eventuelle langtidseffekter for barn i alderen 0 – 3 år, men VKM peker på at det er en økende erkjennelse av at sammensetningen av bakterier i tarmen hos nyfødte kan ha avgjørende betydning for senere utvikling av tarmflora og immunsystem. (…) Ingen rapporterte bivirkninger. Ingen av studiene som VKM har vurdert har rapportert om bivirkninger eller uønskede korttidseffekter. VKM konkluderer med at det ikke er noen grunn til å anta at bakteriestammen som er vurdert, og i de dosene som er anbefalt, vil kunne ha uønsket effekt på helsa. (vkm.no 11.3.2016).)

(Anm: Semper Dråper Melkesyrebakt 0mnd+. (…) Sammensetning. Solsikkeolje, kokosolje, palmekjerneolje, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 ( Lactobacillus reuteri protectis ). (boots.no).)

(Anm: - Nye kliniske studier viser «lovende resultater" for autisme (ASD)-behandling. (New clinical trial shows 'promising results' for ASD treatment. The gut microbiota is a fascinating part of the human body; it plays a crucial role in immunity and keeps our bodies healthy. New research suggests that the gut microbiome may even hold the key to a potential treatment for autism. (medicalnewstoday.com 23.1.2017).)

(Anm: Påvirker immunsystemet vår sosiale atferd? (Does the immune system influence our social behavior?) Inntil relativt nylig er hjernen og immunsystemet antatt å arbeide isolert fra hverandre. Dette er nå kjent for ikke å være tilfelle. Denne oppdagelsen reverseres vanlige oppfatninger om at hjernen er "immunprivilegert" og manglet direkte kommunikasjon mellom de to systemene. (medicalnewstoday.com 22.7.2016).)

(Anm: Can the Nervous System Be Hacked? (…) The vagus nerve and its branches conduct nerve impulses — called action potentials — to every major organ. But communication between nerves and the immune system was considered impossible, according to the scientific consensus in 1998. (...) “I was like: C’mon? You’re gonna give a shock and it changes the immune system? I was very skeptical. But finally I agreed to visit Kevin’s lab. I wanted the data, the evidence. I don’t like hot air.”(nytimes.com 23.5.2016).)

(Anm: Spesifikke tarmbakterier reversere autismelignende atferd hos mus (Specific gut bacteria reverse autism-like behavior in mice) Forskere ved Baylor College of Medicine, TX, undersøkte nylig rollen til mors kosthold og tarmbakterier på de sosiale egenskapene til mus. Deres funn vil uten tvil igangsette forskning på muligheten for probiotiske inngrep for en rekke nevrologiske lidelser. (medicalnewstoday.com 17.6.2016).)

(Anm: Big data and bacteria explain why your diet isn't working. A study published in the journal Cell links the bacteria that live in the human gut - the microbiome - with how the body manages food. "Our research suggests that each person's microbiome is driving food effects on the body," said Eran Elinav, of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, and lead immunologist on the study. (medicalnewstoday.com 20.11.2015).)

- Forskerne rapporterer at en vanlig bakterie som infiserer folks mage har signifikante linker med forverrede symptomer på Parkinsons sykdom.

Link found between stomach infection and Parkinson’s symptoms (Link funnet mellom mageinfeksjon og Parkinsons symptomer)
medicalxpress.com 6.6.2016
More than half of the world’s population carries Helicobacter pylori , which affects mucous membranes in the gut and can cause a range of digestive tract disorders.

Forskerne rapporterer at en vanlig bakterie som infiserer folks mage har signifikante linker med forverrede symptomer på Parkinsons sykdom. (Researchers report that a common bacterium infecting the human stomach has significant links with worsened symptoms of Parkinson's disease.)

Parkinson's disease is the world's second most common neurodegenerative disorder, causing tremors and decreasing motor coordination. Causes are elusive and doctors currently can only treat its symptoms.

Researchers at the University of Malaya analysed a small group of Parkinson's disease patients with and without a common infection of the stomach lining caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Their results showed that those with the infection – about a third of the total – tested worse in motor problems related to Parkinson's disease.

Subjects whose infection could be treated and eradicated showed fewer Parkinson's disease symptoms in motor performance tests, while those who stayed infected had further declines in their test results. (…)  

(Anm: Leder. Persontilpasset tarmfloramedisin? Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2015; 135:624.)

(Anm: Mindre antibiotika med delaktiga patienter. Antibiotikaförskrivningen minskade med nästan 20 procent när patienter fick vara med och tillsammans med en läkare fatta beslut om sin behandling.  (lakemedelsvarlden.se 18.11.2015).)  

(Anm: Problemene med antibiotikaresistente bakterier øker i hele Europa. (…) mot de vanligste antibiotikatypene, er et økende problem i Europa. I EU-området dør det årlig om lag 25 000 personer som følge av infeksjoner med resistente bakterier. Det slås særlig alarm om at Campylobacter-bakterier som ofte medfører matbårne infeksjoner, er resistente mot antibiotikatypen ciprofloksacin. (fhi.no 11.2.2016).)

(Anm: Age-Related Differences in the Luminal and Mucosa-Associated Gut Microbiome of Broiler Chickens and Shifts Associated with Campylobacter jejuni Infection. Conclusion In the current study a substantial change in the composition of luminal and mucosa-associated gut microbiota in broiler chickens from day 1–28 was noticed. It could also be demonstrated that a C. jejuni infection in chickens was associated with significant changes in the composition of the intestinal ecosystem. Furthermore, these changes of the gut microbiota could lead to intestinal dysfunction, which has been evidenced in our previous studies. (…)  Understanding the relationship between disruption of the normal gut microbiota and Campylobacter infection may lead to improve in control strategies in order to minimize the consequences for the chicken host and the risk of bacterial spread to humans. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol., 22 November 2016).)

(Anm: Neurodegenerative disease damage reversed in fruit flies. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's symptoms have been reversed in fruit flies following treatment with a drug-like chemical, says research published in the  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (medicalnewstoday.com 1.5.2016).)

(Anm: Magefølelsen. Snakk om tarmen, og de fleste tenker på bæsj. Hva om tarmen har sin egen hjerne, og kan styre alt fra depresjon til overvekt og Alzheimer? (dagbladet.no 5.3.2015).)

(Anm: The Scent of Disease - Human Body Odor Contains an Early Chemosensory Cue of Sickness. Psycological Science 2014 (January 22, 2014).)

(Anm: Humans can SMELL disease: Nose can detect when a person's immune system is fighting illness dailymail.co.uk 24.1.2014.)

(Anm: New milestone for device that can 'smell' prostate cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com 13.2.2016).)

(Anm: Simple, affordable breath test may give more patients a better chance for cure. A single breath may be all it takes to identify the return of lung cancer after surgery, according to a study posted online by The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. Key findings in this study show that breath analysis offers an option for primary screening and post-surgery monitoring of lung cancer patients. Certain carbonyl volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath indicate the presence of lung cancer. Researchers hope to get FDA approval for this new process. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.6.2016).)

(Anm: Breath test may help diagnose irritable bowel syndrome. There is currently no specific diagnostic test for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but now researchers have identified a combination of 16 different substances in the breath that, when measured together, can accurately distinguish IBS patients from people without the condition. (medicalnewstoday.com 11.5.2016).)

(Anm: Breath test could detect Parkinson's (medicalnewstoday.com 11.2.2015).)

- Forskere gir ny innsikt i årsakene til Parkinsons sykdom

Parkinson's disease researchers offered new insights into causes of this disease
medicalnewstoday.com 1.7.2014
Scientists have taken a step closer to understanding the causes of Parkinson's disease, identifying what's happening at a cellular level to potentially help develop future treatments.

Researchers at the University of Bristol, and their US-based collaborators at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and the Mayo Clinic, have shown that a genetic change, known as a mutation, impairs the ability to transport proteins correctly within cells.

Being starved of these proteins could be part of why the body loses nerve cells in the part of the brain responsible for producing the chemical dopamine which helps control and co-ordinate body movements.

A mutation in the VPS35 gene is known to be linked to Parkinson's disease, but experts have not been able to pinpoint its role until now.

The results, published online in Current Biology, reveal that the VPS35 mutation impairs the cell's ability to transport a sub-set of cargo proteins to their correct destinations. (...)

(Anm: Retromer Binding to FAM21 and the WASH Complex Is Perturbed by the Parkinson Disease-Linked VPS35(D620N) Mutation. Current Biology 2014 (June 2014).)

(Anm: Exercise increases mitochondrial complex I activity and DRP1 expression in the brains of aged mice. Abstract. Exercise is known to have numerous beneficial effects. Recent studies indicate that exercise improves mitochondrial energetics not only in skeletal muscle but also in other tissues. (…) Our results suggest that exercise training in old mice can improve brain mitochondrial function through effects on electron transport chain function and mitochondrial dynamics without increasing mitochondrial biogenesis. Exp Gerontol. 2017 Jan 17. pii: S0531-5565(16)30505-8. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Exercise prevents cellular aging by boosting mitochondria (medicalnewstoday.com 8.3.2017).)

(Anm: Trening er best for å redusere tilbakefall av brystkreft. Exercise is best for reducing breast cancer recurrence. The research was conducted by Dr. Ellen Warner, of the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Canada, in collaboration with coauthor Dr. Julia Hamer, and the findings were published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ). (medicalnewstoday.com 22.2.2017).)

(Anm: Tricyclic Antidepressants Amitriptyline and Desipramine Induced Neurotoxicity Associated with Parkinson's Disease. Recent studies report that a history of antidepressant use is strongly correlated with the occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mol Cells. 2015 Aug 4. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: New treatment could lead to a cure for Parkinson's disease (medicalnewstoday.com 27.3.2015).)

- Rosacea knyttet til økt Parkinsons risiko

Rosacea linked to increased Parkinson's risk
medicalnewstoday.com 21.3.2016
Rosacea, a chronic inflammatory skin condition, may be linked to Parkinson's disease through shared pathogenic mechanisms, according to new research published online by JAMA Neurology.

Rosacea is a chronic skin disease, featuring redness and pimples on the face and sometimes the eyes. In time, it may also cause a thickening of the skin.

Middle-aged and older adults, and especially women during the menopause, are more likely to develop the condition. People with fair skin are more susceptible.

The causes of rosacea are unclear, but there is evidence that the activity of an enzyme called matrix metalloproteinase, which breaks down proteins, plays a role.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state that Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. The Parkinson's Disease Foundation estimate that up to 1 million Americans have the disease, and that there are 60,000 new diagnoses each year. (...)

There was a diagnosis of Parkinson's in 22,387 individuals, while 68,053 had rosacea. The rates for Parkinson's were 3.54 per 10,000 person-years, compared with 7.62 per 10,000 person-years in patients with rosacea. Patients with rosacea also tended to develop Parkinson's around 2.4 years earlier.

In people taking tetracyclines, a treatment used for rosacea, there seemed to be a slightly lower chance of Parkinson's, whether or not the patient had rosacea. (...)

(Anm: Rosacea er en kronisk betennelse som gir rødhet i huden i ansiktet. Tilstanden debuterer med rødming og eventuelt flushing sentralt i ansiktet. Tre til fem prosent utvikler rosacea. (nhi.no).)

(Anm: - I virkeligheten kan kløe og kloring hos mennesker være bivirkninger av antidepressiva, som kan øke nivået av serotonin i huden. (- I tillegg til eksem kan kronisk kløe stamme fra systemiske forhold, inkludert nyresvikt, skrumplever og visse typer kreft. Forståelse av det molekylære grunnlaget for kronisk kløe er av vesentlig klinisk interesse, og nå er det et nytt mål tilgjengelig for forskning.) Serotonin receptor is involved in eczema and other itch conditions (Serotoninreseptor er involvert i eksem og andre kløende tilstander) (medicalnewstoday.com 12.6.2015).)

(Anm: New research confirms correlation of common bacteria (including MRSA) and eczema. A new study published in the British Journal of Dermatology has shown that, on average, 70% of eczema patients are colonised with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (S. aureus, including MRSA) on their skin lesions. Patients with more severe disease had a greater risk of being colonised. These results provide an indication of the importance of colonisation as a possible trigger in eczema. (medicalnewstoday.com 29.7.2016).)

(Anm: Prevalence and odds of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2016 Mar 19. doi: 10.1111/bjd.14566. [Epub ahead of print].)

- Preklinisk studie antyder at Parkinson sykdom kan starte i tarm-endokrine celler. (- Ifølge funnene som er publisert i tidsskriftet JCI Insight hevder forskere og samarbeidspartnere fra University of California, San Francisco, at et stoff i tarmen kan forstyrre alfa-synuclein i endokrine celler i tarmen, og deformere proteinet. Det deformerte eller misfoldede proteinet kan da spre seg via nervesystemet til hjernen som et prion eller infeksjonsprotein, på samme måte som kugalskap.)

(Anm: Pre-clinical study suggests Parkinson's could start in gut endocrine cells. Recent research on Parkinson's disease has focused on the gut-brain connection, examining patients' gut bacteria, and even how severing the vagus nerve connecting the stomach and brain might protect some people from the debilitating disease. But scientists understand little about what's happening in the gut - the ingestion of environmental toxins or germs, perhaps - that leads to brain damage and the hallmarks of Parkinson's such as tremors, stiffness and trouble walking. According to findings published in the journal JCI Insight, Duke researchers and collaborators from the University of California, San Francisco, hypothesize that an agent in the gut might interfere with alpha-synuclein in gut endocrine cells, deforming the protein. The deformed or misfolded protein might then spread via the nervous system to the brain as a prion, or infectious protein, in similar fashion to mad cow disease. (medicalnewstoday.com 19.6.2017).)

(Anm: Two new studies expand understanding of link between PD and gastrointestinal dysfunction. (news-medical.ne 31.7.2017).)

(Anm: Bacterial community in the gut of Parkinson's patients differs from that of healthy people. Parkinson's disease is an insidious disease: by the time it manifests as the typical motor dysfunctions such as tremors or muscle rigidity, portions of the brain have already been irreversibly destroyed. (news-medical.net 29.8.2017).)

(Anm: International study finds meth messes up brains of youths far more than those of adults (medicalnewstoday.com 16.2.2015).)

– Det beste råd er å oppsøke lege slik at man får en tidlig diagnose.

- Mange er rammet uten å vite de
nrk.no 18.4.2014
Bildene viser en 40 år gammel dame og en 62 år gammel mann, som begge er hardt rammet av rosacea.

Den mystiske lidelsen rosacea er en av de vanligste hudsykdommene du kan få. – De fleste vet ikke at de har rosacea, og gjør ikke noe for å bli kvitt utslettet, sier hudlege.

Rosacea er en lidelse de færreste har hørt om – men det er faktisk en av de vanligste hudsykdommene du kan få. Når du leser om rosacea, går det kanskje opp for deg at du har denne rødheten i ansiktet selv – eller at du kjenner noen som har det.

Mange nettsteder skriver at Cameron Diaz og Bill Clinton er to av flere kjente personer som sliter med rosacea. (...)

– Alvorlighetsgraden av rosacea varierer fra dem som kun har lett rødhet i kinn uten noen plager, til de med alvorlige symptomer som et hissig kviseliknende utslett i kinn, rødming og forstørret nese, forteller hudlege Kjetil Guldbakke. (...)

Stor og tykk nese skyldes ikke alkohol De verste bildeeksemplene på rosacea viser mye rødhet og kviser i huden, og ser svært plagsomt ut. Sykdommen deles gjerne opp i fire ulike typer, som krever ulik behandling (se faktaramme).

- Alvorlighetsgraden av rosacea varierer fra dem som kun har lett rødhet i kinn uten noen plager, til de med alvorlige symptomer som et hissig kviseliknende utslett i kinn, rødming og forstørret nese, forteller hudlege Guldbakke. (...)

– Det beste råd er å oppsøke lege slik at man får en tidlig diagnose. Vi har i dag gode behandlinger for alle typer rosacea, mener Guldbakke. – Behandlingen varierer med hva slags type rosacea du har. Vi prøver alltid ut lokalbehandling først, blant annet lokal antibiotika, opplyser Thune. (...)

Rammer også på øyet
Rosacea kan du dessverre også få på øyet, i form av rødhet og en følelse av at du «har noe på øyet».

- Øyeplager som øyelokksbetennelse, øyekatarr, og betennelse av øyets hornhinne kan også forekomme, opplyser hudekspert Guldbakke.

Forløpet er kronisk, men utslettet kan være fredelig i lange perioder, ifølge Store medisinske leksikon.

– Det finnes ingen kur som helbreder tilstanden, men ved effektiv behandling kan du bli mye bedre. Tilstanden kan også plutselig opphøre etter mange måneder eller år, sier hudekspert Guldbakke. (...)

(Anm: Rosacea er en kronisk betennelse som gir rødhet i huden i ansiktet. Tilstanden debuterer med rødming og eventuelt flushing sentralt i ansiktet. Tre til fem prosent utvikler rosacea. (nhi.no).)

(Anm: - I virkeligheten kan kløe og kloring hos mennesker være bivirkninger av antidepressiva, som kan øke nivået av serotonin i huden. (- I tillegg til eksem kan kronisk kløe stamme fra systemiske forhold, inkludert nyresvikt, skrumplever og visse typer kreft. Forståelse av det molekylære grunnlaget for kronisk kløe er av vesentlig klinisk interesse, og nå er det et nytt mål tilgjengelig for forskning.) Serotonin receptor is involved in eczema and other itch conditions (Serotoninreseptor er involvert i eksem og andre kløende tilstander) (medicalnewstoday.com 12.6.2015).)

(Anm: New research confirms correlation of common bacteria (including MRSA) and eczema. A new study published in the British Journal of Dermatology has shown that, on average, 70% of eczema patients are colonised with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (S. aureus, including MRSA) on their skin lesions. Patients with more severe disease had a greater risk of being colonised. These results provide an indication of the importance of colonisation as a possible trigger in eczema. (medicalnewstoday.com 29.7.2016).)

(Anm: Prevalence and odds of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2016 Mar 19. doi: 10.1111/bjd.14566. [Epub ahead of print].)

- Kognitiv svekkelse linket til Parkinsons sykdom: Mitokondrienes rolle

Cognitive Impairment Associated with Parkinson's Disease: Role of Mitochondria.
Curr Neuropharmacol. 2016 Jan 4. [Epub ahead of print]
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder and is associated with some of the intellectual disabilities like cognitive dysfunctions. PD associated cognitive dysfunctions have been proved well in both in preclinical and clinical set ups. Like other neurodegenerative diseases, insults to mitochondria have a significant role in the pathobiology of PD associated dementia (PDD). Neurotoxins like MPTP, mutations of the mitochondrial genes, oxidative stress, imbalanced redox mechanisms and dysregulated mitochondrial dynamics have been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunctions and have paramount importance in the pathobiology of PDD. However, the extent of contribution of mitochondrial dysfunctions towards cognitive deficits in PD has not been characterized completely. In this review we highlight on the contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to PDD. We also highlight different behavioural tests used in both nonhuman primate and rodent models for assessing cognitive deficits and some common techniques for evaluation of mitochondrial dysfunction in PDD. (…)

(Anm: Systems biology analysis of the proteomic alterations induced by MPP+, a Parkinson's disease-related mitochondrial toxin. Front. Cell. Neurosci., 2015 (02 February 2015).)

(Anm: Gene therapy targeting mitochondrial pathway in Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2016 Sep 16. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Parkinson's connection to faulty mitochondria investigated. (…) One marker that is always present in PD are Lewy bodies. (…) They demonstrated that the alpha-synuclein within Lewy bodies attaches to a protein called TOM20. (…) "The effects of alpha-synuclein on mitochondria are like making a perfectly good coal-fueled power plant extremely inefficient, so it not only fails to make enough electricity but also creates too much toxic pollution." (medicalnewstoday.com 10.6.2016).)

(Anm: Study links Parkinson's disease to gut bacteria (medicalnewstoday.com 13.12.2014).)

(Anm: Vps35 mediates vesicle transport between the mitochondria and peroxisomes. Curr Biol. 2010 Jul 27;20(14):1310-5. Epub 2010 Jul 8.)

(Anm: The role of oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease. J Parkinsons Dis. 2013;3(4):461-91.)

(Anm: Creative energy in Parkinson's sufferers is greater than in healthy individuals (medicalnewstoday.com 16.7.2014).)

(Anm: [The role of parkin in Parkinson's disease.].Neuropsychopharmacol Hung. 2014 Jun;16(2):67-76.)

(Anm: Mitochondrial dysfunction and sarcopenia of aging: from signaling pathways to clinical trials..Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013 Oct;45(10):2288-301. Epub 2013 Jul 8.)

(Anm: Defective Autophagy in Parkinson's Disease: Lessons from Genetics. Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Jul 4. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Sleep disturbances, common in Parkinson's disease, can be early indicator of disease onset (medicalnewstoday.com 14.7.2014).)

(Anm: Parkinson's 'a risk factor for most cancers in Taiwan'. A study of more than 60,000 people in Taiwan who had been diagnosed with Parkinson's disease has identified a link between the neurodegenerative brain disorder and 16 different types of cancer, including lung cancer, cervical cancer and leukemia. (medicalnewstoday.com 20.6.2015)

(Anm: Han gav missbrukarna livet tillbaka. (…) Med hjälp av ett specialkonstruerat instrument ska cellerna transplanteras in i hjärnan hos den svårt sjuka amerikanska medborgaren George Carillo. Hans tillfrisknande kommer att ge eko över hela världen. (…) Orsaken till att George Carillo befinner sig i det tillståndet är en effekt av att han har fått i sig den syntetiskt framställda molekylen MPTP (1-metyl-4-fenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin), bildad som en biprodukt vid framställning av droger. Molekylen angriper och dödar hjärnans dopaminproducerande celler. (nyteknik.se 5.3.2016).)

- Mångsidigt protein försvarar hjärnan vid Parkinsons sjukdom

Mångsidigt protein försvarar hjärnan vid Parkinsons sjukdom
lu.se 2.5.2014
Vid Parkinsons sjukdom förtvinar de dopaminproducerande nervceller som styr vår motorik. Forskningen för att ta fram nya behandlingar riktar därför oftast in sig på att rädda eller återställa just dessa celler. I en ny studie från Lunds universitet angriper forskare sjukdomen från ett annat håll, genom att tidigt aktivera hjärnans ”totalförsvar”. Stimulans av ett specifikt protein, Sigma-1 receptorn, sätter igång ett batteri av självläkande effekter som bromsar sjukdomsförloppet och samtidigt återställer den motoriska funktion som gått förlorad. Resultaten är visade genom studier på möss, men kliniska prövningar med studier på patienter ligger inte långt bort. (...)

(Anm: Breath test could detect Parkinson's (medicalnewstoday.com 11.2.2015).)

(Anm: Nanoparticle drug reverses Parkinson's-like symptoms in rats (medicalnewstoday.com 26.4.2015).)

(Anm: Pharmacological stimulation of sigma-1 receptors has neurorestorative effects in experimental parkinsonism. Brain 2014 (First published online: April 22, 2014.)

(Anm: Parkinson’s disease-implicated kinases in the brain; insights into disease pathogenesis. Front. Mol. Neurosci. 2014 (24 June 2014).)

(Anm: Mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson disease: evidence in mutant PARK2 fibroblasts. Front Genet. 2015 Mar 11;6:78. eCollection 2015.)

(Anm: Mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. (…) In this review, we focus on the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in PD and bring to the forefront new signaling pathways that may be involved in PD. We also provide an overview of therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial defects in PD. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease.J Neurochem. 2016 Aug 21. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Mitochondria are altered in human cell model of Parkinson's disease (medicalnewstoday.com 7.4.2015).)

(Anm: Mitochondria (mitokondrie) (mitokondriesykdommer) (mitokondrielle sykdommer). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Linking telomere loss and mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic disease. (…) Drawing a mechanistic connection between telomere function and mitochondria biology will provide a broader perspective for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases and their relation to the aging process, and may provide opportunities for new possible treatments. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2017 Jan 1;22:117-127.)

(Anm: Extreme short and long telomeres linked to increased cancer risk (news-medical.net 5.4.2017).)

(Anm: Scientists discover master regulator of cellular aging. (…) "Telomeres represent the clock of a cell," said TSRI Associate Professor Eros Lazzerini Denchi, corresponding author of the new study, published online in the journal Science. "You are born with telomeres of a certain length, and every time a cell divides, it loses a little bit of the telomere. Once the telomere is too short, the cell cannot divide anymore." (medicalnewstoday.com 13.1.2017).)

(Anm: Betennelser endrer mitokondrier til giftige fabrikker. Å lære hvordan å kontrollere betennelser kan ha store implikasjoner for behandlingen av mange sykdommer. Banebrytende forskning oppdager hvordan makrofager endrer mitokondriene til giftige kjemisk-produserende betennelsespromotører. (Inflammation turns mitochondria into toxic factories. Learning how to control inflammation could have huge implications for the treatment of many diseases. Breaking research discovers how macrophages turn mitochondria into toxic chemical-producing inflammation-promoters.) (medicalnewstoday.com 25.9.2016).)

(Anm: Research may show new ways to repress inflammation at outset. (…) Professor Alexander Weber of the Interfaculty Institute of Cell Biology says the enzyme - Bruton's tyrosine kinase or BTK - is switched on when an inflammation occurs in the body, playing a key role in the inflammation's subsequent development. (medicinenet.com 21.2.2017).)

(Anm: Ørsmå mitokondrier spiller en svært stor rolle mht. menneskets evolusjon og sykdom (Tiny mitochondria play outsized role in human evolution and disease.) (medicalnewstoday.com 25.9.2015).)

(Anm: Impulse control increased by dopamine replacement in early Parkinson's (medicalnewstoday.com 19.8.2014).)

(Anm: Declining dopamine may explain why older people take fewer risks (medicalnewstoday.com 3.6.2016).)

- Antipsykotika dobler dødsrisiko allerede etter 180 dagers bruk

Greater Mortality Risk With Antipsychotics in Parkinson's (Større dødsrisiko med antipsykotika ved Parkinsons)
medicalnewstoday.com 19.6.2015
SAN DIEGO -- Parkinsonpasienter som tar antipsykotika har større risiko for å dø enn de som ikke tar legemidlene, rapporterte forskerne her. (Parkinson's patients taking antipsychotics have a greater risk of death than those not on the drugs, researchers reported here.)

I en retrospektiv analyse av Veterans Affairs data viser at de som tar antipsykotika hadde dobbelt så stor sjanse for å dø i løpet av 180 dager etter oppstart med behandlingen sammenlignet med de som ikke fikk legemidlene (HR 2,35, 95% KI 2,08 til 2,66, p <0,001), ifølge Daniel Weintraub, MD, ved University of Pennsylvania, og colleagues. De rapporterte sine funn ved en stand ved Movement Disorders Society møte her. (In a retrospective analysis of Veterans Affairs data, those taking antipsychotics were twice as likely to die in the 180 days after starting therapy compared with those not on the drugs (HR 2.35, 95% CI 2.08 to 2.66, P<0.001), according to Daniel Weintraub, MD, of the University of Pennsylvania, and colleagues.)

De rapporterte sine funn på en stand ved Movement Disorders Societys møte her. (They reported their findings during a poster session at the Movement Disorders Society meeting here) (…)

(Anm: Association of Antipsychotic Use With Mortality Risk in Patients With Parkinson Disease. JAMA Neurol. 2016 Mar 21. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Antipsychotic drugs may be harmful for people with Parkinson's Antipsychotic drugs that are commonly prescribed for people with Parkinson's disease may be causing additional harm, says research reported in JAMA Neurology. (…) Results showed that in the 180 days after starting antipsychotic drugs, the rate of mortality among those taking the drugs was 2.35 higher than among those who were not. (…) "Antipsychotics should be used in these patients only when the psychosis is of clinical significance, and patients probably should not be left on these drugs long term without re-evaluation." (medicalnewstoday.com 22.3.2016).)

(Anm: Antipsykotika (psykofarmaka etc.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Lægemiddelstyrelsen opfordrer læger til at være opmærksomme på disse alvorlige bivirkninger hos børn og unge i behandling med aripiprazol (Abilify) (…) Gennemgangen viser også, at børn med ASD (autisme) der behandles med aripiprazol, kan udvikle alvorlige psykiatriske bivirkninger såsom svære kroniske søvnproblemer, aggressiv adfærd og hallucinationer. (…) Hårtab, depression og psykose, Vægtøgning, Hypercholesterolemi, Hypercholesterolemi. (LÆGEMIDDELSTYRELSEN - NYT OM BIVIRKNINGER 2016;7(9).)

(Anm: «Psykiatrien i Norge har hatt for svak ledelse. På alle nivåer. I alle år». KRONIKK: Helseminister Bent Høie (H). BENT HØIE, Helseminister. (vg.no 23.11.2016).)

(Anm: - Kan vi stole på forskningen? (...) - Er det ikke så nøye med sannheten fordi det lønner seg økonomisk og er lettvint bare å tro på forenklingene, halvsannhetene og de opplagt bløffene? (...) - Trass i all forskning. Trass i alle milliarder av kroner som var blitt investert, trass i alle gode intensjoner. Men «sannheten om de psykiske sykdommers natur, ubalansen i hjernens kjemi» viste seg etter hvert ikke å være sann. (dagensmedisin.no 2.4.20

(Anm: Dyremodeller åbner døren til ny generation af antipsykotika. (- »Industrien har måttet erkende, at de ‘varer’, der var på hylderne, ikke var brugbare. (dagensmedicin.dk 31.3.2017).)

(Anm: Psykofarmaka dreper mange. (…) I DAGENS MEDISIN 12. februar hevder psykiaterne Rune Andreas Kroken og Erik Johnsen at det ikke er riktig at psykiatrisk behandling tar liv. De påstår til og med at man lever lenger dersom man får antipsykotika. Dette er helt utrolig.) (dagensmedisin.no 10.3.2017).)

(Anm: Bruk av antipsykotika og sykelighet hos pasienter med Parkinsons sykdom. Antipsychotic Use and Morbidity in PD Patients. Abstract. OBJECTIVE: To determine if antipsychotic (AP) use in Parkinson disease (PD) patients is associated with increased physical morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Any AP use, and atypical AP use, are associated with significantly increased physical morbidity risk in PD patients, as evidenced by increased ED, inpatient, and outpatient visits. These findings, which require replication, extend the risk associated with use of APs in this population from mortality to a broader range of adverse outcomes, and further highlight the need to use APs cautiously in PD patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry; ePub 2017 Feb 2; Weintraub, et al (February 16, 2017).)

(Anm: Få pasienter kjenner til klageordning. (…) Søkere fikk medhold i en firedel av sakene. For dem som klaget på legemiddelskader utløst av antipsykotika, fikk imidlertid kun 9,4% medhold. - Man kan spekulere i om pasienter som ikke er flinke nok til å snakke om sin sak, ikke når frem. (Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 22.1.2013).)

(Anm: The role of mitochondrial disturbances in Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington disease. (…) Disturbances of mitochondrial function and dynamics are associated with cells degeneration and death.Expert Rev Neurother. 2015 Jun 19:1-18. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease. Exp Neurobiol. (…) In this review, we examine evidence for the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased OS in the neuronal loss that leads to PD and discuss how this knowledge further improve the treatment for patients with PD. 2015 Jun;24(2):103-16. Epub 2015 Jun 8.)

(Anm: Mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. (…) In this review, we focus on the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in PD and bring to the forefront new signaling pathways that may be involved in PD. We also provide an overview of therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial defects in PD. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease.J Neurochem. 2016 Aug 21. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Implications of mitochondrial dynamics on neurodegeneration and on hypothalamic dysfunction. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015 Jun 10;7:101. eCollection 2015.)

- FDAs interne gjennomgang av Acadias Parkinsons-legemiddel reiser bekymringer angående sikkerhet og nytte

UPDATED: FDA's internal review of Acadia's Parkinson's drug raises safety, benefit concerns (OPPDATERT: FDAs interne gjennomgang av Acadia Parkinsons-legemiddel reiser bekymringer angående sikkerhet og nytte)
fiercepharma.com 25.3.2016
Acadias kontroll- og forskningsstab vil bli stilt noen tøffe spørsmål fra FDAs rådgivende komité på tirsdagens gjennomgang av pimavanserin ($ACAD), et antipsykotika brukt ved Parkinsons sykdom, men en gjennomgang av etatens interne dokumenter som var tilgjengelig i dag tyder på at døren fortsatt er åpen for en mulig godkjenning. (Acadia's regulatory and research crew will face some tough questions come Tuesday's FDA advisory committee review of its Parkinson's antipsychotic drug pimavanserin ($ACAD), but a scan of the agency's internal review document issued today suggests that the door is still open to a possible approval.)

Den lenge forsinkede FDA-vurderingen erkjenner at dosen på 34 mg av pimavanserin (Nuplazid) gav betydelig bedring av symptomer mht. Parkinsons sykdom. Men legemiddelkontrollen "rød-flagget" deres sikkerhetsbekymringer, og bemerker at det er en påtagelig økning i antall dødsfall og bivirkninger blant pasientene som tar legemidlet sammenlignet med kontrollgruppen i studien - selv om det var ingen klar årsak til hva som trigget disse hendelsene. (The long-delayed FDA assessment acknowledges that the 34 mg dose of pimavanserin (Nuplazid) did significantly improve symptoms of Parkinson's. But regulators clearly red-flagged their safety concerns, noting a distinct increase in the number of deaths as well as adverse events among the patients taking the drug compared to the control arm of the study — even if there was no obvious clue what was triggering those events.)

På grunn av sikkerhetsproblemer ønsker legemiddelkontrollen spesielt å ha en diskusjon med eksterne eksperter om relevansen av den diskutable kliniske nytten av legemidlet. (…) (Because of the safety issues, the agency in particular wants to have a discussion with the outside experts about the questionable meaningfulness of the clinical benefit of the drug.)

(Anm: Statlig legemiddelkontroll (Statens legemiddelverk etc.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Statlig hvitvasking av legemiddelinformasjon (Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2010; 130:368 (25.2.2010).)

(Anm: Forskning bliver farlig, når de negative resultater glemmes. (…) Nyt dansk studie viser problemet. (...) For få negative resultater leder til falske konklusioner. (…) Manglende negative resultater har kostet liv. (…) Vores model viser, at vi er nødt til at få publiceret mindst 20 procent af de negative resultater, der produceres inden for hvert forskningsfelt, hvis vi skal undgå at lave falske antagelser om videnskabelig fakta. (videnskab.dk 5.1.2017).)

(Anm: Legemiddelindustriens fortjeneste var nesten det dobbelte av utgifter til forskning og utvikling (FoU-utgifter) i 2013, 2014 og 2015. (Pharmaceutical Industry Profits Are Nearly Double R&D Costs in 2013, 2014 and 2015) (…) En primær unnskyldning som legemiddelindustrien bruker for «prisøkning» er de høye kostnadene for forskning og utvikling (FoU) som disse firmaene betaler for å få nye legemidler på markedet. (citizen.org 27.3.2017).)

- Dette skjoldet av patenter beskytter verdens bestselgende legemiddel.

(Anm: Dette skjoldet av patenter beskytter verdens bestselgende legemiddel. (- Produktet med 16 milliarder dollar i årsomsetning. (...) - Det har dessuten vært tilgjengelig i nærmere 15 år. (…) Den virkelige utfordringen var den tilsynelatende ugjennomtrengelige festningen av patenter som AbbVie metodisk har bygget rundt sin verdsatte pengemaskin. (…) Humira, som står for mer enn 60 prosent av AbbVies inntekter har en listepris på mer enn 50 000 dollar per pasient. (bloomberg.com 7.9.2017).)

(Anm: Myten om mediers åpenhet. Hvorfor er virkelig fordomsfri og frisinnet debatt uvanlig? Hvorfor så få nye, uavhengige meningsytrere? Hvorfor møter mediene dem dels med motstand, dels med taushet? (aftenposten.no 7.9.2006).)

(Anm: Er det en reproduserbarhetskrise i vitenskapelig forskning? (Is there a reproducibility crisis in science?) (…) Nyere studier, som undersøkte en rekke publiserte legemiddelstudier, klarte å gjenskape resultatene for mindre enn 25 % av dem - og tilsvarende resultater er blitt funnet i andre vitenskapelige disipliner. Hvordan bekjemper vi denne krisen for vitenskapelig ikke-reproduserbarhet? (ed.ted.com).)

(Anm: Spinn i randomiserte kontrollerte studier (RCT) på angstlegemidler (antidepressiva) med et positivt opprinnelig resultat: en sammenligning av bekymringer uttrykt av den amerikanske legemiddelkontrollen FDA og den publiserte litteratur. (Spin in RCTs of anxiety medication with a positive primary outcome: a comparison of concerns expressed by the US FDA and in the published literature.) BMJ Open. 2017 Mar 29;7(3):e012886.)

(Anm: LEGEMIDDELPENGER – FDA er avhengig av industrifinansiering; penger kommer «festet med strikk» (DRUG MONEY. FDA Depends on Industry Funding; Money Comes with “Strings Attached”) (pogo.org 1.12.2016).)

(Anm: LEGEMIDDELPENGER - I FDA-møter er "pasientstemmene" ofte finansiert av legemiddelfirmaer (DRUG MONEY - In FDA Meetings, "Voice" of the Patient Often Funded by Drug Companies) (pogo.org 3.12.2016).)

(Anm: Recommendations to improve adverse event reporting in clinical trial publications: a joint pharmaceutical industry/journal editor perspective. BMJ 2016;355:i5078 (Published 03 October 2016).)

(Anm: - Hadde medisinerne på et tidligere tidspunkt hatt et evolusjonært perspektiv på sin medisinering, ville vi ikke vært i den kritiske situasjon vi er kommet i med hensyn til resistens. (aftenposten.no 22.8.2016).)

(Anm: Antibiotika kan gi flere kroniske sykdommer. (…) Folkehelseinstituttet: – Faren er underkommunisert. – Advarslene er høyst betimelige, sier lege og seniorforsker Merete Eggesbø ved Folkehelseinstituttet. (…) Ifølge Blaser viser ny forskning at det er en sammenheng mellom endringen av den naturlige tarmfloraen vår og utvikling av nye sykdommer som fedme, diabetes, astma,(...) Advarslene er høyst betimelige, sier lege og seniorforsker Merete Eggesbø ved Folkehelseinstituttet. (…) Ifølge Blaser viser ny forskning at det er en sammenheng mellom endringen av den naturlige tarmfloraen vår og utvikling av nye sykdommer som fedme, diabetes, astma, allergi, autisme og mageinfeksjoner. (nrk.no 30.10.2016).)

(Anm: Researchers explore link between gut microbiome and nutrition in autism spectrum disorder. (…) Sharon Donovan, a professor of nutrition at the University of Illinois explains that researchers have started to look at more specific disease states and the microbiome. "We are starting to see links with autism, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and almost every disease that is looked at. (news-medical.net 28.4.2017).)

(Anm: Researchers discover new mechanism that causes chronic intestinal inflammation. Researchers at the University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and the German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München have discovered that too much of the oncogene Bcl-3 leads to chronic intestinal diseases. They describe in Nature Communications exactly how it throws the immune system off-balance. Chronic intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are caused by the body's own immune defense system. (news-medical.net 28.5.2017).)

(Anm: Forsiktighet kreves ved samtidig forskrivning av antibiotika med psykofarmaka hos eldre pasienter. (…) Antibiotika har flere legemiddelinteraksjoner med psykofarmaka som kan føre til bivirkninger eller behandlingssvikt og betydelig øke kostnadene for behandlinger. (dgnews.docguide.com 3.4.2017).)

(Anm: Antibiotika associeras med högre risk för tarmcancer. (…) Det här är första studien som visar på sambandet mellan antibiotikaanvändning och utveckling av adenom i tjock- och ändtarmen. Studien publiceras i den vetenskapliga tidskriften Gut. (…) Resultatet visade att långvarig antibiotikaanvändning tidigare i livet, i åldern 20 till 59 år, hade samband med diagnostiserade adenom. (lakemedelsvarlden.se 5.4.2017.)

(Anm: For mange retningslinjer for behandlinger er skrevet av eksperter med finansielle konflikter, viser studien. (statnews.com 22.8.2016).)

(Anm: Mange kliniske studier på barn forblir upubliserte eller uferdige. (Many pediatric clinical trials go unpublished or unfinished.) (- Selv om ulike statlige lover ble utformet for å fremme kliniske studier for å teste produkter på barn blir en bemerkelsesverdig stor mengde forskning enten ikke publisert eller ikke fullført, ifølge en ny studie.) (statnews.com 4.8.2016).)

(Anm: Alvorlige bivirkninger skjules helt lovlig. Lægemiddelvirksomhederne tegner ikke altid et sandfærdigt billede af den medicin, de har udviklet - hverken over for myndighederne eller i de videnskabelige tidsskrifter. (videnskab.dk 25.1.2011).)

(Anm: Manisk svitsj forårsaket av antidepressiva: en sammenfattende sammenlignende gjennomgang av randomiserte kontrollerte studier og observasjonsstudier Manic switches induced by antidepressants: an umbrella review comparing randomized controlled trials and observational studies.(...) Conclusion. Our results highlight an underestimation of the rates of manic switch under antidepressants in RCTs compared to the rates observed in observational studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2016 (First published: 23 November 2016).)

(Anm: Markant flere bivirkninger i upublicerede kliniske studier. (…) Den mediane procentdel af offentliggjort dokumenter med information om bivirkninger var 46 pct., sammenlignet med 95 pct. i de tilsvarende, upublicerede dokumenter. (dagenspharma.dk 23.9.2016).)

(Anm: Fiona Godlee, editor in chief. Editor's Choice (Redaktørens valg). Hvorfor legemiddelgodkjenninger trenger bedre bevis (Why drug approval needs better evidence). (…) Begge artiklene konkluderer at legemiddelkontrollen har et straksbehov for å kreve høyere standarder på bevis før og etter godkjenning. Økte kostnader for evaluering vil mer enn oppveies av lavere kostnader for ineffektive behandlinger, med bedre resultater og færre pasientskader. I mellomtiden trenger pasienter og deres leger å ha en ærlig og åpen kommunikasjon om den virkelige styrken på bevisene bak beslutninger om godkjenninger.) BMJ 2016;353:i3483 (Published 23 June 2016).)

(Anm: Folk dør av hemmelige bivirkninger. Over 90 prosent av alle bivirkninger fra legemidler rapporteres ikke - selv ikke dødelige og livstruende bivirkninger. (...) Slik kan du hjelpe andre: (bt.no 9.3.2015).)

(Anm: For mange retningslinjer for behandlinger er skrevet av eksperter med finansielle konflikter, viser studien. (statnews.com 22.8.2016).)

(Anm: Autisme: tidlig dødsrisiko en "skjult krise" (- Den ulikhet i utfall for autistiske mennesker vist i disse data er skammelige. Vi kan ikke akseptere en situasjon hvor mange autistiske mennesker aldri vil oppleve sin 40-årsdag.) (- Alle som er involvert i å støtte folk med autismespekteret fra regjeringen rett ned til lokalt helsepersonell har et ansvar for å stå opp og begynne å redde liv så snart som mulig.) (medicalnewstoday.com 21.3.2016).)

(Anm: Association of anticholinergic burden with adverse effects in older people with intellectual disabilities: an observational cross-sectional study. Conclusions Older people with intellectual disabilities and with mental health conditions were exposed to high anticholinergic burden. This was associated with daytime dozing and constipation. The British Journal of Psychiatry Dec 2016, 209 (6) 504-510.)

(Anm: New study links autism to mutations in mitochondrial DNA (medicalnewstoday.com 31.10.2016).)

(Anm: Økning i dødsfall blant pasienter med psykiske lidelser må etterforskes, sier parlamentsmedlem. (Rise in deaths of mental health patients needs investigating, says MP.) BMJ 2016;352:i518 (Published 26 January 2016).)

(Anm: Medisinske feil — den tredje største dødsårsaken i USA. Medisinske feil inkluderes ikke i dødsattester eller i rangeringen av dødsårsaker. (...) Medisinske feil "fører til mer enn 250 000 dødsfall i USA årlig". (Medical error—the third leading cause of death in the US. Medical error is not included on death certificates or in rankings of cause of death. (...) Medical error 'causes more than 250,000 deaths in the U.S. annually.) BMJ 2016;353:i2139 (Published 03 May 2016).)

(Anm: Forskere: Medisinske feil nå tredje største dødsårsak i USA (Researchers: Medical errors now third leading cause of death in United States) (washingtonpost.com 3.7.2016).)

(Anm: Legemiddelfirmaer har inngått forlik om påstander om villeding av leger om overlevelsesdata for kreft. (Drug companies settle claim of misleading doctors on cancer survival data) (- Medisinsk svindel sto for mer enn halvparten av 3,5 milliarder dollar som ble utbetalt i erstatninger i fjor. Vanligvis involverte dette beskyldninger om bestikkelser betalt for å generere falske pasienter eller unødvendige behandlinger og resepter som er belastet Medicare.) BMJ 2016;353:i3361 (Published 15 June 2016).)

(Anm: Den britiske regjeringen har drevet lobbyvirksomhet overfor EU-kommisjonen for å få vedtatt en mer avslappet tilnærming til reguleringer av legemidler, medisinsk utstyr og mat, ifølge et brev som BMJ har fått tilgang til. (The UK government has been lobbying the European Commission to adopt a more relaxed approach to regulating drugs, devices, and food, a letter seen by The BMJ has shown.) BMJ 2016;353:i3357 (Published 15 June 2016).)

(Anm: Gruppe (Transparency International) ber om flere tiltak for å takle korrupsjonen innen legemiddelindustrien. (Group calls for more to be done to tackle corruption in the pharmaceutical industry) (…) På begynnelsen av 2016 har én av 10 korrupsjonsundersøkelser i USA involvert legemiddelfirmaer, hvilket ifølge rapporten er et langt høyere antall saker enn det som involverer banksektoren. (BMJ 2016;353:i3099 (Published 02 June 2016).)

(Anm: Finanschef beskyldt for insiderhandel med pharma-tips. (- Sanjay Valvani er anklaget for at have handlet på tips fra en tidligere ansat i den amerikanske FDA-myndighed, som bl.a. godkender lægemidler, samt for at sende informationerne videre til kollegaen Christopher Plaford. (medwatch.dk 16.6.2016).)

(Anm: TEST UTVIKLET FOR Å OPPDAGE FARLIGE BIVIRKNINGER SLIK AT FÆRRE PASIENTER GIS UTRYGGE LEGEMIDLER (Test aims to detect dangerous side effects so that fewer patients are given unsafe drugs) (medicalnewstoday.com 19.12.2014).)

(Anm: Antipsykotika (psykofarmaka etc.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Lægemiddelstyrelsen opfordrer læger til at være opmærksomme på disse alvorlige bivirkninger hos børn og unge i behandling med aripiprazol (Abilify) (…) Gennemgangen viser også, at børn med ASD (autisme) der behandles med aripiprazol, kan udvikle alvorlige psykiatriske bivirkninger såsom svære kroniske søvnproblemer, aggressiv adfærd og hallucinationer. (…) Hårtab, depression og psykose, Vægtøgning, Hypercholesterolemi, Hypercholesterolemi. (LÆGEMIDDELSTYRELSEN - NYT OM BIVIRKNINGER 2016;7(9).)

(Anm: «Psykiatrien i Norge har hatt for svak ledelse. På alle nivåer. I alle år». KRONIKK: Helseminister Bent Høie (H). BENT HØIE, Helseminister. (vg.no 23.11.2016).)

(Anm: - Kan vi stole på forskningen? (...) - Er det ikke så nøye med sannheten fordi det lønner seg økonomisk og er lettvint bare å tro på forenklingene, halvsannhetene og de opplagt bløffene? (...) - Trass i all forskning. Trass i alle milliarder av kroner som var blitt investert, trass i alle gode intensjoner. Men «sannheten om de psykiske sykdommers natur, ubalansen i hjernens kjemi» viste seg etter hvert ikke å være sann. (dagensmedisin.no 2.4.20

(Anm: Dyremodeller åbner døren til ny generation af antipsykotika. (- »Industrien har måttet erkende, at de ‘varer’, der var på hylderne, ikke var brugbare. (dagensmedicin.dk 31.3.2017).)

(Anm: Psykofarmaka dreper mange. (…) I DAGENS MEDISIN 12. februar hevder psykiaterne Rune Andreas Kroken og Erik Johnsen at det ikke er riktig at psykiatrisk behandling tar liv. De påstår til og med at man lever lenger dersom man får antipsykotika. Dette er helt utrolig.) (dagensmedisin.no 10.3.2017).)

(Anm: Få pasienter kjenner til klageordning. (…) Søkere fikk medhold i en firedel av sakene. For dem som klaget på legemiddelskader utløst av antipsykotika, fikk imidlertid kun 9,4% medhold. - Man kan spekulere i om pasienter som ikke er flinke nok til å snakke om sin sak, ikke når frem. (Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 22.1.2013).)

(Anm: Pimavanserin (ACP-103), marketed under the trade name Nuplazid, is a drug developed by Acadia Pharmaceuticals which acts as an inverse agonist on the serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT2A, with 40x selectivity over 5-HT2C, and no significant affinity or activity at 5-HT2B or dopamine receptors.[ (en.wikipedia.org).)

Controversies on the role of 5-HT(2C) receptors in the mechanisms of action of antidepressant drugs. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014 Mar 11. pii: S0149-7634(14)00040-2.
Evidence from the various sources indicates alterations in 5-HT2C receptor functions in anxiety, depression and suicide, and other stress-related disorders treated with antidepressant drugs. Although the notion of a 5-HT2C receptor desensitization following antidepressant treatments is rather well anchored in the literature, this concept is mainly based on in vitro assays and/or behavioral assays (hypolocomotion, hyperthermia) that have poor relevance to anxio-depressive disorders. Our objective herein is to provide a comprehensive overview of the studies that have assessed the effects of antidepressant drugs on 5-HT2C receptors. Relevant molecular (second messengers, editing), neurochemical (receptor binding and mRNA levels), physiological (5-HT2C receptor-induced hyperthermia and hormone release), behavioral (5-HT2C receptor-induced changes in feeding, anxiety, defense and motor activity) data are summarized and discussed. Setting the record straight about drug-induced changes in 5-HT2C receptor function in specific brain regions should help to determine which pharmacotherapeutic strategy is best for affective and anxiety disorders. (...)

(Anm: Cafeteria diet and probiotic therapy: cross talk among memory, neuroplasticity, serotonin receptors and gut microbiota in the rat. Abstract. The western diet is known to have detrimental effects on cognition and the gut microbiota, but few studies have investigated how these may be related. (…) Neuroplasticity genes in the perirhinal cortex were also affected and related to PC1 but object memory performance was correlated with perirhinal 5HT2C (anm: 5-HT2C) expression and microbiota PC3. These results show that probiotics can be beneficial in situations of gut dysbiosis where memory deficits are evident but may be detrimental in healthy subjects.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 14 March 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.38. Mol Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 14. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. (...)  Abstract. There is increasing, but largely indirect, evidence pointing to an effect of commensal gut microbiota on the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unknown whether lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus could have a direct effect on neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS in normal, healthy animals. GABA is the main CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological processes. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) 2011 (Published online before print August 29).)

(Anm: Serotonin Regulates the Firing of Principal Cells of the Subiculum by Inhibiting a T-type Ca2+ Current. (…) Results Serotonin Inhibits the Burst Firing of Pyramidal Neurons from the Subiculum We characterized the firing behavior of principal cells from the subiculum by recording the electrical activity of individual pyramidal cells using patch-clamp technique, LFP, optogenetics and calcium imaging. In agreement with previous observations (Mason, 1993; Stewart and Wong, 1993; Taube, 1993), we found that 284 out of 351 (81%) pyramidal cells recorded in the distal half of the subiculum, responded to depolarizing current pulses with a burst of action potentials followed by regular firing (Figure 1A; mice age P12–P28). The probability of generating a burst was increased when evoked from a hyperpolarized membrane potential and decreased when evoked from a depolarized membrane potential (Figure 1B), suggesting involvement of a voltage-sensitive conductance partly de-inactivated at rest and sharing the properties of T-type Ca2+ channels (Llinás and Yarom, 1981). Front. Cell. Neurosci., 07 March 2017.)

(Anm: Forskere finder potentiel epilepsi-behandling. Epilepsi Temporallapsepilepsi (TLE) er en af de mest almindelige epilepsiformer. 30 millioner mennesker verden over kæmper med TLE, men en tredjedel af dem er ikke modtagelige over for de tilgængelige behandlingsformer. Nu har forskere fra Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet på Københavns Universitet gjort en opdagelse, der måske kan bruges til at behandle de patienter. (sund.ku.dk 1.3.2017).)

(Anm: Serotonin som potentiel epilepsi-behandling. En dansk forskergruppe har opdaget, at serotonin-recptoren 5-HT2c hæmmer calciumstrømmen og på den måde forhindrer neuronerne i at danne såkaldte ’bursts’. Disse bursts forårsager epilepsianfald. Derved kan en mulig behandling være fundet til de mennesker, der lider af temporallapepilepsi, men som ikke er modtagelige over for de tilgængelige behandlinger. Forhåbningen er, at man ved at have fundet den specifikke receptor for effekten kan målrette behandlingen og dermed undgå bivirkningerne ved serotonin. Læs mere her  (pharmadanmark.dk 10.3.2017).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (nytteverdi) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Ny forskning: Lykkepiller gør mere skade end gavn. Folk med depression får intet ud af at tage antidepressivet SSRI, bedre kendt som lykkepiller, viser nyt dansk studie. (jyllands-posten.dk 13.2.2017).)

(Anm: Forskere finner link mellom bruk av antidepressiva, medfødte misdannelser eller dødfødsler. (Researchers Find Link Between Antidepressant Use, Congenital Anomalies or Stillbirths) (…) "Mens denne ekstra risikoen kan virke liten er resultatene etter mitt syn så alvorlig som de kan være." (“While this extra risk may seem small, in my view, the outcomes are as serious as they can be.”) (dgnews.docguide.com 5.12.2016).)

(Anm: Eksponering av foster for antidepressiva kan endre Corpus Callosums mikrostruktur: Presentert ved PAS / ASPN. (…) Fordi "den neonate (nyfødtes) corpus callosum mikrostruktur er assosiert med utero (livmor) SSRI-eksponering og prenatal (før fødsel) mødredepresjon, er tidlige modningsprosesser i denne regionen følsomme for endret 5-hydroksytryptamin (5-HT) signalering under tiden i utero (livmor)," bemerket Campbell. "Disse resultatene - sammen med forstyrret hvit substans’ mikrostruktur i genu hos premature spedbarn - tyder dette på at utviklingen av [corpus callosum] kan være følsom for tidlige uheldige påvirkninger. (Fetal Exposure to Antidepressants May Alter Corpus Callosum Microstructure.) (dgnews.docguide.com 10.5.2017).)

(Anm: Unormal sæd med SSRI antidepressiva. Flere studier har funnet endrede sædparametere etter eksponering for SSRI-antidepressiva. Selv om SSRIs rolle er usikker, er det berettiget å ta hensyn til de observerte effektene på sædkvalitet og informere eksponerte pasienter. (Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants. Several studies have found altered semen parameters after exposure to SSRI antidepressants. Although the role of SSRIs is uncertain, it is justified to take into account the observed effects on sperm quality and to inform exposed patients.) Prescrire Int 2015; 24 (156): 16-17.)

(Anm: Gravide kvinner som tar antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å få barn med autisme, ifølge studie. Pregnant women who take antidepressants more likely to have a child with autism, study finds. Research data published in the BMJ reveal that antidepressant use during pregnancy increases the risk of autism in children, as reported The Independent Thursday. (firstwordpharma.com 20.7.2017).)

(Anm: - Nye data viser økt risiko for misdannelser når antidepressiva brukes under graviditet. (…) En studie publisert i British Medical Journal (BMJ) avslører at antidepressiva forskrevet til gravide kan øke sjansen for å få en baby med misdannelser.) (New Data Show Heightened Risk of Birth Defects When Antidepressants Are Used During Pregnancy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 19.1.2017).)

(Anm: - Utviklingen av et potensielt livstruende serotonergt syndrom eller nevroleptisk malignt syndrom (NMS)-lignende reaksjoner er rapportert for SNRI-er og SSRI-er alene, inkludert Celexa-behandling, men spesielt ved samtidig bruk av serotonerge legemidler (inklusive triptaner) og legemidler som svekker metabolisme av serotonin (inklusive MAO-hemmere), eller med antipsykotika eller andre dopaminantagonister (fda.gov 6.3.2009).)

(Anm: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed pregnant women: an updated analysis of the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort. (…) Conclusions Antidepressants with effects on serotonin reuptake during embryogenesis increased the risk of some organ-specific malformations in a cohort of pregnant women with depression. BMJ Open 2017;7:e013372.)

(Anm: Bruk av antipsykotika er assosiert med en 60 % økt risiko for dødelighet hos pasienter med Alzheimers sykdom. (…) Bruk av to eller flere antipsykotika samtidig ble knyttet til nesten doblet dødsrisiko (200 %) enn ved monoterapi.) (Antipsychotic Drug Use Increases Risk of Mortality Among Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease. JOENSUU, Finland -- December 12, 2016 -- Antipsychotic drug use is associated with a 60% increased risk of mortality among patients with Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. The risk was highest at the beginning of drug use and remained increased in long-term use. Use of 2 or more antipsychotic drugs concomitantly was associated with almost 2 times higher risk of mortality than monotherapy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 12.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antipsykotika dobler dødsrisiko allerede etter 180 dagers bruk. Greater Mortality Risk With Antipsychotics in Parkinson's (Større dødsrisiko med antipsykotika ved Parkinsons) (medicalnewstoday.com 21.6.2015).)

(Anm: (...) For ytterligere å illustrere problemet kan nevnes at antipsykotika forårsaker parkinsonisme (5), og en studie fant at mennesker med Parkinsons sykdom og psykose hadde fire ganger større sannsynlighet for å dø etter tre til seks måneders behandling enn de som ikke fikk antipsykotika. (6) De var også mer utsatt for kognitiv svikt, forverring av parkinsonsymptomer, hjerneslag, infeksjoner og fall. RE: Psykisk syke lever kortere. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 10.11.2015.)

(Anm: Legemidler som kan gi delirium hos eldre. Delirium ses særlig hos eldre ved akutte sykdommer og skader eller som følge av toksisk eller farmakologisk påvirkning. Eldre personer har mange sykdommer og bruken av legemidler er høy. Mange legemidler, og særlig de med antikolinerg eller dopaminerg effekt, kan gi delirium. Kjennskap til legemidler og kombinasjoner av legemidler som kan gi delirium, er viktig for å kunne forebygge og behandle tilstanden. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2005; 125:2366-7 (8.9.2005).)

(Anm: Delirium in hospitalized patients: Risks and benefits of antipsychotics. ABSTRACT Consensus panel guidelines advocate for the judicious use of antipsychotic drugs to manage delirium in hospitalized patients when nonpharmacologic measures fail and the patient is in significant distress from symptoms, poses a safety risk to self or others, or is impeding essential aspects of his or her medical care. Here, we review the use of haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole for this purpose. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2017 August;84(8):616-622.)

(Anm: Post injektionssyndrom. (…) De fleste af disse patienter udviklede symptomer på sedation (fra mild sedation til koma) og/eller delirium (herunder forvirring, desorientering, ophidselse/ uro, angst og anden kognitiv svækkelse). Andre symptomer inkluderede ekstrapyramidale symptomer, dysartri, ataksi, aggression, svimmelhed, svaghed, hypertension eller krampe.) (sundhedsstyrelsen.dk 29.6.2014).)

(Anm: Mødre til børn med misdannelser har øget dødelighed. (…) Bivirkninger har ført til to dødsfald. Den største del af bivirkningerne (42 procent) af de 429 blev indberettet for såkaldte psykostimulerende lægemidler - eksempelvis til behandling af ADHD - efterfulgt af 31 procent for antidepressiver og 24 procent for antipsykotiske lægemidler. (videnskab.dk 20.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antikolinerge effekter av vanlige legemidler knyttet til økt dødelighet hos mennesker over 65. De kombinerte antikolinerge effektene av mange vanlige legemidler øker risikoen for kognitiv svekkelse og død hos personer over 65 år, ifølge resultater fra en storskala studie på den langsiktige helseeffekten av legemidler.(Anticholinergic effects of common drugs are associated with increased mortality in over 65s. The combined anticholinergic effects of many common drugs increase the risk of cognitive impairment and death in people aged over 65, a large scale study of the long term effect of drugs on health has found.) BMJ 2011; 342:d4037 (28 June).)

(Anm: Men experience greater cognitive impairment and increased risk of death following hip surgery. In a study of hip fracture patients, men displayed greater levels of cognitive impairment within the first 22 days of fracture than women, and cognitive limitations increased the risk of dying within six months in both men and women. "While men make up only about 25 percent of all hip fractures, the number of men who fracture their hip is increasing and we know men are more likely to die than women after a hip fracture," said Dr. Ann Gruber-Baldini, lead author of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society study. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.2.2017).)

(Anm: Det autonome nervesystemet. Det autonome nervesystemets hovedoppgave er å bidra til likevekt i kroppens basale funksjoner. Det vil blant annet si kroppstemperatur, blodtrykk, åndedrett og fordøyelse. (nhi.no 4.3.2015).)

(Anm: Ulike selektive serotonin reopptakshemmeres (SSRI-er) cytotoksisitet mot kreftceller. (Cytotoxicity of different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against cancer cells.) (…) Vi har funnet at paroxetine (paroksetin; Seroxat; Paxil etc.) har cytotoksisk aktivitet mot tumorceller. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006;6(1):23-9.)

(Anm: Could antidepressants stop prostate cancer from spreading? In almost all cases where prostate cancer spreads to other areas of the body, the disease spreads to the bone first. In a new study, researchers reveal the discovery of an enzyme that helps prostate cancer cells to invade bone. Furthermore, certain antidepressant medications may have the potential to block this enzyme. Study co-author Jason Wu, of Washington State University-Spokane, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Cancer Cell. (medicalnewstoday.com 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: Classic cytotoxic drugs: a narrow path for regulatory approval. Several classic cytotoxic drugs have shown encouraging activity in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.1–3 However, only a few have received an overwhelming welcome from regulatory authorities and succeeded in obtaining widespread regulatory approval for routine use. For example eribulin was approved for treatment of metastatic breast cancer in several countries including Japan, USA, and Europe, based on data that showed longer overall survival in patients treated with eribulin compared with patients treated with physician's choice of treatment. In contrast ixabcpilone with capecitabine gained approval from the US Food and Drug Agency based on data showing longer progression-free survival compared with capccitabine alone, but did not obtain rcgulatory authorisation in Europc because it is associated with a high incidence of nevropathy.5 Lancet Oncol. 2017 Feb 10. pii: S1470-2045(17)30089-X. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Ødelagt cellulær "klokke" linket til hjerneskade (Broken Cellular 'Clock' Linked to Brain Damage) (sciencedaily.com 25.11.2013).)

(Anm: Signaling Pathways Linked to Serotonin-Induced Superoxide Anion Production: A Physiological Role for Mitochondria in Pulmonary Arteries. Abstract. Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) is commonly associated to cellular damages due to [Formula: see text] overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, [Formula: see text] also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). Front Physiol. 2017 Feb 9;8:76. eCollection 2017.)

(Anm: Bruk av antidepressiva ble assosiert med et betydelig eldre utseende og forskere fant også ut at vekten spilte en viktig faktor. I de sett med tvillinger som var yngre enn 40 år ble tyngre tvillinger oppfattet som eldre. (…) I tillegg mistenker forskerne at den vedvarende avslapping av ansiktsmuskler som antidepressiva forårsaker kan forklare årsaken til at ansiktet faller sammen (henger). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Minislag (ministroke: transient ischemic attack (TIA)) linket til lavere forventet levetid. (- Minislag kan forårsake demens.) (- Enkelte psykofarmaka kan øke risiko for minislag / demens.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Stumme infarkt rammer oftere folk med høy smertetoleranse. Stumme hjerteinfarkt gir ikke de klassiske brystsmertene som ved vanlige infarkt. - Denne pasientgruppen tar enten ikke kontakt med lege, eller de har ikke fått riktig diagnose, sier lege og forsker Andrea Milde Øhrn. (…) Det er vanlig å tenke sterke brystsmerter og akutt behandling når det er snakk om hjerteinfarkt. Det mange kanskje ikke vet, er at man kan ha hatt et hjerteinfarkt uten å vite det. Dette kalles et stumt infarkt, et hjerteinfarkt med få eller ingen symptomer. - Et stumt hjerteinfarkt er et hjerteinfarkt som ikke er erkjent. (nhi.no 3.2.2017).)

(Anm: Sannsynlig karotidyni forårsaket av fluoxetine (Prozac; SSRI-er). (Probable fluoxetine-induced carotidynia.)  Karotidyni er en fokal nakkesmerte (bestemt, avgrenset område), som involverer anatomiske områder til den berørte arteria carotis, og stråler ofte ut i den ipsilateral side (samme side) av ansiktet eller øret. På grunnlag av medisinsk historie og alder har karotidyni konvensjonelt vært klassifisert i klassisk (ikke-migrenøs), migrenøs, og vaskulære varianter. The Lancet 2009;374(9695):1061-1062 (26 September).)

(Anm: Nakkesmerter sætter forskerne skakmat. Kroniske nakkesmerter koster samfundet milliarder og er en af de hyppigste årsager til, at danskere melder sig syge fra job. Forskerne er i vildrede: Ingen behandling er effektiv. (videnskab.dk 22.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva linket til hjerterisiko: tvillingstudie. (Antidepressants linked to heart risk: twins study) - Middelaldrende menn som bruker antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å ha en innsnevring av blodårer, noe som øker risikoen for hjerteinfarkt og slag, enn de som ikke bruker legemidlene, ifølge en studie presentert på lørdag. (Reuters) - Middle-age men who use antidepressants are more likely to have a narrowing of blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes, than those who do not use the medications, according to a study presented on Saturday.) (reuters.com 2.4.2011).)

(Anm: - Pfizers Zyvoxid (Zyvox) og antidepressiva kan være en dødelig kombinasjon. (- Det antas at når linezolid gis til pasienter, som behandles med serotonerge psykofarmaka, kan forhøyede nivåer av serotonin bygge seg opp i hjernen og forårsake toksisitet (giftighet). Dette er referert til som Serotonin syndrom - tegn og symptomer inkluderer mentale endringer (forvirring, hyperaktivitet, minneproblemer), muskelrykninger, overdreven svetting, skjelving eller risting, diaré, problemer med koordinasjon og / eller feber.) (fda.gov 21.10.2011).)

(Anm: Hva er det forskrivere og pasienter ikke vet om bivirkninger av antidepressiva? (What do prescribers and patients not know about the side effects of antidepressant drugs?) (medicalnewstoday.com 15.9.2016).)

(Anm: Forskere: Alvorlige bivirkninger, når antidepressiver droppes. Angst, depression og selvmordstanker er nogle af de bivirkninger, som tit forekommer, når man holder op med at tage antidepressiv medicin. Bivirkningerne kan i nogle tilfælde være langvarige og kroniske, viser et nyt studie. (videnskab.dk 16.3.2015).)

(Anm: Bruk av visse smertestillende midler (og antidepressiva (+ 31 %)) forbundet med økt risiko for drap (Use of certain painkillers linked with increased risk of homicide) Enkelte legemidler som påvirker sentralnervesystemet - som smertestillende og beroligende benzodiazepiner - er assosiert med økt risiko for å begå et drap, finner en ny studie publisert i tidsskriftet World Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 1.6.2015).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. Drab og vold har de seneste år fyldt debatten om de danske bosteder for patienter med psykiske problemer. (…) Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. (…) Mens Folketinget kæmper for en løsning på problemet med vold på offentlige bosteder, vælger flere kommuner at sende tunge patienter til private tilbud. (politiken.dk 18.3.2017.)

(Anm: Aggresjon knyttet til økt risiko for substansmisbruk. Aggression disorder linked to greater risk of substance abuse. (…) In the study, published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Coccaro, MD, and colleagues analyzed data from more than 9,200 subjects in the National Comorbidity Survey, a national survey of mental health in the United States. They found that as the severity of aggressive behavior increased, so did levels of daily and weekly substance use. The findings suggest that a history of frequent, aggressive behavior is a risk factor for later substance abuse, and effective treatment of aggression could delay or even prevent substance abuse in young people. (medicalnewstoday.com 2.3.2017).)

(Anm: Halvparten av norske drap begått av rusede. (…) I 125 av drapene – eller 54 prosent – er det beskrevet i dommen at gjerningspersonen var påvirket av rusmidler under drapet. (nrk.no 13.12.2016).)

- En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn.

(Anm: En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn. (- Pasienten døde etter kort tid, og dødsårsaken var nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning), heter det i tilsynets rapport. (nrk.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body, frequently a response of the immune system to infection. (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Sepsis. Definisjon: SIRS + påvist/mistenkt infeksjon (f. eks. positiv blodkultur). SIRS- kriteriene er: - Feber > 38 ºC eller hypotermi < 36 ºC - Puls > 90/minutt - Respirasjonsfrekvens > 20/minutt eller hypokapni med pCO2 < 4,3 kPa i blodgass - Leukocytose ≥ 12 × 109/l eller leukopeni < 4 × 109/l eller > 10 % umodne leukocytter. (helsebiblioteket.no - Metodebok for indremedisinere, 2012).)

(Anm: Rollen til mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) ved sepsis (blodforgiftning)-indusert multiorgansvikt. (The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure). (Virulence. 2013 Nov 1;5(1).)

- Diagnostisering av sepsis. Sepsis, også kjent som blodforgiftning, er kroppens hyperaktive respons på en infeksjon som kan føre til betennelse, vevskader, organsvikt etc.

(Anm: Diagnosing Sepsis. Sepsis, also known as blood poisoning, is the body’s hyperactive response to an infection that can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, organ failure etc. It is a very dangerous state in which the immune system stops fighting with the invading agents  and turns to itself. Around one-third of patients who are affected with sepsis die every year. (news-medical.net 7.9.2017).)

- Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon.

(Anm: Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon. Recognizing Sepsis as a Global Health Priority — A WHO Resolution. “Some very important clinical issues, some of them affecting life and death, stay largely in a backwater which is inhabited by academics and professionals and enthusiasts, dealt with very well at the clinical and scientific level but not visible to the public, political leaders, leaders of healthcare systems... The public and political space is the space in which [sepsis] needs to be in order for things to change.” NEJM (June 28, 2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis – den dödliga sjukdomen som glöms bort. Trots att infektionssjukdomen sepsis förekommer oftare än de vanligaste formerna av cancer och att upp emot hälften som drabbas av den allvarligaste formen dör, så har många knappt hört talas om sjukdomen. Sepsis som är den medicinska termen på blodförgiftning, drabbar omkring 40 000 svenskar varje år. (netdoktor.se 7.6.2017).)

- Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod.

(Anm: Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod. (- Sepsis, en potensielt livstruende komplikasjon av en infeksjon, har den høyeste byrde mht. død og medisinske utgifter på sykehus over hele verden.) (- Quick test finds signs of sepsis in a single drop of blood. (…) Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, has the highest burden of death and medical expenses in hospitals worldwide. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.7.2017).)

(Anm: Nye sepsiskriterier kan føre til forsinket behandling. (…) Sepsis er en svært alvorlig tilstand med høy morbiditet og mortalitet (2). Den totale insidensen er ukjent, men man regner med at sepsis er en av de viktigste årsakene til alvorlig, akutt sykdom på verdensbasis (1). (…) Sepsis har inntil nylig vært definert som mistenkt infeksjon med samtidig tilstedeværelse av to eller flere SIRS-kriterier (1). Endringer i hjertefrekvens, kroppstemperatur, respirasjonsfrekvens og leukocytter er kroppens tegn på inflammasjon, og de indikerer ikke nødvendigvis en livstruende, dysregulert vertsrespons på infeksjon. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2017; :609-10 (20.4.2017).)

(Anm: LEGENE FORSTO IKKE AT HAN VAR DØDSSYK: Stian (19) døde etter 18 timer på sykehus uten legetilsyn. (…) Helsetilsynet konkluderer med at sykehusets behandling var uforsvarlig. (…) Fikk ikke beskjed. (…) Fastlegen sendte med dem papirer som foreldrene leverte på Akuttmottaket ved Ahus, der sto det; «Diagnose: Obs sepsis».  (tv2.no 29.4.2017).)

(Anm: Svikt i behandlingen av akutt syk ung mann i akuttmottaket – brudd på helselovgivningen. (…) Pasienten ble lagt på observasjonsposten (Akutt 24) ved akuttmottaket frem til neste morgen. I løpet av tiden på observasjonsposten ble han ikke tilsett av lege. På morgenen var han betydelig verre og han fikk tegn på fullt utviklet blodforgiftning. Behandling med antibiotika ble iverksatt, men han døde kort tid etter som følge av meningokokksepsis og hjerneødem. (helsetilsynet.no 2.5.2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis; grunnleggende kliniske observasjoner. Sepsis= En systemisk inflammatorisk respons (SIRS) pga. en infeksjon Tre alvorlighetsgrader: 1) Sepsis (to eller flere symptomer på SIRS som følge av infeksjon) 2) Alvorlig sepsis (sepsis med akutt organdysfunksjon, hypoperfusjon eller hypotensjon) 3) Septisk sjokk (hypotensjon til tross for adekvat væsketerapi, samt forekomst av perfusjonsforstyrrelser og organdysfunksjon) (hnt.no 5.11.2013).)

- Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting (sepsis) blir undersøkt av lege for seint.

(Anm: Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting blir undersøkt av lege for seint. Helsetilsynet fann brot ved 24 akuttmottak over heile landet. – Svært alvorleg. – Dette er svært alvorleg, for det dreier seg om ein alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som i verste fall kan medføra død dersom behandlinga ikkje blir igangsett til riktig tid, seier avdelingsdirektør i Helsetilsynet, Ragnar Hermstad. OVER EIN TIME: Pasientar som kjem inn med teikn på alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som blodforgifting skal ifølge nasjonale retningslinjer få anitibiotikabehandling innan maks ein time. Alle dei 24 akuttmottaka hadde svikt på dette området. (nrk.no 16.6.2017).)

(Anm: Lege sier improvisert «kur» for sepsis har hatt bemerkelsesverdige resultater. (…) Spesialist i intensivbehandling Paul Marik sier at enkel behandling med infusjon av vitamin C og steroider har bemerkelsesverdig effekt på pasienter med potensielt dødelig tilstand. (independent.co.uk 24.3.2017).)

(Anm: Bivirkninger underrapporteres i videnskabelige tidsskrifter. (...) Mellem 43 og 100 procent af de bivirkninger, der, ifølge det ikke-publicerede materiale, er fundet ved de testede lægemidler, er ikke lagt frem i de videnskabelige artikler, viser Yoon Loke og kollegernes gennemgang. (videnskab.dk 5.10.2016).)

(Anm: Dødsfall på grunn av nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning) etter behandling med legemiddelet klozapin – uforsvarlig oppfølging – mangelfull samhandling og informasjon. (…)  Manglende informasjon fra spesialisthelsetjenesten og mangelfull samhandling mellom kommunehelsetjenesten, fastlegen, pasienten og pårørende bidro til hendelsen. Helseforetaket skal gjennomgå hendelsen for å redusere risikoen ved lignende tilfeller. (helsetilsynet.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter. De ønsker psykologhjelp. I stedet blir de fôret med piller fra fastlegen. Unge jenter har aldri brukt mer antidepressiver. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Flere barn og unge akuttinnlegges for psykisk sykdom. I fjor utgjorde andelen øyeblikkelig hjelp innleggelser 61 prosent av alle innleggelser. Det er en økning fra 47 prosent i 2012. (dagensmedisin.no 19.9.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter: Lykkepillegenerasjonen. «Lykkepillen» gjorde Sandra så dårlig at hun ble innlagt på psykiatrisk avdeling. På ti år har bruken av antidepressiver blant unge jenter økt med 83 prosent. Mange får pillene uten en gang å ha snakket med psykolog.  (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Helseminister Bent Høie reagerer på «lykkepille»-praksis: – Veldig urovekkende. ** Kraftig økning i antidepressiva til unge jenter. Helseminister Bent Høie reagerer på den sterke økningen i lykkepillebruk blant unge jenter. Han mener manglende ressurser og fastlegers holdninger er årsaker. Lørdag dokumenterte VG Helg og VG+ konsekvensene av den økende lykkepille-bruken blant unge jenter. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: LO advarer mot trygdebombe. En stadig større del av nordmenn i arbeidsfør alder er uten jobb. LO mener dette er en potensiell trygdebombe. (…) Det trengs 180.000 nye jobber for å få yrkesdeltakelsen opp på samme nivå som i 2008, viser en rapport fra samfunnsøkonomene i LO. I 2008 var 70 prosent av befolkningen mellom 15 og 74 år i jobb. Nå er yrkesdeltakelsen nede i 67,3 prosent., og det er nedgang i alle fylker. (hegnar.no 6.10.2016).)

(Anm: Rekordmange søger akut psykisk hjælp. (- Mens kun 12.099 danskere i 1995 besøgte de psykiatriske akutmodtagelser og skadestuer, er det steget til hele 33.333 i 2015, viser opgørelse fra Sundhedsdatastyrelsen og Danske Regioner, der for kort tid siden blev sendt til Folketinget. (politiken.dk 9.7.2016).)

(Anm: Har vi blitt psykisk sykere? (- Vi vet også at stadig flere får uførepensjon på grunn av psykiske lidelser og at sykefraværet på grunn av psykiske plager og lidelser har økt. Vi tror alle disse forholdene bidrar til vår oppfatning om at stadig flere får en psykisk lidelse eller plage.) (Folkehelseinstituttet fhi.no 10.10.2013).)

(Anm: Høyt fravær på grunn av ME. Minst 270 elever var borte fra skolen i fjor fordi de hadde ME. (aftenposten.no 6.2.2017).)

(Anm: Psykisk ohälsa fortsätter att öka. Antalet svenskar som sjukskrivs på grund av psykisk ohälsa ökar kontinuerligt sedan 2010. Den vanligaste diagnosen är stressrelaterad psykisk ohälsa som till mångt och mycket är arbetsrelaterad. Då evidensbaserad behandling saknas står förebyggande arbete i fokus. (netdoktor.se 14.9.2016).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske skadestuer kan ikke klare presset. Psykiske lidelser hører til nogle af de største sygdomsbyrder, som hvert år koster samfundet et svimlende milliardbeløb i tabt arbejdsfortjeneste og sociale ydelser. (politiken.dk 11.7.2016).)

(Anm: - 9 ting som skjer i hjernen og kroppen på MDMA (Ecstasy). (- 9 Things That Happen in the Brain and Body on MDMA.) (- Derfor, når substansen avsluttes, sitter mennesker igjen med mindre serotonin enn vanlig, noe som kan føre til følelser av depresjon, irritabilitet og tretthet.) (- Siden MDMA frigir så mye serotonin, ødelegger kroppen deretter mer serotonin enn vanlig, ifølge AsapSCIENCE.) (thescienceexplorer.com 24.6.2016).)

- Høye nivåer av dopamin kan føre til at mennesker tar større risiko

High levels of dopamine may lead to increased risk-taking
medicalnewstoday.com 8.7.2015
Boosting levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine can lead to increased risk-taking, according to research published July 8 in the Journal of Neuroscience. Dopamine is involved in reward learning, and previous research has linked dopamine drugs such as L-DOPA with compulsive gambling problems in people with Parkinson's disease. This study, led by Robb Rutledge at University College London, found that increasing dopamine levels in healthy adults led participants to choose more risky options in a gambling task.

Thirty healthy adults performed a gambling task on two separate occasions, once after receiving L-DOPA and once after receiving a placebo. The task required subjects to choose between safe and risky options that led to monetary gains and losses. Sometimes, the subjects could choose between a small reward or a gamble where there were equal chances of winning a larger reward or getting nothing. Other times, subjects could accept a small loss or choose a gamble where there were equal chances of losing a larger amount or losing nothing. During the testing, subjects were repeatedly asked, "How happy are you at this moment?" The researchers found that:

Subjects took more risks to try to get bigger rewards after receiving L-DOPA but not placebo. However, L-DOPA did not affect how often subjects took risks when there were potential losses.
After receiving L-DOPA, subjects chose more risky options regardless of how much larger the potential reward was compared to the safe alternative.

Subjects were happier after winning a small reward while on L-DOPA than they were winning the same reward while on a placebo. On a placebo, happiness was higher after large rewards than after small rewards, but on L-DOPA subjects were as happy about small rewards as they were about large rewards.

The researchers proposed that L-DOPA made potential rewards more appealing but did not affect subjects' perception of potential losses. They also speculated that, while on L-DOPA, subjects might experience similar dopamine release for all reward levels, which would explain why they were similarly happy after small and large rewards.

This study sheds light on dopamine's effects on decision-making and emotion, said Nathaniel Daw, a neuroscientist at New York University who was not involved in the study. The results "may help to explain some kinds of gambling and impulse control problems, and also aspects of mood disorders." (…)

(Anm: Impulse control increased by dopamine replacement in early Parkinson's (medicalnewstoday.com 19.8.2014).)

(Anm: Declining dopamine may explain why older people take fewer risks (medicalnewstoday.com 3.6.2016).)

(Anm: Study shows dopamine may play role in chronic pain (medicalnewstoday.com 11.5.2015).)

(Anm: Can SSRIs Make You Fall Out of Love? (…)Helen Fisher, an anthropologist at Rutgers University, believes that SSRIs may block your ability to feel love. SSRIs work by raising your levels of serotonin, but they also lower levels of dopamine. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter responsible for all those feel-good emotions you get when you fall in love. (depression.about.com 9.10.2015).)

(Anm: Disruption of hippocampal–prefrontal cortex activity by dopamine D2R-dependent LTD of NMDAR transmission. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) 2015.)

- Første dopaminmåling i den menneskelige hjernen som kan gi innsikt i hvordan vi lærer

First-of-kind dopamine measurements in human brain reveal insights into how we learn
medicalnewstoday.com 24.11.2015
Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists measure dopamine signals in Parkinson's patients.

Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have reported measurements of dopamine release with unprecedented temporal precision in the brains of people with Parkinson's disease. The measurements, collected during brain surgery as the conscious patients played an investment game, demonstrate how rapid dopamine release encodes information crucial for human choice.

The findings may have widespread implications not just for Parkinson's disease, but for other neurological and psychiatric disorders as well, including depression and addiction.

The researchers detected changes in the levels of dopamine a thousand times faster than had previously been recorded in humans. These rapid measurements, combined with enhanced chemical specificity, led the scientists to discover that dopamine - a crucial neurotransmitter involved in learning and decision-making - has a far more complex role than formerly thought.

The study was published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (…)

- Narcolepsy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) have common non-motor features, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hyposmia, and depression.

Dysautonomia in narcolepsy: evidence by questionnaire assessment.
J Clin Neurol. 2014 Oct;10(4):314-9.
(…) BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden sleep attacks are the main features of narcolepsy, but rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), hyposmia, and depression can also occur. The latter symptoms are nonmotor features in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). In the present study, IPD-proven diagnostic tools were tested to determine whether they are also applicable in the assessment of narcolepsy.

METHODS: This was a case-control study comparing 15 patients with narcolepsy (PN) and 15 control subjects (CS) using the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Autonomic Test (SCOPA-AUT), Parkinson's Disease Nonmotor Symptoms (PDNMS), University of Pennsylvania Smell Test, Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test, Beck Depression Inventory, and the RBD screening questionnaire.

RESULTS: Both the PN and CS exhibited mild hyposmia and no deficits in visual tests. Frequent dysautonomia in all domains except sexuality was found for the PN. The total SCOPA-AUT score was higher for the PN (18.47±10.08, mean±SD) than for the CS (4.40±3.09), as was the PDNMS score (10.53±4.78 and 1.80±2.31, respectively). RBD was present in 87% of the PN and 0% of the CS. The PN were more depressed than the CS. The differences between the PN and CS for all of these variables were statistically significant (all p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of dysautonomia and confirm the comorbidities of depression and RBD in narcolepsy patients. The spectrum, which is comparable to the nonmotor complex in IPD, suggests wide-ranging, clinically detectable dysfunction beyond the narcoleptic core syndrome. (…)

(Anm: Dysautonomia in narcolepsy: evidence by questionnaire assessment. (…) Narcolepsy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) have common non-motor features, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hyposmia, and depression. Using IPD-proven diagnostic tests, researchers studied whether such tests could be used to diagnose narcolepsy.J Clin Neurol. 2014 Oct;10(4):314-9. Epub 2014 Oct 6.)

- Ny mekanisme for nevrodegenerasjon

New mechanism found for neurodegeneration
medicalnewstoday.com 28.7.2014
A research team led by Jackson Laboratory Professor and Howard Hughes Investigator Susan Ackerman, Ph.D., have pinpointed a surprising mechanism behind neurodegeneration in mice, one that involves a defect in a key component of the cellular machinery that makes proteins, known as transfer RNA or tRNA.

The researchers report in the journal Science that a mutation in a gene that produces tRNAs operating only in the central nervous system results in a "stalling" or pausing of the protein production process in the neuronal ribosomes. When another protein the researchers identified, GTPBP2, is also missing, neurodegeneration results.

"Our study demonstrates that individual tRNA genes can be tissue-specifically expressed in vertebrates," Ackerman says, "and mutations in such genes may cause disease or modify other phenotypes. This is a new area to look for disease mechanisms."

Neurodegeneration - the process through which mature neurons decay and ultimately die - is poorly understood, yet it underlies major human diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease). (…)

- Laser mot Alzheimers och Parkinsons

Laser mot Alzheimers och Parkinsons
netdoktor.se 6.11.2013
Forskare på Chalmers har tillsammans med polska forskare upptäckt en metod som kan leda till en ny sorts behandling av sjukdomar som Alzheimers, Parkinsons och Creutzfeldt-Jakobs.

Med hjälp av avancerad laserteknik har forskarna visat att det går att identifiera oönskade proteinansamlingar, som tros orsaka sjukdomar som exempelvis Alzheimers och Parkinson.

– Ingen har tidigare pratat om att använda enbart ljus för att ta bota dessa sjukdomar. Det är en helt ny approach och vi tror att detta kan bli ett genombrott i forskningen om sjukdomar som Alzheimers, Parkinsons och Creutzfeldt-Jakobs sjukdom. Vi har funnit ett helt nytt sätt att upptäcka dessa strukturer genom att enbart använda ljus från laser, säger Piotr Hanczyc, doktorand på Chalmers, i ett pressmeddelande.

Lyckas man ta bort de oönskade proteinansamlingarna så botar man i princip sjukdomen. Även om det är långt kvar till att kunna slå fast om det verkligen går att utveckla en fungerande behandling som bromsar sjukdomarna eller rent av ett ”botemedel” så hyser forskarna stora förhoppningar om att kunna använda fotoakustisk behandling, som redan idag används för tomografi, för att eliminera det oönskade proteinet.

Källor: Pressmeddelande (http://www.mynewsdesk.com/se/chalmers/pressreleases/laser-kan-bli-botemedel-mot-hjaernsjukdomar-som-alzheimers-och-parkinsons-924258?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=Subscription&utm_content=pressrelease), Studiens abstract (http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nphoton.2013.282.html) (...)

- To ud af tre med Parkinson eller demens bruger over fem lægemidler

To ud af tre med Parkinson eller demens bruger over fem lægemidler
dagenspharma.dk 25.6.2014
Polyfarmaci er udbredt blandt især fire patientgrupper, hvor flere end 60 pct. er i behandling med flere end fem lægemidler.

68 pct. af alle demenspatienter er i behandling med medicin fra flere end fem forskellige lægemiddelgrupper, mens det for Parkinsons-patienter er 64 pct. Det viser en ny analyse fra Danmarks Apotekerforening, der har kortlagt forekomsten af patienter i behandling med lægemidler fra flere end fem forskellige ATC-grupper. (...)

(Anm: To ud af tre med Parkinson eller demens bruger over fem lægemidler (apotekerforeningen.dk 25.6.2014).)

- Hos pasienter med Parkinsons sykdom er aktiviteten for mitokondrier og elektrontransport forstyrret med det resultat at de ikke lenger produserer tilstrekkelig energi for cellen

Vitamin K2: New hope for Parkinson's patients? (Vitamin K2: Nytt håp for pasienter med Parkinsons sykdom)
worldpharmanews.com 14.5.2012
Hjerneforsker Patrik Verstreken, tilknyttet VIB og KU Leuven, lyktes å oppheve en av de genetiske defekter som fører til Parkinsons ved hjelp vitamin K2. Hans funn gir håp til pasienter med Parkinsons. Denne forskningen ble gjort i samarbeid med kolleger fra Northern Illinois University (USA) publisert på nettsiden til det anerkjente tidsskriftet Science. (Neuroscientist Patrik Verstreken, associated with VIB and KU Leuven, succeeded in undoing the effect of one of the genetic defects that leads to Parkinson's using vitamin K2. His discovery gives hope to Parkinson's patients. This research was done in collaboration with colleagues from Northern Illinois University (US) published on the website of the authorative journal Science.)

"Det ser ut fra vår forskning på inntak av vitamin K2 kunne hjelpe pasienter med Parkinsons. Det må imidlertid gjøres mer arbeid på dette for å bedre forståelsen," sier Patrik Verstreken. ("It appears from our research that administering vitamin K2 could possibly help patients with Parkinson's. However, more work needs to be done to understand this better," says Patrik Verstreken.)

Dersom vi ser på celler som små fabrikker så ville mitokondrier være kraftverkene som er ansvarlige for å levere energien for at de skal fungere. De genererer denne energien ved å transportere elektroner. Hos pasienter med Parkinsons sykdom er aktiviteten for mitokondrier og elektrontransport forstyrret med det resultat at de ikke lenger produserer tilstrekkelig energi for cellen. Dette har store konsekvenser idet cellene i visse deler av hjernen vil begynne å dø, hvilket forstyrrer kommunikasjonen mellom nervecellene. Resultatene er typiske symptomer på Parkinsons: mangel på bevegelse (akinesi), skjelvinger og muskelstivhet. (If we looked at cells as small factories, then mitochondria would be the power plants responsible for supplying the energy for their operation. They generate this energy by transporting electrons. In Parkinson's patients, the activity of mitochondria and the transport of electrons have been disrupted, resulting in the mitochondria no longer producing sufficient energy for the cell. This has major consequences as the cells in certain parts of the brain will start dying off, disrupting communication between neurons. The results are the typical symptoms of Parkinson's: lack of movement (akinesia), tremors and muscle stiffness.)

Den eksakte årsaken til denne nevrodegenerative sykdom er ikke kjent. I de senere årene har imidlertid forskerne vært i stand til å beskrive flere genetiske defekter (mutasjoner) funnet hos pasientene med Parkinsons sykdom, inkludert den såkalte PINK1 og Parkin-mutasjoner, som begge fører til redusert mitokondrieaktivitet. Ved å studere disse mutasjonene håper forskerne å avdekke mekanismenee bak sykdommsprosessen. (...) (The exact cause of this neurodegenerative disease is not known. In recent years, however, scientists have been able to describe several genetic defects (mutations) found in Parkinson's patients, including the so-called PINK1 and Parkin mutations, which both lead to reduced mitochondrial activity. By studying these mutations, scientists hope to unravel the mechanisms underlying the disease process.)

(Anm: Mitochondria (mitokondrie) (mitokondriesykdommer) (mitokondrielle sykdommer). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Linking telomere loss and mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic disease. (…) Drawing a mechanistic connection between telomere function and mitochondria biology will provide a broader perspective for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases and their relation to the aging process, and may provide opportunities for new possible treatments. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2017 Jan 1;22:117-127.)

(Anm: Extreme short and long telomeres linked to increased cancer risk (news-medical.net 5.4.2017).)

(Anm: Scientists discover master regulator of cellular aging. (…) "Telomeres represent the clock of a cell," said TSRI Associate Professor Eros Lazzerini Denchi, corresponding author of the new study, published online in the journal Science. "You are born with telomeres of a certain length, and every time a cell divides, it loses a little bit of the telomere. Once the telomere is too short, the cell cannot divide anymore." (medicalnewstoday.com 13.1.2017).)

(Anm: Betennelser endrer mitokondrier til giftige fabrikker. Å lære hvordan å kontrollere betennelser kan ha store implikasjoner for behandlingen av mange sykdommer. Banebrytende forskning oppdager hvordan makrofager endrer mitokondriene til giftige kjemisk-produserende betennelsespromotører. (Inflammation turns mitochondria into toxic factories. Learning how to control inflammation could have huge implications for the treatment of many diseases. Breaking research discovers how macrophages turn mitochondria into toxic chemical-producing inflammation-promoters.) (medicalnewstoday.com 25.9.2016).)

(Anm: Research may show new ways to repress inflammation at outset. (…) Professor Alexander Weber of the Interfaculty Institute of Cell Biology says the enzyme - Bruton's tyrosine kinase or BTK - is switched on when an inflammation occurs in the body, playing a key role in the inflammation's subsequent development. (medicinenet.com 21.2.2017).)

(Anm: Ørsmå mitokondrier spiller en svært stor rolle mht. menneskets evolusjon og sykdom (Tiny mitochondria play outsized role in human evolution and disease.) (medicalnewstoday.com 25.9.2015).)

(Anm: The Pesticide on Your Fruit May Lead to Parkinson’s - A new study links likelihood of the brain disease to a combination of chemicals and genetics (healthland.time.com 3.2.2014 (Time).)

(Anm: Vitamin K2 Is a Mitochondrial Electron Carrier That Rescues Pink1 Deficiency. Science. 2012 May 10. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Placebo effect of medication cost in Parkinson disease: A randomized double-blind study. Neurology. 2015 Feb 24;84(8):794-802. Epub 2015 Jan 28.)

(Anm: Juksemedisin virker bedre hvis vi tror den er dyr (vg.no 28.2.2015).)

Slowing of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease: future therapeutic perspectives.
Lancet. 2014 Jun 18. pii: S0140-6736(14)61010-2. [Epub ahead of print]
Abstract Several important advances have been made in our understanding of the pathways that lead to cell dysfunction and death in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These advances have been informed by both direct analysis of the post-mortem brain and by study of the biological consequences of the genetic causes of these diseases. Some of the pathways that have been implicated so far include mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, kinase pathways, calcium dysregulation, inflammation, protein handling, and prion-like processes. Intriguingly, these pathways seem to be important in the pathogenesis of both diseases and have led to the identification of molecular targets for candidate interventions designed to slow or reverse their course. We review some recent advances that underlie putative therapies for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, and potential targets that might be exploited in the future. Although we will need to overcome important hurdles, especially in terms of clinical trial design, we propose several target pathways that merit further study. In Parkinson's disease, these targets include agents that might improve mitochondrial function or increase degradation of defective mitochondria, kinase inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and approaches that interfere with the misfolding, templating, and transmission of α-synuclein. In Huntington's disease, strategies might also be directed at mitochondrial bioenergetics and turnover, the prevention of protein dysregulation, disruption of the interaction between huntingtin and p53 or huntingtin-interacting protein 1 to reduce apoptosis, and interference with expression of mutant huntingtin at both the nucleic acid and protein levels. (…)

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress Promote Apoptotic Cell Death in the Striatum via Cytochrome c/Caspase-3 Signaling Cascade Following Chronic Rotenone Intoxication in Rats
Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(7):8722-39. Epub 2012 Jul 13.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder marked by nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may be linked to PD through a variety of different pathways, including free-radical generation and dysfunction of the mitochondrial Complex I activity. In Lewis rats, chronic systemic administration of a specific mitochondrial Complex I inhibitor, rotenone (3 mg/kg/day) produced parkinsonism-like symptoms. Increased oxidized proteins and peroxynitrite, and mitochondrial or cytosol translocation of Bim, Bax or cytochrome c in the striatum was observed after 2-4 weeks of rotenone infusion. After 28 days of systemic rotenone exposure, imunohistochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase indicated nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal cell degeneration. Characteristic histochemical (TUNEL or activated caspase-3 staining) or ultrastructural (electron microscopy) features of apoptotic cell death were present in the striatal neuronal cell after chronic rotenone intoxication. We conclude that chronic rotenone intoxication may enhance oxidative and nitrosative stress that induces mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural damage, resulting in translocation of Bim and Bax from cytosol to mitochondria that contributes to apoptotic cell death in the striatum via cytochrome c/caspase-3 signaling cascade. (...)

(Anm: Understanding mitochondrial complex I assembly in health and disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Jun;1817(6):851-62. Epub 2011 Sep 2.)

(Anm: Selective inhibition of deactivated mitochondrial complex I by biguanides. Biochemistry. 2015 Feb 26. [Epub ahead of print].)

Parkinson disease: from pathology to molecular disease mechanisms
Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 Sep;62:132-44 Epub 2013 Feb 4.
Abstract Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with both motor and nonmotor symptoms owing to a spreading process of neuronal loss in the brain. At present, only symptomatic treatment exists and nothing can be done to halt the degenerative process, as its cause remains unclear. Risk factors such as aging, genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors all play a role in the onset of the pathogenic process but how these interlink to cause neuronal loss is not known. There have been major advances in the understanding of mechanisms that contribute to nigral dopaminergic cell death, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, altered protein handling, and inflammation. However, it is not known if the same processes are responsible for neuronal loss in nondopaminergic brain regions. Many of the known mechanisms of cell death are mirrored in toxin-based models of PD, but neuronal loss is rapid and not progressive and limited to dopaminergic cells, and drugs that protect against toxin-induced cell death have not translated into neuroprotective therapies in humans. Gene mutations identified in rare familial forms of PD encode proteins whose functions overlap widely with the known molecular pathways in sporadic disease and these have again expanded our knowledge of the neurodegenerative process but again have so far failed to yield effective models of sporadic disease when translated into animals. We seem to be missing some key parts of the jigsaw, the trigger event starting many years earlier in the disease process, and what we are looking at now is merely part of a downstream process that is the end stage of neuronal death. (...)

(Anm: The Pesticide on Your Fruit May Lead to Parkinson’s - A new study links likelihood of the brain disease to a combination of chemicals and genetics (healthland.time.com 3.2.2014 (Time).)

- En stark koppling mellan inflammation i hjärnan och ickemotoriska symtom som depression, trötthet och nedsatt tankeförmåga hos parkinsonpatienter

Inflammation kopplas till depression
lakemedelsvarlden.se 27.8.2013
Ny forskning visar att ickemotoriska besvär, som nedsatt tankeförmåga, påverkar parkinsonpatienters livskvalitét lika mycket som rörelseproblemen.

En forskargrupp vid Lunds universitet har kunnat visa på en stark koppling mellan inflammation i hjärnan och ickemotoriska symtom som depression, trötthet och nedsatt tankeförmåga hos parkinsonpatienter.

Det är den första kontrollstudien där forskarna tittat på nivåskillnader av inflammatoriska markörer i ryggvätskan hos personer med Parkinsons sjukdom och jämfört dessa med friska individer.Resultaten visade att den högsta inflammatoriska aktiviteten fanns hos patienterna med mest allvarliga depressiva och kognitiva symtom.

Men även om resultaten är intressanta är det idag för tidigt att till exempel rekommendera antiinflammatoriska läkemedel vid Parkinsons sjukdom anser forskarna. På lite sikt hoppas forskarna på behandlingar som riktar in sig på dessa symtom hos parkinsonpatienter. (...)

- Parkinsonpasienter og dårlig bevissthet om dyskinesi

Parkinsonian patients and poor awareness of dyskinesias (Parkinsonpasienter og dårlig bevissthet om dyskinesi)
Front. Neurol., 20 March 2014 The question of whether the awareness of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) is reduced, or altogether missing, in patients with Parkinson?s disease (PD) has been attracting growing interest. Why is this topic important? Firstly, as studies addressing the efficacy of drugs on LID employ patients? motor diaries as an outcome measure, poor LID self-awareness might interfere with data collection in clinical trials; secondly, poor LID self-awareness may result in increased doses of dopaminergic drugs, which could in turn be associated with an enhanced risk of side effects such as LID. Lastly, understanding this phenomenon may shed light on some pathophysiological aspects of LID in PD.

The few studies conducted so far concluded that at least a proportion of PD patients are either partially or totally unaware of the presence of LID. These studies used different methods to ascertain LID awareness as well as different patient populations. Consequently, several hypotheses have been postulated to explain poor self-awareness of LID, which suggest that several possible mechanisms may be implicated. (...)

(Anm: dyskinesi; 1 ufrivillige rørsler som kjem av sjukdom eller skade i hjernens basalgangliar; mest alle slike dyskinesiar aukar ved påkjenningar men kverv i søvne; 2 svekte eller hemma eller ugreie rørsler; rørslevanskar, jf tardiv dyskinesi, tremor, korea, myoklonus, tic, dystoni, orofacial (orobuccolingual) dyskinesi. EN dyskinesia. ET [gr dyskinesia rørslevanskar]. Kilde: Norsk medisinsk ordbok.)

(Anm: Tardive Dyskinesia Prevalence in the Period of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Use: A Meta-Analysis. Objective: Comparison of tardive dyskinesia (TD) prevalence during contemporaneous treatment with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and/or second-generation antipsychotics. Conclusions: Rating scale–based TD remains highly prevalent, with higher rates during FGA than during SGA treatment. However, TD severity was insufficiently reported to allow for interpretation of the clinical impact of identified TD cases with SGAs and FGAs. Reasons for high geographical variation warrant future research. (SGAs). J Clin Psychiatry 2017.)

(Anm: FDA approves Ingrezza for tardive dyskinesia in adults. (…) Valbenazine is reportedly being studied as a treatment for Tourette syndrome in children and adolescents. (…) “Tardive dyskinesia can be disabling and can further stigmatize patients with mental illness,” Dr. Mathis said in the statement. (…) The side effects of valbenazine include sleepiness and QT prolongation. The agency said the patients taking the drug should not drive, operate heavy machinery, or engage in other potentially dangerous activities. Likewise, the drug should be avoided in patients with congenital long QT syndrome or in those with abnormal heartbeats associated with a prolonged QT interval, the agency said. (clinicalpsychiatrynews.com 12.4.2017).)

(Anm: Ok för behandling av antipsykotika-biverkning. För första gången godkänns ett läkemedel för allvarlig biverkning som ger ofrivilliga ansiktsrörelser. (…) Valbenazin kan i sin tur också ge allvarliga biverkningar, som sömnighet och problem med hjärtrytmen. Patienter med vissa hjärtproblem ska därför inte ta valbenazin, och de som behandlas ska till exempel inte köra bil innan man vet säkert hur läkemedlet påverkar dem, skriver FDA. (lakemedelsvarlden.se 16.5.2017).)

(Anm: Legemiddelinduserte mitokondrielle skader og sykdom. (Medication-induced mitochondrial damage and disease.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Laktat er et biprodukt av den kjemiske prosess som er kjent som glykolyse - å bryte ned av sukker eller glukose, til mindre molekyler med det formål å frembringe energi. Under intens fysisk aktivitet, akkumuleres laktat i vevet og blod, som noen ganger kan føre til dårligere fysisk ytelse og muskelstivhet. (Lactate is a byproduct of the chemical process known as glycolysis- the breaking down of sugar, or glucose, into smaller molecules with the purpose of producing energy. During intense physical activity, lactate accumulates in the tissue and blood, which can sometimes lead to poorer physical performance and muscle stiffness.) (medicalnewstoday.com 19.3.2017).)

(Anm: Er Mitokondrier nøkkelen til å finne en løsning på Parkinsons sykdom? Are Mitochondria the Key to Cracking Parkinson’s Disease? European Medical Journal 2017 (Februar 20, 2017).)

(Anm: Cytochrome c as a Potentially Clinical Useful Marker of Mitochondrial and Cellular Damage Front. Mitochondria are evolutionary endosymbionts derived from bacteria. Thus, they bear molecules, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that contains CpG DNA repeats and N-formyl peptides (FPs), found in bacteria. Immunol. 2016 (20 July 2016).)

(Anm: Mitochondria affect stress responses. CHOP scientist: Cell's powerhouse plays role in mind-body interactions, with long-term health effects. Mitochondria, the tiny structures inside our cells that generate energy, may also play a previously unrecognized role in mind-body interactions. Based on new studies of stress responses, this insight may have broad implications for human psychology and for the biology of psychiatric and neurological diseases. A pioneering scientist in mitochondrial medicine has led research in animals showing how alterations in mitochondrial function lead to distinct physiological changes in hormonal, metabolic and behavioral systems in response to mild stress. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.12.2015).)

(Anm: Mitochondria: "Mood Altering Organelles" that Impact Disease Throughout the Nervous System. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2015 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) indusert av sertraline (Zoloft), et antidepressiva (Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sertraline, an antidepressant agent) Toxicol Sci. 2012 Jun;127(2):582-91. Epub 2012 Mar 2.)

(Anm: Kan Lupus øke risikoen for demens? Could lupus raise dementia risk? People living with lupus may be at significantly greater risk of developing dementia than those without the autoimmune disease, a new study suggests. (…) Study co-author Daniela Amital, of the Sackler Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University in Israel, and colleagues recently reported their results in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.11.2017).)

(Anm: Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser. (Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.) (…) Dette resultatet forklarer de kliniske og deres respektive histopatologiske effekter av tramadol, for eksempel anfall og røde nevroner (markør for apoptose). (The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss.) (Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Dec;31(12):1325-33).)

(Anm: Antibiotika kan utløse mitokondriell dysfunksjon som induserer psykiatriske lidelser. (Antibiotics May Trigger Mitochondrial Dysfunction Inducing Psychiatric Disorders. Med Sci Monit. 2017 Jan 7;23:101-106.)

(Anm: PET Imaging of Mitochondrial Complex I with 18F-BCPP-EF in Brain of Parkinson's Disease Model Monkey. (…) CONCLUSION: 18F-BCPP-EF has potential as a PET probe for the quantitative imaging of MC-1 damage in the living brains of PD model monkeys using PET. J Nucl Med. 2016 Feb 11. pii: jnumed.115.169615. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiotoxicity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Sep 18:ajpheart.00554.2015. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Role of altered mitochondria functions in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.Lupus. 2015 Sep 18. pii: 0961203315605370. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Sykdommen som får kroppen til å angripe seg selv. Lupus rammer kvinner ni ganger så ofte som menn. (…) - Tilstanden er vanligst blant kvinner som er i 20- til 40-årene, sier Eide. Menn med lupus kan se ut til å bli oftere angrepet i nyrene enn kvinner med sykdommen, og man kan også oftere se endringer i blodbildet (hemolytisk anemi, lavere antall blodplater eller lavere antall lymfocytter) hos menn. (klikk.no 17.4.2017).)

(Anm: Mitochondrial dysfunction related to cell damage induced by 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid: non dependent-effect of early reactive oxygen species production. Neurotoxicology. 2015 Aug 5. pii: S0161-813X(15)00118-7. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Sertraline use during pregnancy and the risk of major malformations. OBJECTIVE: Given the current debate and growing public concerns on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and birth defects generated by Food and Drug Administration warnings, we aim to quantify the association between first-trimester exposure to sertraline, a first-line treatment, and the risk of congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed women. (…) CONCLUSION: Sertraline use during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of atrial/ventricular defects and craniosynostosis above and beyond the effect of maternal depression. Nonsertraline SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of craniosynostosis and musculoskeletal defects.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun;212(6):795.e1-795.e12. Epub 2015 Jan 28.)

(Anm: The Potential Application of Mitochondrial Medicine in Toxicologic Poisoning. J Med Toxicol. 2015 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Common antidepressant increased coronary atherosclerosis in animal model (Vanlig antidepressiva gir økt koronar aterosklerose (åreforkalkning) i dyremodell) (…) The animals were then randomly assigned to receive a commonly prescribed antidepressant, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) marketed under the brand name Zoloft, or a placebo once a day for 18 months. The antidepressant was given in a dose comparable to that given to patients. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.4.2015).)

(Anm: Role of gut microbiota in the modulation of atherosclerosis-associated immune response. Inflammation and metabolic abnormalities are linked to each other. At present, pathogenic inflammatory response was recognized as a major player in metabolic diseases. In humans, intestinal microflora could significantly influence the development of metabolic diseases including atherosclerosis. Front. Microbiol. 2015 (30 June 2015).)

(Anm: Macrophage Mitochondrial Energy Status Regulates Cholesterol Efflux and is Enhanced by Anti-miR33 in Atherosclerosis. Circ Res. 2015 May 22. pii: CIRCRESAHA.115.305624. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Association of mutations in the mitochondrial genome with the subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in women. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015 Apr 21. pii: S0014-4800(15)00089-1. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Antidepressive medikamenter påvirker kroppens fettproduksjon. (...) På det molekylære planet tok Ræder i bruk cellestudier og moderne genteknologiske metoder for å vise at de store gruppene av psykiatriske medisiner (antipsykotika og antidepressiva, inkludert SSRI-medikamenter) virker på fettomsetningen i kroppen gjennom en transkripsjonsfaktor kalt SREBP (steroid reseptor-element bindende protein). SREBP er meget viktig for å regulere produksjon både av kolesterol og av ulike fett-stoffer i kroppens celler. Kolesterol og andre fett-stoffer er viktig for at nevroner skal utvikle seg og fungere normalt, men har også en rolle i utviklingen av hjerte- og karsykdom. (...) NY DOKTORGRAD (uib.no (23.9.2006).)

(Anm: Sertraline (Zoloft)-indusert systemisk lupus erythematosus (SLE) (Lupus) (Sertraline Induced Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) (The Internet Journal of Internal Medicine 2005;6(1).)

- Dødsrater for Lupus forblir høye i USA.

(Anm: Lupus Death Rates Remain High in U.S. Drop in SLE death rates less than non-lupus mortality. Despite improving trends in mortality, death rates from systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) remain high compared with those in the general population, and disparities persist between subpopulations and geographic regions, according to a report in the Annals of Internal Medicine. (medpagetoday.com 6.11.2017).)

– Studien viser hvordan vanlig trening, stressreduksjon kan føre til bedre helse hos lupus pasienter.

(Anm: Study shows how regular exercise, stress reduction could lead to better health in lupus patients. Study shows how regular exercise, stress reduction could lead to better health in lupus patients (news-medical.net 19.9.2017).)

(Anm: Lupus Patients at Risk for Stroke. Risks high for women, the young, and during the year after diagnosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are more likely to experience ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke than the general population especially in the first year they are diagnosed, according to new research published in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. (medpagetoday.com 23.4.2017).)

(Anm: Lupus: Probiotics could help to reduce kidney inflammation. (…) Researchers have found that adding Lactobacillus to the diets of mice with lupus-induced kidney inflammation - also known as lupus nephritis - led to improvements in kidney function and increased their survival, but only in female mice. (…) Study co-author Xin Luo, from the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology at Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, and colleagues recently reported their results in the journal Microbiome. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.10.2017).)

(Anm: Researchers discover that beneficial bacteria in yogurt may affect severity of lupus (news-medical.net 3.10.2017).)

(Anm: Antifungals and probiotics could play critical role in potential new therapeutic approaches for IBD. (news-medical.net 5.10.2017).)

(Anm: Financial Strain Tied to Depression in Women with SLE. Survey: 40% of those reporting high money pressures developed depression. High financial strain nearly doubles the risk of incident depression in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In an analysis of data from the Lupus Outcomes Study, financial strain was the only significant socioeconomic predictor of incident depression, reported Patricia P. Katz, PhD, from the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues in Arthritis Care & Research. (medpagetoday.com 26.4.2017).)

(Anm: For lupus patients, anti-inflammatory immune cells are maturing Into wrong cell type (medicalnewstoday.com 9.3.2016).)

(Anm: Slideshow: Thyroid Symptoms and Solutions (webmd.com 15.4..2014).)
(Anm: 15 Cancer Symptoms to Know (webmd 28.3.2016).)
(Anm: Slideshow: Causes of Fatigue and Sleepiness and How to Fight Them. (webmd).)
(Anm: Slideshow: A Visual Guide to Fibromyalgia (webmd.com 10.11.2014).)
(Anm: Slideshow: A Visual Guide to Understanding Lupus (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: Gout Pictures Slideshow: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments of Gout (webmd.com 3.2.2016).)
(Anm: Slideshow: What Your Nails Say About Your Health (webmd.com 8.4.2014).)
(Anm: Sinusitis Slideshow: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment (webmd 8.12.2014).)
(Anm: What Your Skin Says About Your Health Slideshow. (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: Type 2 Diabetes Overview (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: What Eye Problems Look Like (webmed).)

(Anm: Fibromyalgi: Fibromyalgi rammer over 100.000 norske kvinner. - En del tror sykdommen bare er tøys. Også blant leger er det en del som flirer av den, forteller professor. (…)   Når leger blir bedt om å rangere hvilke sykdommer det er mest prestisje å jobbe med, så havner alltid fibromyalgi nederst, forteller hun. Professor Egil Andreas Fors ved Institutt for samfunnsmedisin og allmennmedisinsk forskningsenhet ved NTNU er blant Norges fremste eksperter på sykdommen. Han bekrefter holdningene Slydal beskriver. (…) Sykdommen kjennetegnes gjerne ved at man har kroniske muskelsmerter, andre symptomer kan være utmattelse, hodepine, stivhet i kroppen, svimmelhet, kvalme, indre frost, depresjoner, angst og søvnproblemer. (kk.no 8.3.2016).)

(Anm: Lettere at diagnosticere fibromyalgi. På University of Colorado har forskere opdaget en speciel hjernesignatur, der med 93 pct. sikkerhed kan fastslå, hvorvidt en person lider af fibromyalgi eller ej. (pharmadanmark.anp.se 27.10.2016).)

(Anm: Management of interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease. (…) Shrinking lung syndrome. (…) Systemic lupus erythematosus. BMJ 2016;352:h6819 (Published 24 February 2016).)

(Anm: Suicidal Thoughts Seen as Risk in Lupus. —Common among lupus patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations (medpagetoday.com 24.9.2015).)

(Anm: Ofre i legemiddelstudie får "livsvarig sykdomsutvikling (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Cancer-inflammation 'vicious cycle' detailed in new study (medicalnewstoday.com 22.4.2015).)

(Anm: Cell signaling pathway linked to obesity and Type 2 diabetes (medicalnewstoday.com 11.8.2014).)

(Anm: Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue. Exp Physiol. 2014 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: dystonia; dystoni; endring i muskulaturens spenningstilstand, ofte i form av ufrivillige muskelsammentrekninger (f.eks. i nakkemuskulaturen og svelgmuskulaturen. Dystoni kan være symptom ved indremedisinske og nevrologiske sykdommer, men kan også opptre som bivirkning av legemidler som blokkerer signalsubstansen dopamin. Akutte dystonier sees hos yngre menn noen dager etter at vedkommende har begynt på relativt høye doser med nevroleptika. (...) Ved akutte dystonier på grunn av legemidler er behandlingen tilførsel av antiparkinsonmidler. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: Kvinner har oftere kjeveproblemer. Kan gi hodepine, svimmelhet, øresus og smerter i nakke og skuldre. (…) I følge en artikkel publisert på nettstedet 1-800-dentist, en av USAs største tannlegenettsider, kan problemer med kjeven - også kalt temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ) også skyldes: (kk.no 1.12.2015).)

- Stopper betennelse, stopper Parkinson

Stopper betennelse, stopper Parkinson
aftenposten.no 6.9.2013
Forskere har lenge hatt mistanke om at en form for betennelse er det som fører til at hjerneceller dør i forbindelse med Parkinsons sykdom. Det er særlig pasienter med symptomer på depresjon og nedsatt kognitivevne som er utsatt. Å stanse betennelsesreaksjon i hjernevæsken kan dermed være en måte å stoppe utviklingen av sykdommen på, skriver svenske forskere i en artikkel i Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences. (...)

- Spiser hval, får Parkinson

Spiser hval, får Parkinson
nrk.no 18.2.2014
Parkinsons sykdom rammer nesten dobbelt så ofte på Færøyene som i Norge. Det kan ha med hvalspising å gjøre.

De som spiser tradisjonell kost på Færøyene, utvikler oftere Parkinsons sykdom. Tradisjonell kost på Færøyene det vil først og fremst si grindhval.

Hvalkjøttet inneholder store konsentrasjoner kvikksølv, mens spekket inneholder PCB. (...)

- Hjärnan får mindre dopamin vid långvarig behandling av parkinson

Hjärnan får mindre dopamin vid långvarig behandling av parkinson
dagensmedicin.se 18.2.2013
Mängden av neurotransmittorn dopamin minskar i hjärnan vid långvarig behandling mot parkinson.¬ Det pekar en ny avhandling från Umeå på.

Parkinsons sjukdom behandlas vanligtvis med levodopa som omvandlas till dopamin i hjärnan. Vid långvarig behandling av parkinson drabbas patienterna ofta av dyskinesi, det vill säga ofrivilliga rörelser.

– Den nuvarande hypotesen är att dyskinesi beror på höga nivåer av dopamin, säger Nina Nevalainen, doktorand vid Umeå universitet.

Hennes egna rön pekar i stället¬ på att det är tvärtom: Nivån av dopamin i hjärnan minskar vid långvarig behandling.

I en studie i avhandlingen har råttor inducerats med Parkinsons sjukdom för att sedan antingen behandlas med levodopa eller ingå i kontrollgruppen.

Det visade sig att koncentrationen av dopamin var lägre hos råttor efter flera veckors daglig levodopabehandling i jämförelse med hos ickebehandlade djur. Nina Nevalainen påpekar att det råder brist på behandlingsalternativ vid sjukdomen och att det därför är viktigt att öka förståelsen om mekanismerna bakom långtidsbehandling med levodopa.

I en annan studie som ingår i avhandlingen visar hon att det antidepressiva läkemedlet ¬fluoxetine har en dämpande effekt på ofrivilliga rörelser i djurförsök då det ges i kombination med levodopa.

– Depression är en del av sjukdomsbilden och därför vore det fördelaktigt om detta läkemedel skulle kunna användas både som antidepressivt preparat men även för att motverka dyskinesier.

– Jag tror att det behövs fler skräddarsydda alternativ för dem som lider av sjukdomen, säger Nina Nevalainen. (...)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (nytteverdi) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Ny forskning: Lykkepiller gør mere skade end gavn. Folk med depression får intet ud af at tage antidepressivet SSRI, bedre kendt som lykkepiller, viser nyt dansk studie. (jyllands-posten.dk 13.2.2017).)

(Anm: Forskere finner link mellom bruk av antidepressiva, medfødte misdannelser eller dødfødsler. (Researchers Find Link Between Antidepressant Use, Congenital Anomalies or Stillbirths) (…) "Mens denne ekstra risikoen kan virke liten er resultatene etter mitt syn så alvorlig som de kan være." (“While this extra risk may seem small, in my view, the outcomes are as serious as they can be.”) (dgnews.docguide.com 5.12.2016).)

(Anm: Eksponering av foster for antidepressiva kan endre Corpus Callosums mikrostruktur: Presentert ved PAS / ASPN. (…) Fordi "den neonate (nyfødtes) corpus callosum mikrostruktur er assosiert med utero (livmor) SSRI-eksponering og prenatal (før fødsel) mødredepresjon, er tidlige modningsprosesser i denne regionen følsomme for endret 5-hydroksytryptamin (5-HT) signalering under tiden i utero (livmor)," bemerket Campbell. "Disse resultatene - sammen med forstyrret hvit substans’ mikrostruktur i genu hos premature spedbarn - tyder dette på at utviklingen av [corpus callosum] kan være følsom for tidlige uheldige påvirkninger. (Fetal Exposure to Antidepressants May Alter Corpus Callosum Microstructure.) (dgnews.docguide.com 10.5.2017).)

(Anm: Unormal sæd med SSRI antidepressiva. Flere studier har funnet endrede sædparametere etter eksponering for SSRI-antidepressiva. Selv om SSRIs rolle er usikker, er det berettiget å ta hensyn til de observerte effektene på sædkvalitet og informere eksponerte pasienter. (Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants. Several studies have found altered semen parameters after exposure to SSRI antidepressants. Although the role of SSRIs is uncertain, it is justified to take into account the observed effects on sperm quality and to inform exposed patients.) Prescrire Int 2015; 24 (156): 16-17.)

(Anm: Gravide kvinner som tar antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å få barn med autisme, ifølge studie. Pregnant women who take antidepressants more likely to have a child with autism, study finds. Research data published in the BMJ reveal that antidepressant use during pregnancy increases the risk of autism in children, as reported The Independent Thursday. (firstwordpharma.com 20.7.2017).)

(Anm: - Nye data viser økt risiko for misdannelser når antidepressiva brukes under graviditet. (…) En studie publisert i British Medical Journal (BMJ) avslører at antidepressiva forskrevet til gravide kan øke sjansen for å få en baby med misdannelser.) (New Data Show Heightened Risk of Birth Defects When Antidepressants Are Used During Pregnancy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 19.1.2017).)

(Anm: - Utviklingen av et potensielt livstruende serotonergt syndrom eller nevroleptisk malignt syndrom (NMS)-lignende reaksjoner er rapportert for SNRI-er og SSRI-er alene, inkludert Celexa-behandling, men spesielt ved samtidig bruk av serotonerge legemidler (inklusive triptaner) og legemidler som svekker metabolisme av serotonin (inklusive MAO-hemmere), eller med antipsykotika eller andre dopaminantagonister (fda.gov 6.3.2009).)

(Anm: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed pregnant women: an updated analysis of the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort. (…) Conclusions Antidepressants with effects on serotonin reuptake during embryogenesis increased the risk of some organ-specific malformations in a cohort of pregnant women with depression. BMJ Open 2017;7:e013372.)

(Anm: Bruk av antipsykotika er assosiert med en 60 % økt risiko for dødelighet hos pasienter med Alzheimers sykdom. (…) Bruk av to eller flere antipsykotika samtidig ble knyttet til nesten doblet dødsrisiko (200 %) enn ved monoterapi.) (Antipsychotic Drug Use Increases Risk of Mortality Among Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease. JOENSUU, Finland -- December 12, 2016 -- Antipsychotic drug use is associated with a 60% increased risk of mortality among patients with Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. The risk was highest at the beginning of drug use and remained increased in long-term use. Use of 2 or more antipsychotic drugs concomitantly was associated with almost 2 times higher risk of mortality than monotherapy.) (dgnews.docguide.com 12.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antipsykotika dobler dødsrisiko allerede etter 180 dagers bruk. Greater Mortality Risk With Antipsychotics in Parkinson's (Større dødsrisiko med antipsykotika ved Parkinsons) (medicalnewstoday.com 21.6.2015).)

(Anm: (...) For ytterligere å illustrere problemet kan nevnes at antipsykotika forårsaker parkinsonisme (5), og en studie fant at mennesker med Parkinsons sykdom og psykose hadde fire ganger større sannsynlighet for å dø etter tre til seks måneders behandling enn de som ikke fikk antipsykotika. (6) De var også mer utsatt for kognitiv svikt, forverring av parkinsonsymptomer, hjerneslag, infeksjoner og fall. RE: Psykisk syke lever kortere. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 10.11.2015.)

(Anm: Legemidler som kan gi delirium hos eldre. Delirium ses særlig hos eldre ved akutte sykdommer og skader eller som følge av toksisk eller farmakologisk påvirkning. Eldre personer har mange sykdommer og bruken av legemidler er høy. Mange legemidler, og særlig de med antikolinerg eller dopaminerg effekt, kan gi delirium. Kjennskap til legemidler og kombinasjoner av legemidler som kan gi delirium, er viktig for å kunne forebygge og behandle tilstanden. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2005; 125:2366-7 (8.9.2005).)

(Anm: Delirium in hospitalized patients: Risks and benefits of antipsychotics. ABSTRACT Consensus panel guidelines advocate for the judicious use of antipsychotic drugs to manage delirium in hospitalized patients when nonpharmacologic measures fail and the patient is in significant distress from symptoms, poses a safety risk to self or others, or is impeding essential aspects of his or her medical care. Here, we review the use of haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole for this purpose. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2017 August;84(8):616-622.)

(Anm: Post injektionssyndrom. (…) De fleste af disse patienter udviklede symptomer på sedation (fra mild sedation til koma) og/eller delirium (herunder forvirring, desorientering, ophidselse/ uro, angst og anden kognitiv svækkelse). Andre symptomer inkluderede ekstrapyramidale symptomer, dysartri, ataksi, aggression, svimmelhed, svaghed, hypertension eller krampe.) (sundhedsstyrelsen.dk 29.6.2014).)

(Anm: Mødre til børn med misdannelser har øget dødelighed. (…) Bivirkninger har ført til to dødsfald. Den største del af bivirkningerne (42 procent) af de 429 blev indberettet for såkaldte psykostimulerende lægemidler - eksempelvis til behandling af ADHD - efterfulgt af 31 procent for antidepressiver og 24 procent for antipsykotiske lægemidler. (videnskab.dk 20.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antikolinerge effekter av vanlige legemidler knyttet til økt dødelighet hos mennesker over 65. De kombinerte antikolinerge effektene av mange vanlige legemidler øker risikoen for kognitiv svekkelse og død hos personer over 65 år, ifølge resultater fra en storskala studie på den langsiktige helseeffekten av legemidler.(Anticholinergic effects of common drugs are associated with increased mortality in over 65s. The combined anticholinergic effects of many common drugs increase the risk of cognitive impairment and death in people aged over 65, a large scale study of the long term effect of drugs on health has found.) BMJ 2011; 342:d4037 (28 June).)

(Anm: Men experience greater cognitive impairment and increased risk of death following hip surgery. In a study of hip fracture patients, men displayed greater levels of cognitive impairment within the first 22 days of fracture than women, and cognitive limitations increased the risk of dying within six months in both men and women. "While men make up only about 25 percent of all hip fractures, the number of men who fracture their hip is increasing and we know men are more likely to die than women after a hip fracture," said Dr. Ann Gruber-Baldini, lead author of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society study. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.2.2017).)

(Anm: Det autonome nervesystemet. Det autonome nervesystemets hovedoppgave er å bidra til likevekt i kroppens basale funksjoner. Det vil blant annet si kroppstemperatur, blodtrykk, åndedrett og fordøyelse. (nhi.no 4.3.2015).)

(Anm: Ulike selektive serotonin reopptakshemmeres (SSRI-er) cytotoksisitet mot kreftceller. (Cytotoxicity of different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against cancer cells.) (…) Vi har funnet at paroxetine (paroksetin; Seroxat; Paxil etc.) har cytotoksisk aktivitet mot tumorceller. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006;6(1):23-9.)

(Anm: Could antidepressants stop prostate cancer from spreading? In almost all cases where prostate cancer spreads to other areas of the body, the disease spreads to the bone first. In a new study, researchers reveal the discovery of an enzyme that helps prostate cancer cells to invade bone. Furthermore, certain antidepressant medications may have the potential to block this enzyme. Study co-author Jason Wu, of Washington State University-Spokane, and colleagues recently reported their findings in the journal Cancer Cell. (medicalnewstoday.com 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: Classic cytotoxic drugs: a narrow path for regulatory approval. Several classic cytotoxic drugs have shown encouraging activity in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.1–3 However, only a few have received an overwhelming welcome from regulatory authorities and succeeded in obtaining widespread regulatory approval for routine use. For example eribulin was approved for treatment of metastatic breast cancer in several countries including Japan, USA, and Europe, based on data that showed longer overall survival in patients treated with eribulin compared with patients treated with physician's choice of treatment. In contrast ixabcpilone with capecitabine gained approval from the US Food and Drug Agency based on data showing longer progression-free survival compared with capccitabine alone, but did not obtain rcgulatory authorisation in Europc because it is associated with a high incidence of nevropathy.5 Lancet Oncol. 2017 Feb 10. pii: S1470-2045(17)30089-X. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Ødelagt cellulær "klokke" linket til hjerneskade (Broken Cellular 'Clock' Linked to Brain Damage) (sciencedaily.com 25.11.2013).)

(Anm: Signaling Pathways Linked to Serotonin-Induced Superoxide Anion Production: A Physiological Role for Mitochondria in Pulmonary Arteries. Abstract. Serotonin (5-HT) is a potent vasoconstrictor agonist and contributes to several vascular diseases including systemic or pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) is commonly associated to cellular damages due to [Formula: see text] overproduction, we previously demonstrated that, in physiological conditions, [Formula: see text] also participates to the 5-HT contraction in intrapulmonary arteries (IPA). Front Physiol. 2017 Feb 9;8:76. eCollection 2017.)

(Anm: Bruk av antidepressiva ble assosiert med et betydelig eldre utseende og forskere fant også ut at vekten spilte en viktig faktor. I de sett med tvillinger som var yngre enn 40 år ble tyngre tvillinger oppfattet som eldre. (…) I tillegg mistenker forskerne at den vedvarende avslapping av ansiktsmuskler som antidepressiva forårsaker kan forklare årsaken til at ansiktet faller sammen (henger). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Minislag (ministroke: transient ischemic attack (TIA)) linket til lavere forventet levetid. (- Minislag kan forårsake demens.) (- Enkelte psykofarmaka kan øke risiko for minislag / demens.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Stumme infarkt rammer oftere folk med høy smertetoleranse. Stumme hjerteinfarkt gir ikke de klassiske brystsmertene som ved vanlige infarkt. - Denne pasientgruppen tar enten ikke kontakt med lege, eller de har ikke fått riktig diagnose, sier lege og forsker Andrea Milde Øhrn. (…) Det er vanlig å tenke sterke brystsmerter og akutt behandling når det er snakk om hjerteinfarkt. Det mange kanskje ikke vet, er at man kan ha hatt et hjerteinfarkt uten å vite det. Dette kalles et stumt infarkt, et hjerteinfarkt med få eller ingen symptomer. - Et stumt hjerteinfarkt er et hjerteinfarkt som ikke er erkjent. (nhi.no 3.2.2017).)

(Anm: Sannsynlig karotidyni forårsaket av fluoxetine (Prozac; SSRI-er). (Probable fluoxetine-induced carotidynia.)  Karotidyni er en fokal nakkesmerte (bestemt, avgrenset område), som involverer anatomiske områder til den berørte arteria carotis, og stråler ofte ut i den ipsilateral side (samme side) av ansiktet eller øret. På grunnlag av medisinsk historie og alder har karotidyni konvensjonelt vært klassifisert i klassisk (ikke-migrenøs), migrenøs, og vaskulære varianter. The Lancet 2009;374(9695):1061-1062 (26 September).)

(Anm: Nakkesmerter sætter forskerne skakmat. Kroniske nakkesmerter koster samfundet milliarder og er en af de hyppigste årsager til, at danskere melder sig syge fra job. Forskerne er i vildrede: Ingen behandling er effektiv. (videnskab.dk 22.12.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva linket til hjerterisiko: tvillingstudie. (Antidepressants linked to heart risk: twins study) - Middelaldrende menn som bruker antidepressiva er mer sannsynlig å ha en innsnevring av blodårer, noe som øker risikoen for hjerteinfarkt og slag, enn de som ikke bruker legemidlene, ifølge en studie presentert på lørdag. (Reuters) - Middle-age men who use antidepressants are more likely to have a narrowing of blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes, than those who do not use the medications, according to a study presented on Saturday.) (reuters.com 2.4.2011).)

(Anm: - Pfizers Zyvoxid (Zyvox) og antidepressiva kan være en dødelig kombinasjon. (- Det antas at når linezolid gis til pasienter, som behandles med serotonerge psykofarmaka, kan forhøyede nivåer av serotonin bygge seg opp i hjernen og forårsake toksisitet (giftighet). Dette er referert til som Serotonin syndrom - tegn og symptomer inkluderer mentale endringer (forvirring, hyperaktivitet, minneproblemer), muskelrykninger, overdreven svetting, skjelving eller risting, diaré, problemer med koordinasjon og / eller feber.) (fda.gov 21.10.2011).)

(Anm: Hva er det forskrivere og pasienter ikke vet om bivirkninger av antidepressiva? (What do prescribers and patients not know about the side effects of antidepressant drugs?) (medicalnewstoday.com 15.9.2016).)

(Anm: Forskere: Alvorlige bivirkninger, når antidepressiver droppes. Angst, depression og selvmordstanker er nogle af de bivirkninger, som tit forekommer, når man holder op med at tage antidepressiv medicin. Bivirkningerne kan i nogle tilfælde være langvarige og kroniske, viser et nyt studie. (videnskab.dk 16.3.2015).)

(Anm: Bruk av visse smertestillende midler (og antidepressiva (+ 31 %)) forbundet med økt risiko for drap (Use of certain painkillers linked with increased risk of homicide) Enkelte legemidler som påvirker sentralnervesystemet - som smertestillende og beroligende benzodiazepiner - er assosiert med økt risiko for å begå et drap, finner en ny studie publisert i tidsskriftet World Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 1.6.2015).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. Drab og vold har de seneste år fyldt debatten om de danske bosteder for patienter med psykiske problemer. (…) Psykiatriske patienter ender i private botilbud. (…) Mens Folketinget kæmper for en løsning på problemet med vold på offentlige bosteder, vælger flere kommuner at sende tunge patienter til private tilbud. (politiken.dk 18.3.2017.)

(Anm: Aggresjon knyttet til økt risiko for substansmisbruk. Aggression disorder linked to greater risk of substance abuse. (…) In the study, published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Coccaro, MD, and colleagues analyzed data from more than 9,200 subjects in the National Comorbidity Survey, a national survey of mental health in the United States. They found that as the severity of aggressive behavior increased, so did levels of daily and weekly substance use. The findings suggest that a history of frequent, aggressive behavior is a risk factor for later substance abuse, and effective treatment of aggression could delay or even prevent substance abuse in young people. (medicalnewstoday.com 2.3.2017).)

(Anm: Halvparten av norske drap begått av rusede. (…) I 125 av drapene – eller 54 prosent – er det beskrevet i dommen at gjerningspersonen var påvirket av rusmidler under drapet. (nrk.no 13.12.2016).)

- En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn.

(Anm: En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn. (- Pasienten døde etter kort tid, og dødsårsaken var nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning), heter det i tilsynets rapport. (nrk.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body, frequently a response of the immune system to infection. (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Sepsis. Definisjon: SIRS + påvist/mistenkt infeksjon (f. eks. positiv blodkultur). SIRS- kriteriene er: - Feber > 38 ºC eller hypotermi < 36 ºC - Puls > 90/minutt - Respirasjonsfrekvens > 20/minutt eller hypokapni med pCO2 < 4,3 kPa i blodgass - Leukocytose ≥ 12 × 109/l eller leukopeni < 4 × 109/l eller > 10 % umodne leukocytter. (helsebiblioteket.no - Metodebok for indremedisinere, 2012).)

(Anm: Rollen til mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) ved sepsis (blodforgiftning)-indusert multiorgansvikt. (The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure). (Virulence. 2013 Nov 1;5(1).)

- Diagnostisering av sepsis. Sepsis, også kjent som blodforgiftning, er kroppens hyperaktive respons på en infeksjon som kan føre til betennelse, vevskader, organsvikt etc.

(Anm: Diagnosing Sepsis. Sepsis, also known as blood poisoning, is the body’s hyperactive response to an infection that can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, organ failure etc. It is a very dangerous state in which the immune system stops fighting with the invading agents  and turns to itself. Around one-third of patients who are affected with sepsis die every year. (news-medical.net 7.9.2017).)

- Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon.

(Anm: Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon. Recognizing Sepsis as a Global Health Priority — A WHO Resolution. “Some very important clinical issues, some of them affecting life and death, stay largely in a backwater which is inhabited by academics and professionals and enthusiasts, dealt with very well at the clinical and scientific level but not visible to the public, political leaders, leaders of healthcare systems... The public and political space is the space in which [sepsis] needs to be in order for things to change.” NEJM (June 28, 2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis – den dödliga sjukdomen som glöms bort. Trots att infektionssjukdomen sepsis förekommer oftare än de vanligaste formerna av cancer och att upp emot hälften som drabbas av den allvarligaste formen dör, så har många knappt hört talas om sjukdomen. Sepsis som är den medicinska termen på blodförgiftning, drabbar omkring 40 000 svenskar varje år. (netdoktor.se 7.6.2017).)

- Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod.

(Anm: Hurtigtest finner tegn på sepsis i en enkelt dråpe blod. (- Sepsis, en potensielt livstruende komplikasjon av en infeksjon, har den høyeste byrde mht. død og medisinske utgifter på sykehus over hele verden.) (- Quick test finds signs of sepsis in a single drop of blood. (…) Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, has the highest burden of death and medical expenses in hospitals worldwide. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.7.2017).)

(Anm: Nye sepsiskriterier kan føre til forsinket behandling. (…) Sepsis er en svært alvorlig tilstand med høy morbiditet og mortalitet (2). Den totale insidensen er ukjent, men man regner med at sepsis er en av de viktigste årsakene til alvorlig, akutt sykdom på verdensbasis (1). (…) Sepsis har inntil nylig vært definert som mistenkt infeksjon med samtidig tilstedeværelse av to eller flere SIRS-kriterier (1). Endringer i hjertefrekvens, kroppstemperatur, respirasjonsfrekvens og leukocytter er kroppens tegn på inflammasjon, og de indikerer ikke nødvendigvis en livstruende, dysregulert vertsrespons på infeksjon. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2017; :609-10 (20.4.2017).)

(Anm: LEGENE FORSTO IKKE AT HAN VAR DØDSSYK: Stian (19) døde etter 18 timer på sykehus uten legetilsyn. (…) Helsetilsynet konkluderer med at sykehusets behandling var uforsvarlig. (…) Fikk ikke beskjed. (…) Fastlegen sendte med dem papirer som foreldrene leverte på Akuttmottaket ved Ahus, der sto det; «Diagnose: Obs sepsis».  (tv2.no 29.4.2017).)

(Anm: Svikt i behandlingen av akutt syk ung mann i akuttmottaket – brudd på helselovgivningen. (…) Pasienten ble lagt på observasjonsposten (Akutt 24) ved akuttmottaket frem til neste morgen. I løpet av tiden på observasjonsposten ble han ikke tilsett av lege. På morgenen var han betydelig verre og han fikk tegn på fullt utviklet blodforgiftning. Behandling med antibiotika ble iverksatt, men han døde kort tid etter som følge av meningokokksepsis og hjerneødem. (helsetilsynet.no 2.5.2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis; grunnleggende kliniske observasjoner. Sepsis= En systemisk inflammatorisk respons (SIRS) pga. en infeksjon Tre alvorlighetsgrader: 1) Sepsis (to eller flere symptomer på SIRS som følge av infeksjon) 2) Alvorlig sepsis (sepsis med akutt organdysfunksjon, hypoperfusjon eller hypotensjon) 3) Septisk sjokk (hypotensjon til tross for adekvat væsketerapi, samt forekomst av perfusjonsforstyrrelser og organdysfunksjon) (hnt.no 5.11.2013).)

- Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting (sepsis) blir undersøkt av lege for seint.

(Anm: Alle bryt lova i behandling av blodforgifting. Pasientar med alvorleg blodforgifting blir undersøkt av lege for seint. Helsetilsynet fann brot ved 24 akuttmottak over heile landet. – Svært alvorleg. – Dette er svært alvorleg, for det dreier seg om ein alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som i verste fall kan medføra død dersom behandlinga ikkje blir igangsett til riktig tid, seier avdelingsdirektør i Helsetilsynet, Ragnar Hermstad. OVER EIN TIME: Pasientar som kjem inn med teikn på alvorleg infeksjonssjukdom som blodforgifting skal ifølge nasjonale retningslinjer få anitibiotikabehandling innan maks ein time. Alle dei 24 akuttmottaka hadde svikt på dette området. (nrk.no 16.6.2017).)

(Anm: Lege sier improvisert «kur» for sepsis har hatt bemerkelsesverdige resultater. (…) Spesialist i intensivbehandling Paul Marik sier at enkel behandling med infusjon av vitamin C og steroider har bemerkelsesverdig effekt på pasienter med potensielt dødelig tilstand. (independent.co.uk 24.3.2017).)

(Anm: Bivirkninger underrapporteres i videnskabelige tidsskrifter. (...) Mellem 43 og 100 procent af de bivirkninger, der, ifølge det ikke-publicerede materiale, er fundet ved de testede lægemidler, er ikke lagt frem i de videnskabelige artikler, viser Yoon Loke og kollegernes gennemgang. (videnskab.dk 5.10.2016).)

(Anm: Dødsfall på grunn av nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning) etter behandling med legemiddelet klozapin – uforsvarlig oppfølging – mangelfull samhandling og informasjon. (…)  Manglende informasjon fra spesialisthelsetjenesten og mangelfull samhandling mellom kommunehelsetjenesten, fastlegen, pasienten og pårørende bidro til hendelsen. Helseforetaket skal gjennomgå hendelsen for å redusere risikoen ved lignende tilfeller. (helsetilsynet.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter. De ønsker psykologhjelp. I stedet blir de fôret med piller fra fastlegen. Unge jenter har aldri brukt mer antidepressiver. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Flere barn og unge akuttinnlegges for psykisk sykdom. I fjor utgjorde andelen øyeblikkelig hjelp innleggelser 61 prosent av alle innleggelser. Det er en økning fra 47 prosent i 2012. (dagensmedisin.no 19.9.2016).)

(Anm: Eksplosjon av antidepressiva til unge jenter: Lykkepillegenerasjonen. «Lykkepillen» gjorde Sandra så dårlig at hun ble innlagt på psykiatrisk avdeling. På ti år har bruken av antidepressiver blant unge jenter økt med 83 prosent. Mange får pillene uten en gang å ha snakket med psykolog.  (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: Helseminister Bent Høie reagerer på «lykkepille»-praksis: – Veldig urovekkende. ** Kraftig økning i antidepressiva til unge jenter. Helseminister Bent Høie reagerer på den sterke økningen i lykkepillebruk blant unge jenter. Han mener manglende ressurser og fastlegers holdninger er årsaker. Lørdag dokumenterte VG Helg og VG+ konsekvensene av den økende lykkepille-bruken blant unge jenter. (vg.no 10.9.2016).)

(Anm: LO advarer mot trygdebombe. En stadig større del av nordmenn i arbeidsfør alder er uten jobb. LO mener dette er en potensiell trygdebombe. (…) Det trengs 180.000 nye jobber for å få yrkesdeltakelsen opp på samme nivå som i 2008, viser en rapport fra samfunnsøkonomene i LO. I 2008 var 70 prosent av befolkningen mellom 15 og 74 år i jobb. Nå er yrkesdeltakelsen nede i 67,3 prosent., og det er nedgang i alle fylker. (hegnar.no 6.10.2016).)

(Anm: Rekordmange søger akut psykisk hjælp. (- Mens kun 12.099 danskere i 1995 besøgte de psykiatriske akutmodtagelser og skadestuer, er det steget til hele 33.333 i 2015, viser opgørelse fra Sundhedsdatastyrelsen og Danske Regioner, der for kort tid siden blev sendt til Folketinget. (politiken.dk 9.7.2016).)

(Anm: Har vi blitt psykisk sykere? (- Vi vet også at stadig flere får uførepensjon på grunn av psykiske lidelser og at sykefraværet på grunn av psykiske plager og lidelser har økt. Vi tror alle disse forholdene bidrar til vår oppfatning om at stadig flere får en psykisk lidelse eller plage.) (Folkehelseinstituttet fhi.no 10.10.2013).)

(Anm: Høyt fravær på grunn av ME. Minst 270 elever var borte fra skolen i fjor fordi de hadde ME. (aftenposten.no 6.2.2017).)

(Anm: Psykisk ohälsa fortsätter att öka. Antalet svenskar som sjukskrivs på grund av psykisk ohälsa ökar kontinuerligt sedan 2010. Den vanligaste diagnosen är stressrelaterad psykisk ohälsa som till mångt och mycket är arbetsrelaterad. Då evidensbaserad behandling saknas står förebyggande arbete i fokus. (netdoktor.se 14.9.2016).)

(Anm: Psykiatriske skadestuer kan ikke klare presset. Psykiske lidelser hører til nogle af de største sygdomsbyrder, som hvert år koster samfundet et svimlende milliardbeløb i tabt arbejdsfortjeneste og sociale ydelser. (politiken.dk 11.7.2016).)

(Anm: - 9 ting som skjer i hjernen og kroppen på MDMA (Ecstasy). (- 9 Things That Happen in the Brain and Body on MDMA.) (- Derfor, når substansen avsluttes, sitter mennesker igjen med mindre serotonin enn vanlig, noe som kan føre til følelser av depresjon, irritabilitet og tretthet.) (- Siden MDMA frigir så mye serotonin, ødelegger kroppen deretter mer serotonin enn vanlig, ifølge AsapSCIENCE.) (thescienceexplorer.com 24.6.2016).)

- L-dopa var bäst som startbehandling vid parkinson (Richard Gray och hans kollegor anser att resultaten troligen kommer att ändra praxis över hela världen)

L-dopa var bäst som startbehandling vid parkinson
dagensmedicin.se 11.6.2014
Äldre patienter som är nydiagnostiserade med Parkinsons sjukdom kan tjäna på att börja behandling med det beprövade läkemedlet L-dopa i stället för nyare parkinsonmediciner, enligt ny stor studie i tidskriften Lancet.

Resultaten baseras på en uppföljning av över 1 600 deltagare – den hittills största kliniska prövningen vid sjukdomen.

Patienter som lottats till L-dopa hade efter tre år lite mindre rörelseproblem och lite bättre livskvalitet, jämfört dem som lottats till att börja med antingen en dopaminagonist eller en så kallad MAO B-hämmare.

Skillnaderna kvarstod efter upp till sju års uppföljning.

Vidare uppgav patienterna i L-dopagruppen att de hade lättare att hantera dagliga aktiviteter, kände mindre stigma och hade bättre kommunikation, jämfört med patienterna i kontrollgrupperna. 

Skillnaderna till fördel för L-dopa var visserligen små, enligt studiens ledare, Richard Gray, professor vid University of Oxford i Storbritannien.

– Men ser man på effekt, biverkningar, livskvalitet och kostnader på kort och lång sikt så är ändå det gamla läkemedlet L-Dopa den bästa startbehandlingen för de flesta patienterna, säger han i ett pressmeddelande från Lancet.

Richard Gray och hans kollegor anser att resultaten troligen kommer att ändra praxis över hela världen. (...)

(Anm: Long-term effectiveness of dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors compared with levodopa as initial treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD MED): a large, open-label, pragmatic randomised trial. The Lancet 2014 (Early Online Publication, 11 June 2014).)

- Parkinsonspasient får erstatning grunnet legemidlet Requips bivirkninger (- Pfizer må kompensere parkinsonpasienter som er blitt avhengige av gamling, sex og spiseforstyrrelser.) (- Det konfidensielle oppgjøret avslutter en fireårig rettssak for pasientene, hvorav noen spilte bort sine oppsparte midler etter å ha tatt legemidlet og hevdet at de ikke hadde hatt eksisterende gamblingproblemer.)

Pfizer must compensate Parkinson’s patients who became addicted (Pfizer må kompensere parkinsonpasienter som er blitt avhengige (gamling, sex og spiseforstyrrelser)
BMJ 2015; 350 BMJ 2015;350:h2565 (Published 14 May 2015)
Pfizer must compensate Parkinson’s patients who became addicted: An Australian court has approved payout deals for patients who developed gambling, sex, and eating addictions after taking cabergoline (marketed as Cabaser or Dostinex) to treat tremors associated with Parkinson’s disease or raised prolactin concentrations. The confidential settlement ends a four year court battle for the patients, some of whom gambled away their life savings after taking the drug and who claimed not to have had any pre-existing gambling problems. Others reported various forms of obsessive behaviour not normal to them, including compulsive eating, spending, hyper-sexuality, and performing repetitive tasks. (…)

(Anm: Spilleavhengighet (spilleavhengige/problemspillere) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Norsk pasientskadeerstatning (NPE). (mintankesmie.no).)

Parkinson's sufferer wins six figure payout from GlaxoSmithKline over drug that turned him into a 'gay sex and gambling addict' (Parkinsonspasient tilkjent sekssifret erstatningsbeløp fra GlaxoSmithKline for legemiddel som gjorde ham til "homofil sex- og spilleavhengig")
independent.co.uk 29.11.2012
Far til to barn sier han utviklet en ukontrollerbar lidenskap for homofil sex og gambling - på et tidspunkt solgte han sine barns leker for å finansiere sin avhengighet (Father-of-two says he developed an uncontrollable passion for gay sex and gambling - at one point even selling his children's toys to fund his addiction)

A French appeals court has upheld a ruling ordering GlaxoSmithKline to pay €197,000 (£159,000) to a man who claimed a drug given to him to treat Parkinson's turned him into a 'gay sex addict'.

Didier Jambart, 52, was prescribed the drug Requip in 2003 to treat his illness.

Within two years of beginning to take the drug the married father-of-two says he developed an uncontrollable passion for gay sex and gambling - at one point even selling his children's toys to fund his addiction.

He was awarded £160,000 in damages after a court in Rennes, France, upheld his claims.

The ruling, which is considered ground-breaking, was made yesterday by the appeal court, which awarded damages to Mr Jambart. (...)

- Sexgal av parkinsonmedisin.

(Anm: Her og nå hovedsending. Fredag 15. sep · Her og nå (…) 2. Sexgal av parkinsonmedisin. 3. Steinar Madsen om bivirkninger ved Parkinson-medisin (nrk.no 15.9.2017).)

- Sexgal av Parkinsonmedisiner

- Sexgal av Parkinsonmedisiner
vg.no 10.2.2011
SEXAVHENGIG: Didier Jambert, her sammen med kona i rettssalen i Nantes i Frankrike, fikk svært kraftige bivirkninger av medisinen mot Parkinsons sykdom.

Medisinen skulle hjelpe mot Parkinsons. I stedet hevder tobarnsfaren (51) at han ble både spillegal og sexavhengig.

Nå krever Didier Jambart fra Nantes i Frankrike rundt fire millioner kroner i erstatning fra legemiddelgiganten GlaxoSmithKline.

Ifølge nyhetsbyrået AFP hevder 51-åringen at medisinen Requip fikk ham hektet på gambling, uhemmet homofil sex og gjorde ham suicidal. (...)

Kjent effekt
Medisinsk direktør Olav Flaten i GlaxoSmithKline sier til VG at både spillegalskap og hyperseksualitet er kjente bivirkninger for Requip og lignende preparater.

- Dette er en mindre vanlig eller sjelden bivirkning, sier Flaten. (...)

Diverse artikler

(Anm: Existing antidepressant drug could slow progression of Parkinson’s. Michigan State University scientists now have early proof that an antidepressant drug that's been around for more than 50 years could slow the progression of Parkinson's. In a proof-of-concept study, published in the journal Neurobiology of Disease, the drug nortriptyline, which has been used to treat depression and nerve pain, stopped the growth of abnormal proteins that can build up in the brain and lead to the development of the disease. (…) The medication also treats many of the symptoms associated with the disease such as tremors and poor muscle control. "We found that those on a certain class of antidepressant, called tricyclics, didn't need the levodopa therapy until much later compared to those who weren't on that type of antidepressant medication," Collier said. (news-medical.net 6.9.2017).)

(Anm: Music therapy helps strengthen muscle activity in people with Parkinson's disease. Elizabeth Stegemöller arranged a circle of metal folding chairs around a piano as clients started arriving for a weekly music therapy class for people with Parkinson's disease. For the next hour, Stegemöller, an assistant professor of kinesiology at Iowa State University, will lead the class through a series of vocal exercises and songs. Singing uses the same muscles associated with swallowing and respiratory control – two functions complicated by Parkinson's disease, which can lead to death – and Stegemöller's research has shown singing significantly improves this muscle activity. The results are published in the journals Disability and Rehabilitation and Complementary Therapies in Medicine. (news-medical.net 2.8.2017).)

People With Depression More Likely to Develop Parkinson’s Disease
dgnews.docguide.com 20.5.2015
MINNEAPOLIS -- May 20, 2015 -- People with depression may be more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease, according to a large study published in the May 20, 2015, online issue of the journal Neurology.

“We saw this link between depression and Parkinson’s disease over a timespan of more than two decades, so depression may be a very early symptom of Parkinson’s disease or a risk factor for the disease,” said Peter Nordström, PhD, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

The researchers also examined siblings, and found no link between one sibling having depression and the other having Parkinson’s disease.

“This finding gives us more evidence that these 2 diseases are linked,” said Dr. Nordström. “If the diseases were independent of each other but caused by the same genetic or early environmental factors, then we would expect to see the two diseases group together in siblings, but that didn’t happen.”

For the study, researchers started with all Swedish citizens aged 50 years and older at the end of 2005. From that, they took the 140,688 people who were diagnosed with depression from 1987 to 2012. These people were then matched with 3 control participants of the same sex and year of birth who had not been diagnosed with depression, for a total of 421,718 control participants.

The participants were then followed for up to 26 years. During this time, 1,485 people with depression developed Parkinson’s disease (1.1%), while 1,775 people (0.4%) of those who did not have depression developed Parkinson’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease was diagnosed an average of 4.5 years after the start of the study. The likelihood of developing Parkinson’s disease decreased over time. People with depression were 3.2 times more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease within 1 year after the study started than people who did not have depression. By 15 to 25 years after the study started, people with depression were about 50% more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease.

People with more serious cases of depression were also more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease. People who had been hospitalised for depression 5 or more times were 40% more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than people who had been hospitalised for depression only 1 time. People who had been hospitalised for depression were also 3.5 times more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than people who had been treated for depression as outpatients. (…)

The link between depression and Parkinson’s disease did not change when researchers adjusted for other conditions related to depression, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, and alcohol and drug abuse.

SOURCE: American Academy of Neurology (…)

(Anm: Recovery from brain injury and better sleep go hand in hand. After a traumatic brain injury (TBI), people also experience major sleep problems, including changes in their sleep-wake cycle. A new study shows that recovering from these two conditions occurs in parallel. The study is published in Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. (medicalnewstoday.com 23.12.2016).)

Svensk parkinsonforskning visades upp för världen
dagensmedicin.se 13.6.2014
Nya typer av behandlingar stod som huvudtema för världens största vetenskapliga kongress om Parkinsons sjukdom, som avslutades i går i Stockholm. Framsteg inom genterapi och celltransplantation var några av huvudpunkterna. (...)

Impulse Issues Linked to Parkinson's
medpagetoday.com 2.10.2013
MONTREAL -- Patients with Parkinson's disease, particularly those with early onset of symptoms, had an increased incidence of impulse control disorders, a researcher reported here.

For instance, among a cohort of Parkinson's patients whose average age was 47 years, 8.8% had a history of pathologic gambling and 5.9% had exhibited hypersexuality, while no matched controls showed these behavioral abnormalities, Martin Bares, MD, of Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic, reported at the World Parkinson Congress here.

Because recent research has suggested that some patients with Parkinson's disease have difficulties relating to impulse control, Bares and colleagues enrolled 34 patients from two Czech specialized movement disorder clinics and 34 matched healthy controls in a cross-sectional study. (...)

Stopping Cholesterol Drugs Linked to Parkinson’s? (Stans i medisinering med statiner (mot høyt kolesterol) linket til Parkinson?)
ivanhoe.com 26.7.2013
(Ivanhoe Newswire) –People who stop taking cholesterol-lowering drugs may be at an increased risk of obtaining Parkinson’s disease, according to a recent study at the National Taiwan University in Taipei.

The study involved more than 43,000 statin users. Researchers found that those who stopped taking fat-soluble statins- like atorvastatin and simvastatin- were 58 percent more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than those who continued to take the drugs.

However, there was no association for water-soluble drugs, like rosuvastatin and pravastatin, which are less capable to cross the blood-brain barrier. (...)

- Atorvastatin (ATV) som vanligvis brukes til å behandle dyslipidemi rapporteres også å ha effekt mot 6-hydroksydopamin (6-OHDA) indusert nevrotoksisitet. I tillegg kan atorvastatin forstyrre mitokondriell funksjon ved å redusere nivået av Q10. Derfor kan den terapeutiske effekten av atorvastatin (20 mg / kg) bli kompromittert. (- De aktuelle resultater gir bevis på at tilskudd av Q10 til ATV viser synergistisk effekt ved å redusere dopamin toksisitet.) (- Det var signifikant reduksjon i mitokondriell kompleks enzymaktivitet og mitokondrielt membranpotensial (MMP).)

(Anm: Abstract Atorvastatin (ATV) generally used to treat dyslipidemia is also reported to have effect against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, atorvastatin can interfere with mitochondrial function by reducing the level of Q10. Therefore, the therapeutic effect of atorvastatin (20 mg/kg) could be compromised. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of ATV supplemented with Q10. 6-OHDA was unilaterally injected into the right striatum of male rats. On day 8 of 6-OHDA infusion, ATV (20 mg/kg), Q10 (200 mg/kg), and their combination were administered per oral for 14 days. On day 21, there was significant loss of striatal dopamine indicating neurotoxicity. The combination of ATV+Q10 showed significant amelioration of dopamine (DA) toxicity compared to individual treatments. Similarly, ATV+Q10 compared to individual treatment significantly decreased the motor deficits induced by 6-OHDA. Further, 6-OHDA induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). There was significant decrease in mitochondrial complex enzyme activities and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Treatment with ATV and ATV+Q10 ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction by increasing complex enzyme activities; however, only ATV+Q10 were able to stabilize MMP and maintained mitochondrial integrity. Moreover, there was significant induction of oxidative stress as observed from increase in lipid peroxidases (LPO) and nitrite (NO), and decrease in super oxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment with ATV+Q10 significantly altered the above effects indicating antioxidant activity. Furthermore, only combination of ATV and Q10 decreased the 6-OHDA induced expression of cytochrome-C, caspase-9 and caspase-3. Therefore, current results provide evidence that supplementation of Q10 with ATV shows synergistic effect in reducing dopamine toxicity. Neurotox Res. 2017 May;31(4):478-492.)

(Anm: Legemiddelinduserte mitokondrielle skader og sykdom. (Medication-induced mitochondrial damage and disease.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Discontinuation of statin therapy associates with Parkinson disease - A population-based study. Neurology 2013;81(5):410-416 (July 30 2013).)

Pesticide Exposure May Raise Parkinson's Risk, Study Suggests
philly.com 28.5.2013
TUESDAY, May 28 (HealthDay News) -- Prolonged exposure to pesticides, bug and weed killers, and solvents appears to raise the risk for developing Parkinson's disease, a new study says.

Italian investigators who reviewed more than 100 prior studies found exposure to such agents boosted Parkinson's disease risk by anywhere from 33 percent to 80 percent, they reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Neurology. (...)

Meta-Analysis: Bug and Weed Killers, Solvents May Increase Risk of Parkinson’s Disease
aan.com 27.5.2013 (American Academy of Neurology )
MINNEAPOLIS – A large analysis of more than 100 studies from around the world shows that exposure to pesticides, or bug and weed killers, and solvents is likely associated with a higher risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. The research appears in the May 28, 2013, print issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

“Due to this association, there was also a link between farming or country living and developing Parkinson’s in some of the studies,” said study author Emanuele Cereda, MD, PhD, with the IRCCS University Hospital San Matteo Foundation in Pavia, Italy. The research was also conducted by Gianni Pezzoli, MD, with the Parkinson Institute – ICP, Milan. For the analysis, researchers reviewed 104 studies that looked at exposure to weed, fungus, rodent or bug killers, and solvents and the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Studies that evaluated the proximity of exposure, such as country living, work occupation and well water drinking were also included. (...)

Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease: from clinical and neuropsychological characterisation to management and long-term outcome
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]
OBJECTIVE: Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) refers to a compulsive pattern of dopaminergic drug misuse complicating Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, few data are available on DDS risk factors, cognitive profile and long-term outcome.

METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, consecutive PD outpatients fulfilling criteria for DDS were assessed over a 6-year period (2005-2011). They were compared with 70 PD cases matched for age at onset, gender and disease duration, and with 1281 subjects with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. DDS patients and matched controls underwent extensive neuropsychological assessment. Strategies for DDS patients management and the outcome at the last follow-up visit were recorded.

RESULTS: Thirty-five patients with DDS were identified, reporting history of depression, family history of PD and drug abuse, greater difference between 'Off' versus 'On' motor symptoms compared to age-matched controls. They had younger age at onset (but not any gender difference) compared to general PD population. Cognitive profile of DDS did not show major abnormalities, including executive functions. DDS patients have been followed up for 3.2±2.1 years and remission was recorded in 40% of cases. Negative DDS outcome was significantly associated with poor caregiver supervision. Sustained remission occurred more commonly on clozapine and on duodenal levodopa infusion and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) than on apomorphine pump treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware of risk factors predisposing to DDS. Duodenal levodopa infusion and, less consistently, STN-DBS were more commonly associated with DDS remission. Effective caregiving plays a key role in long-term behavioural outcome. (...)

(Anm: Clozapine-induced myocarditis, a widely overlooked adverse reaction. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print].)

Vitamin D might help some Parkinson's patients (Vitamin D kan hjelpe noen Parkinsonpasienter)
reuters.com 27.3.2013
(Reuters Health) - Depending on their genes, some Parkinson's patients may be able to slow their deterioration by taking vitamin D supplements, according to a small study from Japan.

Researchers randomly assigned 114 people with Parkinson's disease to take either vitamin D or a placebo every day for a year and found the neurologic condition didn't progress as much in those who took the supplements, compared to those who took placebos. But that was only true for people with certain versions of a gene for the vitamin D receptor.

Dr. Lin Zhang, who was not involved in the work but studies nutritional deficiencies in people with Parkinson's called the findings "very promising," but urged caution in interpreting the results. (...)

At the end of the year, the researchers found that 16 people in the group taking the supplements didn't get worse on the five-point scale, compared to 7 people whose symptoms were stable in the group taking the placebo.

But when they looked at the patients' vitamin D receptor genes, the researchers found that people with the gene version known as FokI TT benefited the most from supplements, followed by those with the FokI CT variant, compared to people in the placebo group. People with the FokI CC genotype did not benefit at all.

Similar results were seen for another measure of Parkinson's symptoms, according the report in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (...)

(Anm: Mangel på D-vitamin forbundet med Parkinson-symptomer - Vitamintilskud kan forsinke eller forebygge udvikling af kognitiv hæmning og depression, mener forskere. (dagensmedisin.no 18.2.2014).)

(Anm: Vitamin D-brist kopplad till alzheimer (mentornewsroom.se 7.8.2014).)

(Anm: Utilstrekkelige nivåer av vitamin D i svangerskapet er skadelige for barnets utvikling. Insufficient levels of Vitamin D in pregnancy detrimental to child development. Vitamin D deficiency in expectant mothers during pregnancy has a negative effect on the social development and motor skills of pre-school age children, a new study in the British Journal of Nutrition reports.  (medicalnewstoday.com 13.7.2017).)

(Anm: Vitamin D guidelines may be changed following new study. A new study finds that, contrary to popular belief, vitamin D-2 and D-3 do not have equal nutritional value. (…) New research demonstrates that the two forms of vitamin D, D-2 and D-3, are not equal. D-3 is twice as effective. Guidelines may need to be altered. (…) With vitamin D deficiency on the rise, the authors call for a rethink of official guidelines. (…) Not all vitamin D types are equal. There are two types of vitamin D, which are known as D-2 and D-3. The former is derived from plant sources, particularly fungi, while the latter comes from animal sources. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.7.2017).)

(Anm: Standard Definition of Vitamin D Deficiency Is Challenged. Allan S. Brett, MD reviewing Shah S et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar 30. A research team suggests that a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 12 ng/mL (30 nmol/L) might be a more appropriate cutoff. (…) Comment In the U.S., many laboratories define 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L) as deficient, and levels between 20 and 30 ng/mL (50−75 nmol/L) as “insufficient” (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96:1911). However, the current study authors believe their data justify a cutoff of 12 ng/mL (30 nmol/L) for deficiency, and they challenge the idea of a specific insufficiency range. This study might not settle the controversy about the optimal cutoff for deficiency, but it supports my concern that many clinicians push vitamin D supplementation excessively, without evidence of clinical or physiological benefit. NEJM 2017 (August 15, 2017).)

(Anm: Study highlights risk factors for widespread vitamin D deficiency. Results from a clinical review published in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association find nearly 1 billion people worldwide may have deficient or insufficient levels of vitamin D due to chronic disease and inadequate sun exposure related to sunscreen use. The study also found that 95 percent of African American adults may have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Vitamin D variations among races are attributed to differences in skin pigmentation. (news-medical.net 2.5.2017).)

(Anm: Vitamin D levels in pregnant women could be linked to some learning disabilities in children (medicalnewstoday.com 22.9.2016).)

(Anm: High vitamin D intake could reduce the risk of an early menopause. A new study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition has revealed that women can cut their risk of an early menopause, by having a high vitamin D intake. (news-medical.net 11.5.2017).)

(Anm: Evidence 'does not support use of vitamin D supplements', say researchers. Current evidence does not support the use of vitamin D supplements to prevent disease, a study published in BMJ has concluded. (pulsetoday.co.uk 25.11.2016).)

(Anm: Vitamin D supplementation does cut respiratory infections, new study suggests. Researchers from Queen Mary University of London argued that their findings, published in The BMJ,1 support the introduction of food fortification in the UK. BMJ 2017;356:j847 (Published 16 February 2017).)

(Anm: Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. (…) Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation was safe and it protected against acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most benefit. BMJ 2017;356:i6583 (Published 15 February 2017).)

(Anm: Vitamin D supplements in pregnancy could help protect children against asthma. A new study published today in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has found that taking Vitamin D supplements in pregnancy can positively modify the immune system of the newborn baby, which could help to protect against asthma and respiratory infections, a known risk factor for developing asthma in childhood. (news-medical.net 26.5.2017).)

(Anm: Vitamin D Supplements May Benefit Children With Autism. HOBOKEN, NJ -- November 22, 2016 -- Vitamin D supplementation improved symptoms of autism, according to a study published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Although pharmacological therapies provide an adjunct to behavioural therapy for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), they have no significant effects on improving the core symptoms of autism. Vitamin D has an important role in brain homeostasis, neurodevelopment, and aging, and it plays a significant role in gene regulation. It has also been suggested that vitamin D acts as a neuroactive steroid, affecting neuronal differentiation, axonal connectivity, and brain structure and function. (dgnews.docguide.com 22.11.2016)

(Anm: Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to Ulcerative Colitis Relapse. CLINICAL relapse risk amongst individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC) more common if the levels of vitamin D in the blood are lower than required, according to researchers at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. (emjreviews.com 3.4.2017).)

(Anm: Low Vitamin D Linked with All-Cause Death. —There was a significant interaction by race, with greater risks for whites. ATLANTA -- Low vitamin D levels were associated with increased all-cause mortality, a comprehensive population-based study found. For instance, one study found levels of 25(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency had increased cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality. (medpagetoday.com 17.9.2016).)

- Lavt nivå av vitamin D preger alle nivåer av psykose. - Mangel på vitaminet linket til dårligere funksjon og høyere skår for depresjon.

(Anm: Lavt nivå av vitamin D preger alle nivåer av psykose. - Mangel på vitaminet linket til dårligere funksjon og høyere skår for depresjon.  (Low Vitamin D Permeates All Stages of Psychosis. — Lack of vitamin linked with poorer function, higher depression scores.) (medpagetoday.com 8.4.2015).)

(Anm: Successful treatment of reactive airways dysfunction syndrome by high-dose vitamin D.J Asthma Allergy. 2011; 4: 87–91. Published online 2011 Sep 22.)

(Anm: Should healthy people take a vitamin D supplement in winter months? (…) Limited evidence The government should not recommend any intervention without convincing evidence of benefit. Despite a few hundred systematic reviews and meta-analyses, a recent review found highly convincing evidence of a clear causal role of vitamin D does not exist for any of 137 outcomes. BMJ 2016;355:i6183  (Published 23 November 2016).)

(Anm: Vitamin D improves heart function, study finds. A daily dose of vitamin D3 improves heart function in people with chronic heart failure, a five-year University of Leeds research project has found. Dr Klaus Witte, from the School of Medicine and Consultant Cardiologist at Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, led the study, known as VINDICATE. (worldpharmanews.com 5.4.2016).)

(Anm: Low vitamin D levels associated with IBS. Many people living with irritable bowel syndrome are vitamin D deficient, according to a new study published in the BMJ Open Gastroenterology. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic and debilitating functional disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, affecting around 9-23% of people worldwide and 10-15% of people in the US. (medicalnewstoday.com 21.12.2015).)

(Anm: Fewer indications of ADHD in children whose mothers took vitamin D during pregnancy. Children of mothers who took vitamin D during pregnancy with resultant high levels of the vitamin in the umbilical blood have fewer symptoms of ADHD at the age of 2½ years. These were the findings in a new study from the Odense Child Cohort just published in The Australia & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 11.10.2016).)

(Anm: Vitamin D supplements may lower risk of severe asthma attacks (medicalnewstoday.com 7.9.2016).)

(Anm: Depresjon kan skyldes vitaminmangel. - Mange deprimerte har vitamin D-mangel, sier professor. (…) Ifølge Norsk Helseformatikk vil cirka 25 prosent av alle kvinner og 15 prosent av alle menn oppleve en depresjon som trenger behandling i løpet av livet. (…) - Vitamin D er nødvendig for opptak og utnyttelse av kalsium, vedlikehold av skjelettet og tennene våre, normal muskelfunksjon og immunforsvar. Det er også viktig for kroppens forsvarssystem, og for mange hjerneprosesser. (…) - Én teori er at vitamin D påvirker mengden av kjemikalier som kalles monoaminer. Mange antidepressive medikamenter virker ved å øke mengden av monoaminer i hjernen. (kk.no 7.8.2016).)

(Anm: D-vitaminer mot irritabel tarm. En ny studie viser at mange med irritabel tarm også har mangel på vitamin D. Irritabel tarm (IBS) er en forstyrrelse i tarmens funksjon. Kjennetegnene er magesmerter, ubehag, oppblåsthet og forstyrret avføringsmønster med diaré eller forstoppelse. (nhi.no 13.1.2016).)

(Anm: D-vitaminer under graviditeten kan mindske risiko for ADHD. Hvis mor tager D-vitaminer, når hun er gravid, ser det nemlig ud til at give færre tegn på ADHD, viser et nyt studie fra Odense Børnekohorte. Det skriver Syddansk Universitet (SDU) i en pressemeddelelse. (videnskab.dk 4.10.2016).)

(Anm: New evidence for treating depression in women with vitamin D supplements (medicalnewstoday.com 10.4.2015).)

(Anm: D-vitamin kan booste immunforsvarets kamp mod en af verdens største dræbere. D-vitamin styrker immunforsvarets evne til at bekæmpe tuberkulose, lyder konklusionen i et nyt dansk studie. I fremtiden kan vitaminet måske hjælpe mange millioner mennesker, der er i fare for at dø af sygdommen. Men der skal flere studier til, mener forsker. (videnskab.dk 12.6.2017).)

- D-vitamin kan forbedre sårheling i pasienter ved brannskader. (- For noen mennesker tar brannskader lang tid å hele, så vel som at det også er risiko for infeksjon. De med alvorlige forbrenninger er spesielt utsatt for sepsis (blodforgifning), hvilket er en potensielt livstruende tilstand som utløses av infeksjon.)

(Anm: Vitamin D may improve wound healing in burns patients. (…) This was the conclusion of the first study to examine the effects of vitamin D in burn injury recovery. The research — which was led by the Institute of Inflammation and Aging in Birmingham, United Kingdom — is to feature at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference, held in Harrogate, U.K. Burns are wounds to the skin and other tissues that are caused by heat — including exposure to a flame or fire, or from scalding. They can also result from friction, radiation, radioactivity, electricity, and contact with chemicals. Burn injuries are considered a global public health problem and are responsible for around 180,000 deaths every year. (…) For some people, their burn injuries take a long time to heal, as well as there also being a risk of infection. Those with severe burns are particularly vulnerable to sepsis, which is a potentially life-threatening condition triggered by infection. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.11.2017).)

(Anm: Lupus: Low vitamin D may raise risk of kidney failure. (…) Dr. Michelle A. Petri, Ph.D., director of the Hopkins Lupus Center is the lead author of the study, and the findings were presented at the American College of Rheumatology/Association of Rheumatology Health Professionals (ACR/ARHP) Annual Meeting in San Diego, CA. Lupus is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation throughout the body. This occurs because the body does not recognize its own tissues and starts attacking them. The disease can affect various organ systems, from the cardiovascular and immune systems to vital organs such as the lungs and the kidneys. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.11.2017).)

(Anm: Lupus: Probiotics could help to reduce kidney inflammation. (…) Researchers have found that adding Lactobacillus to the diets of mice with lupus-induced kidney inflammation - also known as lupus nephritis - led to improvements in kidney function and increased their survival, but only in female mice. Lactobacillus are a type of "good" bacteria that reside in the digestive, urinary, and genital systems. These bacteria are also present in yogurt, kefir, and other fermented foods, as well as dietary supplements. While further studies are needed to confirm the possible benefits of Lactobacillus, the researchers believe that their findings indicate that women with lupus and kidney inflammation may benefit from taking probiotics. Study co-author Xin Luo, from the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology at Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, and colleagues recently reported their results in the journal Microbiome. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.11.2017).)

(Anm: Skal raske tage D-vitamintilskud? Vi skal ikke følge i englændernes fodspor og anbefale D-vitamintilskud til alle, mener dansk ekspert, mens en anden ekspert efterlyser en nuanceret dansk debat om D-vitamin. (…) Det anerkendte tidsskrift British Medical Journal har netop bragt et debatindlæg, hvor eksperter fra New Zealand og Skotland taler de engelske myndighederne imod. Og de har bragt et andet såkaldt head-to-head-indlæg, hvor to eksperter tørner sammen – den ene fra de engelske myndigheder. Spørgsmålet er, om vi i Danmark kan lære noget af den engelske debat?  (videnskab.dk 13.12.2016).)

(Anm: Lavt nivå av vitamin D preger alle nivåer av psykose. - Mangel på vitaminet linket til dårligere funksjon og høyere skår for depresjon.  (Low Vitamin D Permeates All Stages of Psychosis. — Lack of vitamin linked with poorer function, higher depression scores.) (medpagetoday.com 8.4.2015).)

(Anm: Low vitamin D predicts more severe strokes, poor health post-stroke (medicalnewstoday.com 12.2.2015).)

(Anm: Low vitamin D levels and depression linked in young women, new OSU study shows  (medicalnewstoday.com 21.3.2015).)

(Anm: Forskning: For meget D-vitamin er livsfarligt. Opsigtsvækkende dansk forskning afslører, at D-vitamin i høje doser øger risikoen for slagtilfælde og blodprop. (…) Det bedste niveau synes at ligge mellem 50 og 100 nanomol per liter og det bedste er cirka 70 ifølge vores undersøgelse," fastslår Peter Schwarz. (medwatch.dk 10.3.2015).)

(Anm: Women using IVF 'half as likely to conceive if vitamin D deficient' (medicalnewstoday.com 15.8.2014).)

(Anm: Could vitamin D deficiency increase the risk of schizophrenia? (medicalnewstoday.com 23.7.2014).)

(Anm: Vitamin D deficiency linked to schizophrenia (clinicalpsychiatrynews.com 7.8.2014).)

Banebrydende ny viden om Alzheimers og Parkinsons
videnskab.dk 15.2.2013
Ophobning af den særlige amyloide plak i kroppen kan medføre sygdomme som Parkinson, Alzheimers og type-2 diabetes.

Når amyloid – en særlig type plak – ophober sig i kroppen, kan det resultere i en lang række neurale sygdomme som Parkinsons, Alzheimers, Huntingtons og demens. Dertil kommer flere andre sygdomme som eksempelvis type 2-diabetes, der også er forbundet med ophobningen af den særlige type plak.
Nu er forskere fra Aarhus Universitet kommet tættere på at forstå, hvordan plakken dannes. (...)

Plakdannelse var et mysterium
Plak er resultatet af en sammenklumpning af både proteinstumper og ufoldede proteiner i kroppen. (...)

»Vi ved, at proteiner i forskellige sammenhænge kan danne plak, når de rigtige betingelser er til stede. Det kan eksempelvis være koncentrationen af selve proteinstumperne, der får dem til at klumpe sig sammen og danne en fiberagtig makrostruktur – såkaldte fibriller, som plak er opbygget af. Vores forskning viser, hvad der sker på det molekylære plan, når fibrillerne dannes,« forklarer Mingdong Dong.

Der er dog stadig mange ubekendte:

»Selvom vi nu kan se, hvordan fibrillerne dannes, er der stadig meget, vi endnu ikke ved. Vi ved eksempelvis ikke, om det generelt er godt eller skidt for kroppen, at fibrillerne dannes. Måske ville skaden være større, hvis de ikke blev dannet. Desuden er det heller ikke helt klarlagt, om det er plak eller forstadierne til plak, der er skadelige. I øjeblikket er der størst evidens for, at forstadierne gør størst skade,« følger Niels Christian Nielsen op. (...)

(Anm: Diabetes Drug Found Useless for Parkinson's. —A futility analysis finds pioglitazone won't help slow disease progression. The diabetes drug pioglitazone (Actos) isn't likely to slow the progression of early Parkinson's disease, researchers reported. (medpagetoday.com 28.6.2015).)

”Anmärkningsvärd effekt” av elstimulering vid parkinson
dagensmedicin.se 14.2.2013
Patienter som nyligen börjat få komplikationer av Parkinsons sjukdom kan förbättra sina symtom om de får djup hjärnstimulering, jämfört med fortsatt medicinsk behandling, enligt en ny studie i New England Journal of Medicine.

– Det här är en mycket intressant studie, som visar en bättre effekt av den här behandlingen än vad jag trodde på förhand. Resultaten pekar på att flera patienter i Sverige borde få tillgång till djup hjärnstimulering, säger Håkan Widner, adjungerad professor och överläkare vid neurologiska kliniken på Skånes universitetssjukhus i Lund.

Det är forskare i Tyskland och Frankrike som lottat hälften av 251 patienter med Parkinson sjukdom till att få behandling med djup hjärnstimulering, där en elektrod opereras in i området subtalamus i hjärnan, i komplement till läkemedelsbehandling. Övriga fick fortsatta med enbart läkemedelsbehandling.

Patienterna i studien hade haft symtom av parkinson i runt 7,5 år och även komplikationer, i form av till exempel perioder av överrörlighet, sedan lite mer än ett år.
Efter två års uppföljning hade patienterna som fått djup hjärnstimulering förbättrat sin livskvalitet enligt skala PDQ-39 med 7,8 poäng, jämfört med en försämring med 0,2 poäng i kontrollgruppen. PDQ-39 är skala som går från 0 till 100, där lägre poäng är bättre.

Vidare hade patienterna som fått djup hjärnstimulering vunnit 1,9 timmar per dygn med god rörlighet och utan problem med överrörlighet, jämfört med kontrollgruppen.

– Det här är anmärkningsvärda och kliniskt betydelsefulla effekter. Det är värt att notera att skillnaderna främst beror på förbättrade symtom bland dem som fått hjärnstimulering, snarare än försämringar i kontrollgruppen, säger Håkan Widner.

Enligt Håkan Widner ska det i dag vara rutin i Sverige att överväga mer avancerad behandling, till exempel djup hjärnstimulering, när patienter börjar få komplikationer av sin parkinson. (...)

(Anm: Neurostimulation for Parkinson's Disease with Early Motor Complications N Engl J Med 2013; 368:610-622 (February 14, 2013).)

FDA undersøger middel mod Parkinson for hjerterisiko
dagenspharma.dk 19.9.2012
Nye undersøgelser tyder på, at Pramipexol øger risikoen for hjertesvigt. (...)

Google-stifter finansierer medicinalfirmaers forskning
medwatch.dk 11.5.2012
Sergey Brin, der har opbygget en enorm formue gennem Google, kaster af personlige årsager betydelige summer ind i GSK og Pfizers forskning i Parkinsonslægemidler.

Den ene af de to Google-stiftere, Sergey Brin, opdagede i 2008, at han har et gen, der prædisponerer ham for Parkinsons. Et gen, som han deler med sin mor, der allerede har udvklet sygdommen.

Dette fik ifølge Bloomberg den hovedrige IT-entreprenør (han har en anslået formue på 19 mia. dollar) til øge donationerne til forskningen på området.
Indtil videre har han doneret 132 mio. dollar, hovedsageligt til Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. Og en del af pengene er gået direkte til GSK og Pfizers udvikling af lægemidler.

I 2009 donerede Brin 15 millioner dollar, der er møntet på udviklingen af såkaldt LRRK2-medicin, og han har været hovedsponsor på Fox Fondens LRRK2-indsats siden. (...)

Alastair Reith, der er GSK's forskningsleder på projektet, mener ikke, at arbejdet med lægemidlerne havde været muligt uden donationen, for hjernesygdomme er ifølge lederen ikke højt på prioritetslisten hos medicinalfirmaerne. (...)

Study: Flavonoids May Help Protect Against Parkinson’s
healthland.time.com 5.4.2012 (Time)
Berries, tea, apples and red wine are all rich in a naturally occurring compound called flavonoids, and a new study finds that men who eat a diet high in these healthy compounds may have a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease.

Previous research has shown that regular consumption of flavonoids is linked with reduced blood pressure and inflammation, as well as a lower risk of a variety of diseases, including heart disease, some cancers and dementia. But this is the first study to find that flavonoids may also protect brain cells against Parkinson’s. (...)

(MORE: Popcorn is Packed With Antioxidants) (...)

Spillegal av medisin: Tapte 2,5 millioner på 16 måneder
vg.no 6.2.2012
(...) Nå viser studier at risikoen for slike bivirkninger er større enn først antatt.

- Jeg var ikke meg selv. Den medisinen roter med hjernen - lystkontroll og impulskontroll.

Rell Rune Loraas (54) er Parkinson-syk, og har spilt bort alt han eier og mer. I en kommunal leilighet i Tønsberg ser han tilbake på en tid da nettgamblingen tok totalt overhånd. Selv ante Loraas ingenting om at det plutselige spillesuget kunne ha noe å gjøre med medisinene han tok. (...)

I 2007 begynte Loraas med Neupro-plaster - en av flere Parkinson-medisiner med såkalte dopaminagonister. Det samme året gikk Statens Legemiddelverk ut og advarte mot spilleavhengighet som mulig bivirkning av virkestoffet. (...)

Loraas husker at legen bladde opp i Felleskatalogen og at det sto noe om økt libido og hyperseksualitet under sjeldne bivirkninger helt mot slutten. (...)

(Anm: How the brain balances risk-taking and learning. (…) The research reveals new details on the function of two chemical signals critical to human behavior: dopamine--responsible for reward and risk-taking--and CREB--needed for learning. (medicalnewstoday.com 13.4.2015).)

Antipsychotics and mortality in parkinsonism (Antipsykotika og dødelighet ved Parkinsons sykdom)
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;20(2):149-58.
(...) BACKGROUND: : The use of antipsychotic medications is associated with an increased risk of death in older adults with dementia. The risk of death in patients with preexisting parkinsonism who receive antipsychotic drugs is not known.

RESULTS: : Among 5,391 individuals with parkinsonism who died during the study period (2002-2008) and a matched comparison group of 25,937 who were still alive, individuals exposed to atypical antipsychotic drugs had a higher risk of death (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.8, 95% CI: 2.1-3.8, adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-2.7). Results were similar for quetiapine use compared with no antipsychotic use (unadjusted OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-4.0, adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0). Typical antipsychotics were associated with an increased odds of death compared with atypical antipsychotics (unadjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.2, adjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.7).

CONCLUSIONS: : Individuals with parkinsonism who are newly prescribed antipsychotic medications have a higher risk of death within 30 days than those who do not start these medications. Although it is not possible to establish causality, the results suggest an increased risk. It is important to be vigilant for accompanying serious medical conditions that may increase mortality in individuals requiring treatment with antipsychotics and to consider alternative approaches to treating psychosis, agitation, and aggression in this population. (...)

Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment. Alcohol and serious harms of antidepressant treatment (Suicidalitet og aggresjon under behandling med antidepressiva. Alkohol og alvorlige skader under behandling med antidepressiva.)
BMJ 2016;352:i892 (Published 17 February 2016)
Sharma og kolleger 'rapport bekrefter at bruk av antidepressiva er assosiert med aggresjon og vold, særlig hos unge mennesker.1 Andre har bagatellisert en årsakssammenheng , og foreslår på grunnlag av svenske epidemiologiske data at depresjon i seg selv kan være årsaken.2 Men denne studien var mangelfull fordi den ikke klarte å kontrollere for de høye rater av antidepressiva på resept i Sverige.3 (Sharma and colleagues’ report confirms that antidepressant treatment is associated with aggression and violence, especially in young people.1 Others have downplayed a causal link, proposing—on the basis of Swedish epidemiological data—that depression itself may be the cause.2 However, that study was flawed because it failed to control for the high rates of antidepressant prescription in Sweden.3)

En annen svensk kohortstudie sitert av Sharma og kolleger viseren økning i voldelig kriminalitet hos unge voksne, men pekte også på økt forekomst av alkoholrelatert kriminalitet og akutt helsehjelp.4 Disse resultatene er på linje med våre funn om at antidepressiva kan både stimulere drikking og føre til patologisk rus, noen ganger med katastrofale resultater.5 Alkoholbruk blant de som tar antidepressiva er vanlig, men dårlig gransket; dette problemet må raskt bli undersøkt som medvirkende til både grov vold og selvmord. (…) (Another Swedish cohort study cited by Sharma and colleagues indicated increases in violent crime in young adults, but also pointed to increased rates of alcohol related crime and presentation to emergency care.4 These results align with our finding that antidepressants can both stimulate drinking and cause pathological intoxication, sometimes with catastrophic results.5 Alcohol use in people taking antidepressants is common but poorly studied; this problem needs to be urgently investigated as a contributor to both serious violence and suicide.)

(Anm: Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment: systematic review and meta-analyses based on clinical study reports. (...) Conclusions Because of the shortcomings identified and having only partial access to appendices with no access to case report forms, the harms could not be estimated accurately. In adults there was no significant increase in all four outcomes, but in children and adolescents the risk of suicidality and aggression doubled. To elucidate the harms reliably, access to anonymised individual patient data is needed. BMJ 2016;352:i65 (Published 27 January 2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva kan doble risikoen for selvmord og aggresjon hos barn, ifølge studie (Antidepressants may double risk of suicide and aggression in children, study finds. Doctors should avoid prescribing antidepressants to children and teenagers wherever possible because they are associated with a doubling in the risk of aggression and suicide, Danish researchers have concluded in The BMJ.1 They recommend considering alternative treatments such as exercise or psychotherapy.) BMJ 2016;352:i545 (Published 28 January 2016).)

(Anm: Teen Depression Treatment Is an Increasingly Thorny Issue. And the most commonly prescribed antidepressants often don’t help. (…) Taken together, it can be hard for well-meaning psychiatrists to decide the best course of treatment for depressed teens. (time.com 8.6.2016).)

(Anm: Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment. Author’s reply to Dubicka and colleagues and Stone. Dubicka and colleagues say that we are likely to harm young people when we point out that antidepressants increase the risk of suicide.1 2 They consider it harmful that some young people will not start taking antidepressants because they think that these drugs do more harm than good. What is harmful is when these authors and other psychiatrists claim that these drugs protect against suicide despite the solid evidence we have to the contrary and the clear warnings from drug agencies. BMJ 2016;352:i915 (Published 16 February 2016).)

(Anm: Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment. Paper on suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment was flawed and the press release was misleading. We have concerns about the editorial process involved in the publication of Sharma and colleagues’ article.1 The article is fundamentally flawed in presentation and logic, and the results were further misrepresented by The BMJ press release. The BMJ is highly regarded and anything it publishes will probably be taken as fact by journalists and the public. It is therefore crucial that The BMJ operates with the highest levels of peer review scrutiny and editorial comment. BMJ 2016;352:i911 (Published 16 February 2016).)

(Anm: Lykkepille (Seroxat) utløser tilfeller av aggresjon ("aggression er iagttaget efter markedsføring") (ema.europa.eu 22. januar 2015).)

Psykose ved Parkinsons sykdom
Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2012; -1868:155-8 (24.1.2012)
(...) Bakgrunn. Psykose er hyppig ved Parkinsons sykdom, og opptrer med økende frekvens utover i sykdomsforløpet. Utredning og behandling vil ofte være komplisert og involvere flere sykehusspesialiteter i tillegg til fastlegen. Vi beskriver forekomst, utforming, årsaker og behandling av psykose ved Parkinsons sykdom.

Materiale og metode. Artikkelen bygger på et litteratursøk i PubMed etter kontrollerte medikamentelle behandlingsstudier samt på et skjønnsmessig utvalg artikler basert på artikkelforfatternes kliniske og forskningsmessige erfaring.

Resultater. Ved nyoppdaget Parkinsons sykdom har om lag 1 % av pasientene psykotiske symptomer. I senere stadier med tillegg av demens opptrer slike symptomer hos om lag halvparten av pasientene. En falsk følelse av nærvær, synsillusjoner og synshallusinasjoner er vanligst, men vrangforestillinger og hallusinasjoner for andre sansemodaliteter forekommer. Det finnes ulike forklaringsmodeller for bakenforliggende patologiske forhold og årsaksmekanismer. Fornyet legevurdering anbefales når symptomer på psykose oppstår. Klozapin er fortsatt det eneste antipsykotikum med dokumentert effekt mot psykose ved Parkinsons sykdom.

Fortolkning. Forekomst av psykotiske symptomer ved ulike stadier av Parkinsons sykdom er grundig dokumentert. Ikke-medikamentelle behandlingstiltak er ofte effektive, men tilstrekkelig dokumentasjon mangler. Medikamentell behandling med klozapin har vist effekt mot psykose ved denne sykdommen, men det er behov for nye legemidler som er enklere å administrere. (...)

(Anm: Ikke nok forskning om klozapin. Klozapin er vanlig å anbefale ved behandlingsresistent schizofreni. Legemidlet kan i noen tilfeller gi alvorlige bivirkninger, så alle pasienter som bruker klozapin må følges opp på en god måte. I en ny nettverks meta-analyse er konklusjonen at det ikke fins nok dokumentasjon fra forskning til å si hvilket medikament som er mest effektivt ved behandlingsresistent schizofreni. psyknyheter. (psyknyheter.wordpress.com 28.3.2016).)

(Anm: Psykose. Alle mennesker kan utvikle psykose. - Balansegangen mellom opplevd stress og ballast til å stå imot, er avgjørende, forteller psykiater. (…) - Stress er et sentralt tema. For eksempel har vi forskjellige måter å takle en belastende hendelse på jobb på. (…) - Man kan kalle det en forvirringstilstand, selv om heller ikke det er helt dekkende. (…) Symptomer ved psykose. Tidlige tegn kan være at man: (…) - Det er en kjempebelastning å ha en psykose. Mange blir redde og opplever ting de ikke forstår. Man vet at noen mennesker kan få tanker og impulser om å ta sitt eget liv, legger hun til. (lommelegen.no 13.6.2016).)

(Anm: Samtaleterapi styrker hjernens forbindelser for behandling av psykose. (Talk therapy strengthens brain connections to treat psychosis. Cognitive behavior therapy is used to help treat a number of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. For the first time, researchers have shown how this type of therapy triggers brain changes to produce long-term benefits for patients with psycosis. Researchers have found evidence to suggest that talk therapy can alter the brain in a way that leads to long-term recovery from psychosis. Lead study author Dr. Liam Mason, of King's College London in the United Kingdom, and colleagues report their findings in the journal Translational Psychiatry.) (medicalnewstoday.com 22.1.2017).)

(Anm: Forskningen på schizofreni og psykose er i dyp krise | Paul Møller, dr. med. og spesialist i psykiatri. Hjernen kan måles, veies og avbildes eksakt og detaljert. Psyken er derimot subjektiv, flytende, flyktig og abstrakt, og derfor langt mer krevende å forske på. (aftenposten.no 26.1.2017).)

(Anm: Fem myter om schizofreni | Bjørn Rishovd Rund, professor, Psykologisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo Fem myter om schizofreni. Begrepet schizofreni er sterkt belastet. Det skyldes til dels noen myter som er vanskelige å knekke. Bjørn Rishovd Rund professor, Psykologisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo (aftenposten.no 5.2.2017).)

(Anm: Det vakreste mennesket jeg kjenner, har diagnosen schizofreni. Likevel kaller du ham gal | Karoline Kongshaug (aftenposten.no 29.6.2017).)

(Anm: Probiotics may help treat yeast infections, bowel problems in men with schizophrenia. The findings, published in the May 1 issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, support growing evidence of close links between the mind and the gut. (…) The commercially available probiotic contained over 1 billion colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis in each pill. PANSS scores were reassessed every two weeks, and the participants self-reported on the ease of their bowel movements weekly on a scale of 0 to 4. At the end of the study, the researchers collected another blood sample. Using the blood samples, the researchers measured antibody levels to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as brewer's yeast, and Candida albicans, known to cause yeast infections, before and after the probiotic treatment. Both types of yeast are elevated in people with schizophrenia. (news-medical.net 5.4.2017).)

(Anm: Psychosis: Link to brain inflammation antibodies raises new treatment hope. For the first time, researchers reveal that some people presenting with a first episode of psychosis have specific antibodies in their blood. The antibodies are the same ones known to cause encephalitis or brain inflammation. The discovery raises the question of whether the removal of these antibodies could be an effective treatment for psychosis as it is for encephalitis. The researchers - led by Belinda R. Lennox, a professor in the department of psychiatry at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom - report their findings in The Lancet Psychiatry. (…) Previous studies have already fueled discussion about the role antibodies targeting neural proteins may play in psychosis. For example, a study reported in 2015 of children experiencing their first episode of psychosis, also found links to an antibody response to NMDAR. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.12.2016).)

(Anm: Psykose som målestokk for tvungent psykisk helsevern. Sammendrag Abstract  Denne artikkelen handlar om vilkåra for tvungent psykisk helsevern. Det er særleg fokusert på ei drøfting omkring det såkalla hovudvilkåret etter lov om psykisk helsevern (phvl.) § 3-3 (1) nr. 3. I artikkelen vert det drøfta om dagens rettsregel og dei vurderingstema den set opp, gjer ei god avgrensing sett i høve til føremåla med tvungent psykisk helsevern. Det vert òg skissert ei betre løysing for tolking av vilkåret. Kritisk juss03 / 2016 (Volum 2) Side: 217-237DOI: 10.18261/issn.2387-4546-2016-03-03.)

(Anm: Psykose forbundet med lave nivåer av fysisk aktivitet. (Psychosis associated with low levels of physical activity. A large international study of more than 200,000 people in nearly 50 countries has revealed that people with psychosis engage in low levels of physical activity, and men with psychosis are over two times more likely to miss global activity targets compared to people without the illness.) (medicalnewstoday.com 26.8.2016).)

Parkinson's Called Hidden Killer
medpagetoday.com 4.1.2012
Life expectancy for patients with Parkinson's disease is poorer than some previous studies have suggested, with barely one-third of patients surviving six years with the condition, researchers said.

Among nearly 140,000 Medicare beneficiaries with Parkinson's disease diagnosed in 2002 -- about half of whom were younger than 80 -- 64% had died by 2008, reported Allison W. Willis, MD, and colleagues at Washington University in St. Louis.

This rate was similar to that seen in Medicare patients suffering myocardial infarctions and Alzheimer's disease, and substantially higher than in those diagnosed with congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or colorectal cancer, the researchers pointed out in Archives of Neurology. (...)

Exposure to Toxic Solvents Linked to Parkinson's Disease (Eksponering for løsemidler linket til Parkinsons sykdom)
news.yahoo.com 14.11.2011
MONDAY, Nov. 14 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to the industrial solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) appears to greatly increase the risk of Parkinson's disease, and exposure to two other solvents also boosts the chances of developing the neurodegenerative disorder, a new study indicates.

As many as 500,000 people in the United States have Parkinson's disease and more than 50,000 new cases are diagnosed in the country each year. Some research suggests that genetic and environmental factors might trigger Parkinson's, and several studies have reported that exposure to solvents may increase the risk.

In this new study, U.S. researchers interviewed 99 pairs of elderly twins about their lifetime occupations and hobbies. Exposure to TCE was associated with a sixfold increased risk of Parkinson's disease. Exposure to perchloroethylene (PERC) and carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) were also associated with increased risk.

The study was led by researchers at The Parkinson's Institute in Sunnyvale, Calif., and was published Nov. 14 in the journal Annals of Neurology. (...)

Eit steg nærare behandling av Parkinsons
nrk.no 8.11.2011
Ved Parkinsons sjukdom dør det nerveceller i hjernen som produserer dopamin.

Hjerneceller laga frå menneskelege stamceller har vist lovande resultat i dyreforsøk.– Eit godt skritt i riktig retning, seier norsk ekspert.

Amerikanske forskarar har klart å lage nye dopaminproduserande hjerneceller, som er dei cellene som blir øydelagde hos menneske med Parkinsons sjukdom (sjå faktaboks), og har sett desse cellene inn i forsøksdyr.

I studien som er publisert i tidsskriftet Nature fann forskarane at dei tilførte hjernecellene også såg ut til å reversere rørsleproblem hos dyr med parkinsonsjukdom.

•Les også: Drømmer kan varsle Parkinsons
•Les også: Musikk hjelper mot parkinsons

– Har løyst eit nøkkelproblem
Lorenz Studer og hans kollegaer ved Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center har funne ein ny metode for å lage dopaminproduserande hjerneceller frå menneskelege stamceller.

Forskarane har tilsett eit nytt molekyl til cellene (kalla CHIR99021) for å aktivere eit svært spesifikt signal i cellene. Dei meiner at dette signalet er alfa og omega for å lage den riktige typen hjerneceller. (...)

Parkinsonmedicin ger oönskad blodkärlstillväxt
lakemedelsvarlden.se 14.9.2011
Nu har forskare från Lunds universitet kunnat visa hur standardmedicinen mot Parkinsons sjukdom, L-dopa, orsakar dyskinesi, ofrivilliga ryckiga rörelser. Medicinen aktiverar en tillväxtfaktor som styr blodkärlstillväxten i de hjärnområden som styr motoriken.

DYSKINESI Att de okontrollerade rörelserna är en effekt av behandlingen med L-dopa är sedan länge välkänt. Men nu har forskarna genom studier på råttor kunnat visa att medicinen aktiverar en tillväxtfaktor som styr bildningen av nya blodkärl i hjärnan.

Upptäckten öppnar nu upp för att man i framtiden ska kunna begränsa de ofrivilliga rörelserna.

- I råttförsöken har vi hämmat blodkärlstillväxt i hela kroppen och därmed lyckats begränsa dyskinesierna. Att hämma blodkärlstillväxt i hela kroppen är dock inte ett alternativ för långvarig behandling men det är viktigt att kunna identifiera orsaken till förändringarna. Det är första gången effekten av en parkinsonterapi kartlagts på blodkärlsnivå, vilket gör det hela mycket spännande med tanke på de måltavlor för nya terapier som skulle kunna tänkas komma upp, säger en av forskarna bakom studien Elisabeth Ohlin i ett pressmeddelande.

Studien har publicerats i tidskriften Brain. (...)

(Anm: Vascular endothelial growth factor is upregulated by l-dopa in the parkinsonian brain: implications for the development of dyskinesia. Brain 2011;134 (8):2339-2357 (September).)

(Anm: dyskinesi; dyskinesi. (av dys- og gr. 'sette i bevegelse'), forstyrrede kroppsbevegelser. (...) mer eller mindre permanent art, oftest ved langvarig bruk av nevroleptika. (...) Typisk er stereotype, rytmiske bevegelser i ansikt, tunge og kjevemuskulatur. En viss samtidig muskulær urofølelse kan forekomme (akathisi). Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

Parkinsonmedicin kan bidra till ofrivilliga rörelser
dagensmedicin.se 15.9.2011
Läkemedel som tas mot Parkinsons sjukdom kan påverka motoriken negativt och öka ofrivilliga rörelser. Det visar ny forskning från Lunds universitet.

För första gången kopplar forskare samman blodkärlstillväxt i hjärnan med de ofrivilliga rörelser som parkinsonpatienter kan drabbas av. En anledning kan vara att medicineringen påverkar blodkärlen så att dessa inte fungerar som de ska.

– Våra fynd visar att standardmedicinen mot parkinson, L-dopa, framkallar blodkärlstillväxt i den del av hjärnan som styr motoriken, säger forskaren Elisabet Ohlin vid Lunds universitet till TT.

Hennes forskning har också visat att de ofrivilliga rörelserna kan begränsas om tillväxten av blodkärl i hjärnan blockeras. Ett medel som visat sig verksamt för detta är ett cancerläkemedel. Men i längden är detta ingen bra metod, enligt Elisabet Ohlin.

– Nu kan vi försöka utveckla en medicin som kan tas ihop med L-dopa, och därmed minska de ofrivilliga rörelserna, säger hon. (...)

Virus Destroys Parkinson's Symptoms (Virus tar knekken på Parkinsonssymptomer)
ivanhoe.com 31.8.2011
DETROIT, MI (Ivanhoe Newswire) -- Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurological disorders with as many as 60-thousand Americans diagnosed every year. Patients may have tremors, stiffness, and loss of motor control as the disease progresses. Now, a new study is showing experimental gene therapy may hold real promise for some patients. (...)

Parkinson's Patients Get No Benefit From Antidepressants Sertraline Or Mirtazapine, But Have More Side Effects (Parkinsonspasienter har ingen nytte av antidepressiva Sentraline (Zoloft) eller mirtazapine (Remeron), men har flere sideeffekter)
Editor's Choice
medicalnewstoday.com 19.7.2011
Two antidepressants prescribed often for individuals with Parkinson's disease - sertraline or mirtazapine - were found to have no benefits for such patients. In fact, they also experienced unpleasant side effects., according to the results of the HTA-SADD trial published in The Lancet. The article was written by Professor Sube Banerjee and team, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK.

The trial involved 325 patients from nine different centers in England. They all had either possible Alzheimer's disease, depression which had lasted at least 4 weeks, or a dementia-related depression above a certain score. Any patient who was a suicide risk, contraindicated for the drugs, was already on antidepressants, or was at the time already taking part in another trial, was ineligible for this study. (...)

(Anm: Sertraline or mirtazapine for depression in dementia (HTA-SADD): a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2011 (Early Online Publication, 18 July 2011).)

Antipsychotic Rx Still Common in Parkinson's (Antipsykotikaforskrivning fremdeles vanlig ved Parkinsons sykdom)
medpagetoday.com 14.7.2011
Half of Parkinson's disease patients with psychosis continue to receive antipsychotic drugs despite a black box warning that this could be deadly, researchers found.
In a Veterans Affairs (VA) system study comparing Parkinson's patients with psychosis and those with psychosis and dementia but not Parkinson's, 50.0% of the Parkinson's patients with comorbid psychosis were prescribed antipsychotics in 2008, Daniel Weintraub, MD, of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and colleagues reported in the July issue of the Archives of Neurology.

The drugs prescribed were almost exclusively atypical antipsychotics. The rate of prescribing had not changed since 2002, despite strong warnings from the FDA in 2005 and 2008, the investigators noted.

The warnings pointed to 1.6-to-1.7-fold elevated mortality among elderly dementia patients in observational studies with use of atypical antipsychotics, which was generalized to apply to older conventional antipsychotics as well.

While those concerns arose largely from data on Alzheimer's disease patients, use for dementia and other psychoses in the Parkinson's population is a particular concern, Weintraub's group indicated.

Those drugs can worsen parkinsonism and have limited evidence for efficacy in psychosis with Parkinson's, they noted. (...)

Living Well With Parkinson’s
well.blogs.nytimes.com 14.6.2011
In today’s Personal Health column, Jane Brody explores the lives and challenges of people living with Parkinson’s disease. She writes:

For patients with Parkinson’s disease…there still is no cure. But researchers have begun to make progress in identifying causes of the disease, and a new study promises to help identify better treatments. (...)

Drømmer kan varsle Parkinsons
nrk.no 1.4.2011
Danske forskere kan ha funnet viktig spor i Parkinsons-gåten.

Voldsomme bevegelser og lyder mens du drømmer kan være et varsel om Parkinsons sykdom, ifølge forskere ved København Universitet.

Søvnlidelsen RBD er nemlig blant de tidlige symptomene på lidelsen som er avdekket i en fersk studie publisert i Journal of Neurology. (...)

Parkinson kan spores i dine drømme
fpn.dk 29.3.2011
Danske forskere har opdaget, at tidlige stadier af Parkinsons sygdom kan spores i søvnen.

Parkison-patienter har i følge danske forskere symptomer på sygdommen flere år før, diagnosen bliver stillet.

Det gælder f.eks. søvnlidelsen RBD eller REM sleep behavior disorder, som er et stadie under nattesøvnen, hvor vi drømmer. Vores øjne bevæger sig i hurtige ryk bag øjenlågene, men vores krop slukker normalt for bevægeapparatet under denne type søvn. Ved RDB er bevægeapparatet stadig aktivt.

Det betyder, at en REM-sovende person med RBD vil bevæge sig, spjætte med arme og ben, skrige, sparke eller slå.

"Vores hypotese er, at de allertidligste stadier af Parkinson viser sig ved forskellige andre lidelser, som f.eks. søvnlidelsen REM behavior disorder. Der er i de senere år sket store fremskridt inden for behandlingen af Parkinsons sygdom, men vi har stadig ingen behandling, som mindsker sygdommens senere symptomer, omkostninger og øgede dødelighed," siger Poul Jennum, der er professor i klinisk neurofysiologi ved Center for Sund Aldring på Københavns Universitet og Søvncentret på Glostrup Hospital. (...)

(Anm: Sleep disturbances, common in Parkinson's disease, can be early indicator of disease onset (medicalnewstoday.com 14.7.2014).)

Parkinsons sjukdom og demens
Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2011; 131:552 (18.3.2011)
MR-analysar viser at auka ventrikkelsystem i hjernen kan vere med på å forklare utvikling av demens hjå pasientar med Parkinsons sjukdom.

Parkinsons sjukdom er ein kronisk nevrologisk liding som påverker både motorikk og kognitiv funksjon. Sjukdommen rammar for det meste eldre og inneber auka risiko for demensutvikling. Demens har ei rekkje negative konsekvensar for både pasient og pårørande. Mild kognitiv svikt er nedsett evne til å tenkje, hugse, oppfatte og lære, men evna er ikkje så sterkt nedsett at det går utover daglegdagse aktivitetar. (...)

Lyckad genterapi mot Parkinson
sverigesradio.se 17.3.2011
För första gången har forskare visat på människor att genterapi kan fungera mot Parkinsons sjukdom.

De har direkt i hjärnan sprutat in felfria gener, som gör att hjärncellerna börjar producera mera av ett ämne som Parkinson-patienter har för lite av. Ämnet kallas GABA och behövs för kroppens rörlighet.

En grupp på drygt 20 patienter som fick genomgå en sådan operation förbättrade sin rörlighet med nästan 25 procent enligt det poängsystem som används.

I en annan grupp som blev opererade på låtsas - utan att få några nya gener - blev effekten bara hälften så stor.

Effekten mättes ett halvår efter operationen.

Studien beskrivs i torsdagens nummer av tidskriften Lancet, och författarna hoppas att genterapi ska bli ett sätt att behandla olika neurologiska sjukdomar när andra metoder inte hjälper. (...)

(Anm: AAV2-GAD gene therapy for advanced Parkinson´s disease: a double-blind, sham-surgery controlled, randomised trial. Lancet Neurology 2011 (online March 17).)

PARIS: The key to Parkinson's? (PARIS: Nøkkelen til Parkinsons sykdom?)
ivanhoe.com 7.3.2011
(Ivanhoe Newswire) -- Researchers have discovered PARIS -- the protein -- may be responsible for the most common form of Parkinson's disease (PD).

PD affects about 1 million older Americans. Previous research has shown a protein known as "parkin" protects brain cells by "tagging" certain toxic elements for natural destruction. Mutations of the parkin gene cause rare forms of PD that runs in families, but researchers were unclear about parkin's role in sporadic, late-onset PD.

Investigators from Johns Hopkins used genetically-altered mice and human brain tissue to show that the protein PARIS accumulates when the parkin gene is mutated and its protein degrading ability is blocked. Too much PARIS tamps down the production of a protective protein called PGC-1alpha. (...)

(Anm: PARIS (ZNF746) Repression of PGC-1α Contributes to Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's Disease. Cell 2011;144(5):689-702 (4 March).)

Amfetamin ökar risk för parkinson
sverigesradio.se 21.2.2011
Amfetamin kan öka risken att drabbas av parkinson med 60%, enligt en ny amerikansk studie som presenteras på American Academy of Neurology:s konferens i vår.

Forskarna bakom studien utgick från data från en stor hälsoundersökning som genomfördes i Kalifornien på 60- och 70-talet, där drygt 66 000 personer deltog. Vid en senare uppföljning hade drygt elva hundra av deltagarna drabbats av parkinson – och för de deltagare som regelbundet intagit amfetamin i form av medicinerna Benzedrine och Dexedrine så ökade risken att drabbas med omkring 60%.

Amfetamin används medicinskt för att behandla patienter med ADHD eller narkolepsi, men är också den näst vanligaste illegala drogen i Sverige efter Cannabis. (...)

Studien presenteras på American Academy of Neurology's 63rd Annual Meeting in Honolulu April 9-16, 2011. (...)

(Anm: ADHD (oppmerksomhetssvikt-hyperaktivitets-syndromet) (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) (mintankesmie.no).)

Parkinsons sykdom, en oversikt
nhi.no 11.2.2011
Parkinson sykdom skyldes at celler i hjernen som er med å styre bevegelser blir ødelagt. Symptomene kan komme snikende og det kan ta tid å få stilt riktig diagnose. Det er en betydelig belastning å oppleve at man i mindre grad kan utføre viljestyrte bevegelser.

Skjelvinger, stivhet i armer og ben og dårlig koordinasjon begrenser muligheten for å delta på mange dagligdagse aktiviteter. Stemmen er også avhengig av muskelstyring, og den blir også rammet ved Parkinson sykdom. (...)

Man Claims Parkinson's Drug Turned Him Into a Gay Sex Addict
healthland.time.com 1.2.2011
Didier Jambart, 51, of Nantes, France, began taking GlaxoSmithKline's drug Requip (ropinirole) in 2003 to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Soon after, the married father of two began exhibiting strange, uncharacteristic behavior, his lawyers said.

Agence France-Presse reports that Jambart:

...says he has attempted suicide three times, claims he became addicted to Internet gambling, losing the family's savings and stealing to feed his habit.

He also became a compulsive gay sex addict and began exposing himself on the Internet and cross-dressing. (...)

It's impossible that the drug made Jambart gay. But compulsive behaviors are a known side effect of ropinirole. A drug fact-sheet put together by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists says that before taking ropinirole: (...)

Metal pollution tied to Parkinson's disease
reuters.com 27.10.2010
(Reuters Health) - People living near a steel factory or another source of high manganese emissions are at higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease, suggests a new study.

As many as one million Americans live with the degenerative disease, according to the Parkinson's Disease Foundation. Pesticides from farms have long been suspected of upping the chances of developing Parkinson's, but much less is known about the influences of city living.

"Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease have been relatively under-studied, especially in urban areas where the overwhelming majority of Parkinson's disease patients reside," Dr. Brad A. Racette of the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri, told Reuters Health in an e-mail. (...)

Tør ikke risikere en forværring
Michael J. Fox nægter ny operation

bt.dk 11.10.2010
(...) I 1998 undergik Fox en hjerneoperation, og indgrebet, der var en succes, fik reduceret skuespillerens rystelser i venstre side af kroppen. (...)

Det varede imidlertid ikke længe, før den højre side også bar præg af sydommen, og flere læger har derfor rådet ham til at gennemgå en ny operation.

Men i et nyligt interview med Dr. Sanjay Gupta fra CNN fortalte Fox, at han ikke ønsker at udføre en anden operation, før lægerne kan garantere et bedre resultat. (...)

Kognitive problemer vanlig blant Parkinson-pasienter
dagensmedisin.no 7.10.2010
En norsk studie fastslår at én av fire Parkinson-pasienter uten demensdiagnose har mild kognitiv svikt.

Manglende dokumentasjon på dette feltet trigget professor dr.med. Dag Årsland til å sette fokuset på Parkinson-pasienter uten demens. (...)

– Dette er avgjørende forutsetninger for det viktige arbeidet med å utvikle medisiner som kan bremse denne utviklingen, sier Årsland. (...)

Nytt test hittar patienter med hög risk för Parkinsons sjukdom
dagensmedicin.se 20.9.2010
Två neuroradiologiska metoder kan användas för att identifiera patienter med en sällsynt sömnstörning som har hög risk att drabbas av neurodegenerativa sjukdomar, enligt en ny studie.

Patienter som har sömnstörningen RBD, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, saknar muskelparalys under drömsömnen och lever därför ut sina drömmar genom rörelser.

Det är känt att patienter som har så kallad idiopatisk RBD, där orsaken är okänd, har ökad risk för att senare drabbas av olika neurodegenerativa sjukdomar som Parkinsons sjukdom och demens. (...)

(Anm: Decreased striatal dopamine transporters uptake and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity as risk markers of synucleinopathy in patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder: a prospective study. (The Lancet Neurology, Early Online Publication, 15 September 2010).)

Sleeping Disorders Foreshadow Dementia And Parkinson’s? (Søvnlidelser varsler demens og Parkinsons sykdom?)
ivanhoe.com 2.8.2010(Ivanhoe Newswire) -- Having a sleeping disorder may be warning your body of future dementia or Parkinson’s.

According to a new study, researchers identified 27 people who experienced rapid eye movement (REM) disorder for at least 15 years prior to developing either Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies or multiple system atrophy, which impairs your bodies' automatic functions, like heart rate, blood pressure, bladder function and digestion. (...)

(Anm: Sleep disturbances, common in Parkinson's disease, can be early indicator of disease onset (medicalnewstoday.com 14.7.2014).)

When Does Parkinson Disease Start? (Når starter parkinsons sykdom?)
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(7):798-801 (July)
There is convincing evidence that the Parkinson disease neurodegenerative process begins many years before the onset of motor manifestations. Initial estimates based on nigral neuropathological findings or striatal dopamine imaging suggested a 5- to 6-year preclinical period. However, more recent evidence of Lewy body pathology in other neuronal populations preceding nigral involvement suggests that the preclinical phase may be much longer. Epidemiologic studies of nonmotor manifestations, such as constipation, anxiety disorders, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and anemia, suggest that the preclinical period extends at least 20 years before the motor manifestations. Olfactory impairment and depression may also precede the onset of motor manifestations; however, the lag time may be shorter. Recognition of a nonmotor preclinical phase spanning 20 or more years should guide the search for predictive biomarkers and the identification of risk or protective factors for Parkinson disease. (...)

(Anm: Sleep disturbances, common in Parkinson's disease, can be early indicator of disease onset (medicalnewstoday.com 14.7.2014).)

Fallrisk för patienter med parkinson förutsågs av tester
dagensmedicin.se 253.6.2010
Ett batteri av tester kan förutsäga vilka patienter med Parkinsons sjukdom som löper hög risk att falla omkull och skada sig, enligt en ny studie.

Risken för att ramla är ett stort problem bland personer med Parkinsons sjukdom, men det är dåligt undersökt hur patienternas fallrisk kan förutspås. Det menar forskare vid Queensland University of Toronto som nu undersökt saken i en ny studie. (...)

Pesticides Linked to Parkinson's (Plantevernmidler linket til Parkinsons sykdom)
medpagetoday.com 14.6.2010
Workplace exposure to some pesticides -- when combined with certain genetic variants -- appears to be linked with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease, researchers said.

In a case-control study, genetic variants in a transporter gene responsible for pumping toxic compounds out of cells were not associated with Parkinson's disease in general, according to Fabien Dutheil, PhD, of Université Paris Descartes in Paris, and colleagues.

But among men, the relationship between organochlorine exposure and Parkinson's disease was approximately 3.5 times stronger in those who carried two variant alleles compared with those who were not carriers, Dutheil and colleagues said in the June issue of Archives of Neurology. (...)

– Kaffe og røyk forebygger Parkinson
nrk.no 11.6.2010
(...) - Forekomsten av Parkinsons sykdom blant de som røyker og drikker kaffe er lavere enn hos de som ikke røyker og drikker mindre kaffe, bekrefter overlege og forsker Vidar Gundersen ved nevrologisk avdeling på Oslo universitetssykehus, Rikshospitalet.Forskerne vet ikke sikkert hvorfor det er slik, men store studier viser det med tydelighet, forteller Gundersen til NRK Sånn er livet.(...)

Ingen grunn til å begynne å røyke
Vidar Gundersen vil heller ikke på noen måte anbefale røyking fra et helseperspektiv.

- Skadevirkningene av røyk er helt klart større enn den beskyttende effekten det kan ha mot Parkinson, slår han fast.(...)

Parkinson's Drug Impacts Vision (Legemiddel mot Parkinsons sykdom påvirker synet)
ivanhoe.com 4.6.2010
(Ivanhoe Newswire) -- Doctors have long known that amantadine treatment causes abnormal changes in the cornea in some Parkinson's patients. Now, new research shows using more of the drug for longer periods of time has a greater impact on a patient's vision. (...)

Parkinson's drugs linked with tvangsmessig behaviors (Parkinsonslegemidler linket til til tvangsmessig atferd)
reuters.com 10.5.2010
(Reuters) - Parkinson's drugs can triple the odds that people develop impulse control problems such as gambling, binge eating, shopping sprees and compulsive sexual behaviors, U.S. researchers said on Monday.

The study of more than 3,000 people with Parkinson's disease confirms that so-called dopamine agonists, such as GlaxoSmithKline's Requip or ropinirole or Boehringer Ingelheim's Mirapex or pramipexole, can cause impulse control problems. (...)

Severity of REM atonia loss in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder predicts Parkinson disease.
Neurology. 2010 Jan 19;74(3):239-44.
BACKGROUND: Over 50% of persons with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) will develop Parkinson disease (PD) or dementia. At present, there is no way to predict who will develop disease. Since polysomnography is performed in all patients with idiopathic RBD at diagnosis, there is an opportunity to analyze if baseline sleep variables predict eventual neurodegenerative disease. (...)

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with REM sleep behavior disorder initially free of neurodegenerative disease, the severity of REM atonia loss on baseline polysomnogram predicts the development of Parkinson disease. (...)

FDA to Review Safety of Parkinson's Combo Pill (FDA gjennomgår sikkerhet for kombinasjonspille mot Parkinsons sykdom)
medpagetoday.com 31.3.2010
WASHINGTON -- The FDA has launched a review of clinical trial data that appear to link a polypill that combines three Parkinson's disease drugs with an increased risk of prostate cancer.

Stalevo -- a combination of carbidopa, levodopa, and entacapone -- was compared with another combo pill (Sinemet), which contains carbidopa and levodopa, in the STRIDE-PD study (Stalevo Reduction in Dyskinesia Evaluation -- Parkinson's Disease).

In that trial, the prostate cancer rate was higher in the Stalevo arm than in the Sinemet arm. (...)

Ny risikofaktor ved Parkinsons sykdom
Tidsskr Nor Legeforen – Publisert først på nett 23.10.2009
Mutasjoner i genet som koder for glukocerebrosidase er den viktigste risikofaktoren for Parkinsons sykdom. Det viser en ny studie der en norsk forsker står sentralt. (...)

Fysioterapi og trening for pasienter med Parkinsons
pasienthandboka.no 14.9.2009
Hva er effekten av fysioterapi for mennesker med Parkinsons sykdom? En ny norsk rapport gir svaret.

Fysioterapi og trening gir trolig pasienter med Parkinsons sykdom både bedre balanse, livskvalitet, holdning og ganghastighet.

Det er oppsummeringen etter at Nasjonalt Kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten fikk i oppdrag fra Norsk Fysioterapeutforbund å finne ut hvilken effekt fysioterapi har for pasienter med Parkinsons sykdom. (...)

Parkinson's breakthrough hope
hc2d.co.uk 17.8.2009
New research by the University of Sheffield has shown that immunosuppresant medication could shield cells from being attacked by Parkinson's disease. (...)

Study Links Nitrosamines to Mortality in Diabetes, Other Diseases
medpagetoday.com 6.7.2009
LITTLE FALLS, N.J., July 6 -- Rising mortality rates for diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease in recent decades parallel increased exposure to nitrosamines in the food supply and environment, researchers found.

LITTLE FALLS, N.J., July 6 -- Rising mortality rates for diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease in recent decades parallel increased exposure to nitrosamines in the food supply and environment, researchers found.

Nitrosamines, nitrates, and nitrites can induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, cell death, and cancer, and they have been associated with insulin resistance, according to Suzanne de la Monte, MD, MPH, of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital in Providence, and colleagues.

Depression may indicate early Parkinson's disease
reuters.com 3.6.2009
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Results of a new study provide more evidence that depressive symptoms are an early feature of Parkinson's disease, preceding the characteristic movement problems seen Parkinson's such as tremor and rigid muscles.

In the study, researchers found that starting antidepressant therapy was associated with a twofold increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease in the next 2 years. (...)

Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: dopaminergic pathophysiology and treatment
The Lancet Neurology, Volume 8, Issue 5, Pages 464 - 474, May 2009
Several studies, including work from the Parkinson's disease (PD) non-motor group and others, have established that the non-motor symptoms of PD are common, occur across all stages of PD, are under-reported, and are a key determinant of quality of life. Research suggests that the non-motor symptoms of the disease are frequently unrecognised by clinicians and remain untreated. Even when identified, there is a common perception that many of these symptoms are untreatable. (...)

In this Review, we investigate the dopaminergic basis of the range of non-motor symptoms that occur in PD such as depression, apathy, sleep disorders (including rapid-eye movement sleep behaviour disorder), and erectile dysfunction. We discuss the evidence that these symptoms are treatable, at least in part, with various dopaminergic strategies and, where relevant, we also refer to the use of deep-brain stimulation of appropriate targets in the brain. (...)

Parkinson's Drugs Can Trigger Unhealthy Behaviors (Parkinsonslegemidler kan trigge helsefarlig atferd)
healthfinder.gov 10.4.2009
But lower doses of dopamine agonists appear to curb compulsive acting out, study says.

(SOURCE: Mayo Clinic, news release, April 8, 2009)
FRIDAY, April 10 (HealthDay News) -- A class of Parkinson's disease drugs called dopamine agonists can cause patients to develop destructive behaviors such as compulsive gambling or hypersexuality, says a new study.

Mayo Clinic researchers found that one in six patients taking therapeutic doses of dopamine agonists, such as pramipexole and ropinirole, developed unhealthy behaviors. But decreasing the dosage of these drugs may eliminate the problem.

For their study, the researchers analyzed the medical records of 267 Parkinson's disease patients treated at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., between 2004 and 2006. Of those patients, 66 were taking dopamine agonists, including 38 who were taking therapeutic doses (doses expected to be at least minimally beneficial).

Seven of the 38 patients taking therapeutic doses of dopamine agonists developed compulsive gambling or hypersexuality after they started taking the drugs. None of the other Parkinson's patients developed those destructive behaviors, including the 28 patients taking subtherapeutic doses of dopamine agonists, or the 178 patients taking carbidopa/levodopa, the standard drug for Parkinson's.

The study is published in the April issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings. (...)

(Anm: Frequency of New-Onset Pathologic Compulsive Gambling or Hypersexuality After Drug Treatment of Idiopathic Parkinson Disease. Mayo Clin Proc 2009; 84: 310-316.)

Parkinson's Drugs May Increase Compulsive Behavior
medpagetoday.com 9.4.2009
LITTLE FALLS, N.J., April 9 -- Two dopamine agonists commonly prescribed for Parkinson's may predispose some patients to compulsive gambling and hypersexuality, a retrospective study showed.

Of 66 patients taking either pramipexole or ropinirole, seven developed one of the destructive behaviors, according to J. Michael Bostwick, M.D., of the Mayo Clinic, and colleagues.

All were taking therapeutic doses of the drugs, the researchers reported in the April issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings. (...)

(Anm: Frequency of New-Onset Pathologic Compulsive Gambling or Hypersexuality After Drug Treatment of Idiopathic Parkinson Disease. Mayo Clin Proc 2009; 84: 310-316.)

New Hope for Neurodegenerative Diseases
ivanhoe.com 6.4.2009
(Ivanhoe Newswire) – A better understanding of how inflammation impacts neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson’s disease may one day lead to new and better treatments for these conditions.

Researchers from the University of California San Diego and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies are looking at a protein called Nurr 1 that’s known to be involved in the generation and maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are the main source for dopamine, which helps control a wide variety of brain functions, including movement, pleasure, and attention. (...)

Detecting Parkinson's
ivanhoe.com 20.2.2009
NEW YORK (Ivanhoe Newswire) -- Every nine minutes, someone in the United States is diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. It's a neurological disorder that starts as a tremor and ends in death. Catching it early gives doctors more time to prevent the incurable disease from progressing, and doctors are using several new ways to do this. (...)

From the sense of smell to sight, researchers overseas are testing eye drops made of cocaine to diagnose Parkinson's. When 38 patients were given a 5 percent cocaine solution, their eyes dilated less than those without the disease, proving the Parkinson's patients had lost nerve function in their eyes.

A skin test for the disease is also in clinical trials. It tests for tiny protein deposits in the skin. Seventy percent of Parkinson's patients in the study tested positive for specific proteins.

Although for many it's too late to stop the progression, researchers hope what they're doing now will spare others the pain of Parkinson's in the future.

For additional research on this article, click here. (...)

(Anm: Functional brain organization of newborns altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. A new study by UNC researchers, based on MRI brain scans of 152 infants, found disruptions in functional connectivity within part of the amygdala-prefrontal network - a pathway thought to play an important role in arousal regulation. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.4.2015).)

Pain as a Nonmotor Symptom of Parkinson Disease
Arch Neurol. 2008;65(9):1191-1194. (September)
Evidence From a Case-Control Study

Objective To determine whether pain is more frequent among people with Parkinson disease (PD) than among age-matched controls. (...)

Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that pain begins at clinical onset of PD or thereafter as a nonmotor feature of PD. (...)

Protein kan skydda mot Parkinson
dn.se 2.2.2009
Att höja produktionen av ett särskilt protein kan ge ett fullständigt skydd mot parkinson, visar en ny studie. Forskarna hoppas också att upptäckten kan hjälpa människor som redan drabbats av sjukdomen.

PARKINSONS SJUKDOM är en neurologisk sjukdom som ger svåra rörelsehinder. Orsaken är brist på signalsubstansen dopamin, vilket leder till att hjärnan inte längre har full kontroll över motoriken.

Bristen uppkommer genom att de hjärnceller som bildar dopamin skadas.

Men enligt en ny studie från forskare vid University of Wisconsin-Madison i USA kan gåtan parkinson vara på väg att lösas. Nyckeln är ett protein som heter NRF2 och produceras av en typ av hjärnceller kallade astrocyter. (...)

Toms elektriske hjerne
aftenposten.no 29.1.2009
Om åtte nervepirrende timer har Tom Skårvin to elektroder i hjernen. De skal fjerne symptomene på Parkinsons sykdom. (...)

Sykdommen rammer ca. én av tusen nordmenn, og oppstår når hjernen slutter å produsere signalstoffet dopamin. Dette stoffet dannes i et område dypt inne i menneskehjernen, og er avgjørende for at vi skal kontrollere våre bevegelser. Når produksjonen stanser opp, mister hjernen styringen over kroppsdelene. (...)

I fremtiden vil pacemakeren sørge for at elektrodene kontinuerlig gir de nødvendige elektriske impulsene til hjernen. (...)

Fikk livet tilbake etter hjerneoperasjon
tv2nyhetene.no 18.1.2009
Etter 10 år med Parkinson har Tom Skårvin fått livets glede tilbake. Det gir håp for andre med epilepsi og dyp depresjon.

For tre måneder siden gjennomgikk Tom Skårvin en omfattende operasjon. En såkalt dyp hjernestimulering, (DBS -Deep Brain Stimulation), ved Rikshospitalet. To elektroder, også kalt pacemakere, ble operert 8-10 cm inn i hodet. Disse sender elektriske impulser til en bestemt del av hjernen som har gjort ham nærmest symptomfri.

Parkinson er en nevrologisk sykdom som blant annet gir ufrivillige bevegelser og problemer med balansen. Tom Skårvin filmet selv hele operasjonen. (...)

Sleep Disorder Linked to Dementia, Parkinson’s (Søvnforstyrrelse linket til demens, Parkinsons sykdom)
ivanhoe.com 5.1.2009
(Ivanhoe Newswire) -- An unusual sleep disorder could be a precursor to dementia or Parkinson’s disease.

Patients with REM sleep behavior disorder have excessive muscle activity during REM sleep -- often called the dream stage of sleep -- causing them to punch, kick or cry out when they are in a deep sleep.

Of the 93 REM sleep behavior patients involved in the study, 26 developed a neurodegenerative disease within five years. Doctors estimate the 10-year disease development risk to be 41 percent and the 12-year risk to be 52 percent. (...)

The patients involved in this study had no known cause of REM sleep behavior disorder. In some cases, the condition can be caused by narcolepsy or rare brainstem abnormalities.

SOURCE: Neurology, published online Dec. 24, 2008 (...)

(Anm: Quantifying the risk of neurodegenerative disease in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology 2008, doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000340980.19702.6e.)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (REM-søvn). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Is narcolepsy an autoimmune disease? (…) In the journal Pharmacological Research, Yehuda Shoenfeld, a professor at Tel Aviv University (TAU) and a world expert in autoimmune disease, and colleagues describe how they found an autoimmune process in the brain that appears to trigger narcolepsy. They say narcolepsy bears the hallmarks of an autoimmune disorder and should be treated like one. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.3.2015).)

(Anm: Modafinil does enhance cognition, review finds. (…) They reported that the drug made no difference to working memory or flexibility of thought but that  it did improve decision making and planning. No real effect on mood was found, and other side effects were slight, but a few people had reported insomnia, headache, stomach ache, or nausea. Patients on placebo also reported the same side effects. BMJ 2015;351:h4573 (Published 21 August 2015).)

(Anm: Ny forskning: Så effektivt er doping i sjakk. (…) ADHD-medisinen Ritalin skal øke prestasjonene med 13 prosent, mens stoffet modafinil angivelig gir en gjennomsnittlig forbedring på 15 prosent. I tillegg vil et betydelig inntak av koffein bedre spillet med ni prosent. (…) Dr. Klaus Lieb, professor ved universitetet i Mainz, tar likevel to forbehold overfor WorldChess.com: For det første bør man gjennomføre flere lignende studier før man kan konkludere endelig. I tillegg ble partiene spilt for hurtig. I kommende studier må spillerne få bedre tid på seg. Forskeren advarer også sjakkspillere mot å benytte seg av medisiner som methylphenidate og modafinil, siden bruk over tid kan være skadelig. (vg.no 27.1.2017).)

Parkinson's Prevention may be in Milk
ivanhoe.com 15.10.2008
(Ivanhoe Newswire) -- It's common knowledge that not getting enough vitamin D can lead to bone problems like rickets and osteoporosis -- but new research suggests it may even lead to Parkinson's disease.

New findings pinpoint vitamin D as a possible player in Parkinson's disease risk. Individuals with the neurodegenerative disease appear more likely to be vitamin D deficient than healthy adults or even those with Alzheimer's disease. (...)

(Anm: Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Patients With Parkinson Disease and Alzheimer Disease. Arch Neurol. 2008;65(10):1348-1352.)

Pain Is Symptom of Parkinson's Disease (Smerte er et symptom på Parkinsons sykdom)
medpagetoday.com 8.9.2008
BARI, Italy, Sept. 8 -- Pain should be considered as a non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, researchers here said.

In a multi-center case-control study, volunteers with Parkinson's experienced pain more often than did age-matched controls, mainly because of the frequency of pain associated with dystonia, according to Giovanni Defazio, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Bari, and colleagues. (...)

(Anm: Pain as a Nonmotor Symptom of Parkinson Disease. Evidence From a Case-Control Study. Arch Neurol. 2008;65(9):1191-1194.)

Cognitive decline seen after deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease
reuters.com 11.7.2008
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Mild impairments in frontostriatal cognitive function can occur in patients who undergo bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease, according to a report in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry for July. (...)

"The need for future research investigating the long-term impact of these vital cognitive processes, their impact on the patient's daily functioning, and their correlation with neuroimaging studies is clear," the authors state.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008;79:789-795. (...)

(Anm: Cognitive declines following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2008;79:789-795.)

Varningar för parkinsonmedel
dagensmedicin.se 30.6..2008
Den europeiska läkemedelsmyndigheten, EMEA, pekar i en ny utredning på att riskerna för biverkningar med vissa dopaminagonister är större än man tidigare trott. (...)

Orsaken är att läkemedlen kan orsaka fibros, sjuklig bindvävstillväxt, i bland annat hjärtat.

Biverkningen är känd sedan tidigare men är enligt nya vetenskapliga studier vanligare än man tidigare trott, framför allt vid kronisk användning. (...)

Hjerneforandringer bak tidlig demens ved Parkinsons sykdom?
Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2008; 128: 6 (3.1.2008)
Pasienter med Parkinsons sykdom med milde hukommelsesproblemer har atrofi i grå substans som skiller dem fra pasienter med Parkinsons sykdom uten kognitiv svekkelse. (...)

Possible Parkinson's trigger identified
reuters.com 3.1.2008
LONDON (Reuters) - A glitch in the way cells clear damaged proteins could be the trigger for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, researchers said in a finding that could lead to new treatments for the incurable condition.

The U.S. team focused on a process called autophagy in which cells digest and recycle damaged molecules, including proteins, that develop as cells grow older. This system essentially renews cells to keep them functioning properly. (...)

Erectile dysfunction may precede Parkinson's (Erektil dysfunksjon kan innlede Parkinsons)
reuters.com 26.12.2007
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Results of a study suggest an association between erectile dysfunction and an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease.

The autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary bodily functions like heart rate and digestion, is often affected in Parkinson's disease, and erectile function, which is controlled by the autonomic system, is commonly compromised, the study team notes in a report.

"An important question," according to Dr. Xiang Gao, of Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, and colleagues, "is whether erectile dysfunction precedes the onset of motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease." (...)

SOURCE: American Journal of Epidemiology, December 2007. (...)

Slapp penis gir Parkinsons
side2.no 26.12.2007
Manglende evne til ereksjon kan gi økt risiko for Parkinsons sykdom, hevder studie. (...)

Gene Therapy May Mean Hope for Parkinson’s Patients
ivanhoe.com 28.11.2007
ORLANDO, Fla. (Ivanhoe Newswire) -- Brain scans confirm that an experimental gene therapy treatment is effective in normalizing brain function in Parkinson’s patients.

Researchers from The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research and Weill Cornell Medical Center collaborated to study the outcome of introducing genes into the subthalmic nucleus of the brain. (...)

Rivastigmin mot demens ved Parkinsons sykdom?
Knud Landmark Åsmund Reikvam
Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2007; 127: 2973 (15.11.2007)
Halvorsen & Tysnes publiserte i Tidsskriftet en oversiktsartikkel om demens ved Parkinsons sykdom (1). Med referanse til en artikkel av Emre og medarbeidere (2) konkluderte de med at 15 % av pasientene hadde klinisk nytte av kolinesterasehemmeren rivastigmin. Den aktuelle studien var en 24 ukers randomisert, dobbeltblind, placebokontrollert multisenterundersøkelse utført i 12 land og sponset av Novartis. For flere av de kliniske variablene var effektene moderate, men signifikante. Dag Årsland, som var medforfatter for studien til Emre og medarbeidere, kommenterte disse artiklene (1, 2) i en leder i samme nummer av Tidsskriftet, med den konklusjon at rivastigmin har «dokumentert effekt på flere av symptomene ved demens ved Parkinsons sykdom» (3). (...)

O.-B. Tysnes svarer:
Ole-Bjørn Tysnes
Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2007; 127: 2973-4
Takk til Landmark & Reikvam for deres kommentar til vår oversiktsartikkel i Tidsskriftet om Parkinsons sykdom og demens (1). Vi antydet der at det ved demens og Parkinsons sykdom kan være indikasjon for behandling med kolinesterasehemmere. Landmark & Reikvam er uenige i dette. Begrunnelsen er hyppigheten av bivirkninger av kolinesterasehemmere. Det refereres til artikkelen til Emre og medarbeidere (2), som er en av få studier som belyser effekt og bivirkninger av kolinesterasehemmere ved demens og Parkinsons sykdom, og som ble grundig gjennomgått i vår artikkel (1). (...)

D. Årsland svarer:
Dag Årsland
Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2007; 127: 2974
Landmark & Reikvam viser til den høye andelen (29 %) som rapporterte kvalme i en seksmåneders behandlingsstudie om rivastigmin ved Parkinsons sykdom og demens (1) og hevder at rivastigmin ikke bedrer livskvaliteten til pasienter med Parkinsons sykdom og demens. De siterer videre et leserbrev der det hevdes at for hver 19. pasient som behandles, blir én bedret og fire får bivirkninger. (...)

How a Junkie's Brain Helps Parkinson's Patients
abcnews.go.com 20.9.2007
Tremors From Drug Withdrawal May Shed Light on Disease (...)

The creation was a synthetic narcotic composed almost entirely of 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, or MPTP. Typically, it's a discarded byproduct of heroin synthesis. (...)

Then Govea made the biggest mistake of his life: He began using his product. During the second week of shooting, up his limbs began to shake, one after another. "This leg, then this arm, then this leg," Govea said. "Then I shot some more and this arm started." In less than two weeks he had given himself symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease. (...)

Søvnforstyrrelser ved Parkinsons sykdom
Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2007; 127: 2350
Søvnforstyrrelser hos personer med parkinsonisme må tas på alvor. Over halvparten lider av insomni eller av økt søvnighet på dagtid.

Dette viser Michaela Dreetz Gjerstad i avhandlingen Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease. Datagrunnlaget er en prevalensudersøkelse foretatt i Rogaland i 1993. Arbeidet, som er utført ved Stavanger universitetssjukehus, har ført til bedre forståelse av forekomst og utvikling av søvnforstyrrelser hos personer med parkinsonisme. (...)

Yngre rammes av Parkinson
vg.no 18.9.2007
Genmutasjon kan være årsaken

Hjernesykdommen Parkinson rammer oss vanligvis når vi er over 60. Men en mutasjon kan gjøre yngre mer utsatt. (...)

Norges Parkinsonforbund anslår at rundt 8.000 er rammet av Parkinson i Norge og rundt ti prosent av disse er under 55 år. (...)

Parkinson's disease
BMJ 2007;335:441-445 (1 September)
Clinical Review (...)

Summary points
• Parkinson's disease should be suspected in someone with tremor, stiffness, slowness, balance problems, or gait disorders (...)

- Røyking reduserer risikoen for Parkinson
vg.no 11.7.2007
(...) Det oppsiktsvekkende resultatet som er publisert i journalen Neurology Archive, er basert på 11 studier gjennomført av Universitetet i California mellom 1960 og 2004. Nesten 12 000 mennesker har inngått i undersøkelsen og av disse hadde nesten 3000 Parkinson. (...)

Parkinson-medisin kan gi hjerteklaffsykdom
helserevyen.no 14.6.2007
Legemidlene pergolid og kabergolin kan ifølge nye undersøkelser føre til utvikling av hjerteklaffsykdom, melder Statens legemiddelverk.

Legemidlet pergolid foreskrives ikke i Norge, mens kabergolin finnes i to legemidler som brukes av norske pasienter, nemlig Cabaser (mot Parkinsons sykdom) og Dostinex (prolaktinhemmer), melder Statens legemiddelverk. (...)

Parkinson's Linked to Pesticides, Head Trauma
healthfinder.gov 30.5.2007
(...) That finding has real implications for sports such as boxing, the researchers said. In fact, professional boxing legend Muhammad Ali, 65, now suffers from advanced Parkinson's disease.

The findings are published in the May 30 online edition of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

According to the National Parkinson Foundation, 1.5 million Americans currently have the degenerative illness, which strikes men and women in roughly equal numbers, usually after the age of 65. (...)

(Anm: Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism: the Geoparkinson study. Occup Environ Med 2007;(30 May 2007).)

Study Probes Parkinson Drugs' Effect on Motivation
healthfinder.gov 26.4.2007
Agents that act on dopamine may trigger compulsion, apathy (...)

THURSDAY, April 26 (HealthDay News) -- Drugs that modify levels of a key brain chemical, called dopamine, also influence how people react to success and failure, British scientists say.

They measured the effects of these drugs -- often used to fight Parkinson's disease -- on the striatum, the part of the brain that's stimulated by rewards.
Dopamine is a naturally-produced chemical that transmits signals between nerve cells. (...)

"This study may explain why dopamine depletion leads to the lack of motivation often described in people with Parkinson's disease and how dopamine replacement therapy can cause compulsive behaviors, such as overeating and gambling addictions, in the same people," Pessiglione said.

The study was expected to be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's annual meeting, in Boston, April 28 to May 5.

More information
Find out more about Parkinson's disease at the National Parkinson Foundation.
(SOURCE: American Academy of Neurology, news release, April 26, 2007) (...)

- Melk kan føre til Parkinsons sykdom hos menn
aftenposten.no 21.4.2007
Hvorfor sykdommen slår ut blant melkedrikkere, er en gåte. (...)

Dairy food linked with Parkinson's disease in men
reuters.com 19.4.2007
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A new study has confirmed a relationship between consuming large amounts of dairy products and an increase in the rate of Parkinson's disease in men, but the reason for this relationship remains a puzzle.

Researchers found that among more than 130,000 U.S. adults followed for 9 years, those who ate the largest amount of dairy foods had an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease, a disorder in which movement-regulating cells in the brain die or become impaired. (...)

However, the researcher added, since the dairy-Parkinson's link has now been seen consistently in different studies, further research is needed to understand why.

SOURCE: American Journal of Epidemiology, May 1, 2007. (...)

Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease
Editorials
BMJ 2007;334:810-811 (21 April)
Patients often are in substantial debt before the problem is recognised (...)

Although the pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease is not well understood, it may relate to aberrant dopaminergic stimulation.2 It is not clear which dopamine agonist precipitates the disorder, as all such agonists have been implicated.2 3 5 Patients taking both a dopamine agonist and levodopa are at increased risk,2 although those who take either a single dopamine agonist or levodopa can be affected.7 (...)

Once recognised several strategies may help. Reducing or stopping dopamine agonists may be considered, as anecdotal evidence suggests this helps improve or stop the pathological gambling behaviour.2 3 (...)

Parkinson's drug pulled from U.S. market: FDA (Parkinsons legemiddel trukket fra det amerikanske markedet)
REUTERS.COM 30.3.2007
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - U.S. health officials withdrew the Parkinson's disease drug pergolide from the market on Thursday, citing a history of safety concerns that include potentially fatal heart valve damage.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decided to pull the drug, first developed by Eli Lilly and Co. under the name Permax, after reports showed it can cause similar problems to the kind that triggered the withdrawal of the diet drug combination "fen-phen".

The risks, when added to the fact that it was no better than other available medications, showed "it really didn't have a place in therapy any more," said Dr. Robert Temple, head of the FDA's office of drug evaluation. (...)

Kabergolin och pergolid – risk för skada på hjärtklaffarna
lakemedelsverket.se 30.3.2007
Kabergolin (till exempel Cabaser) som är godkänt i Sverige för behandling av Parkinsons sjukdom kan orsaka skada på hjärtklaffarna. Läkemedlet ska därför endast användas när andra alternativ saknas. Pergolid är en likartad substans som används vid Parkinsons sjukdom men som inte är godkänd i Sverige. Även pergolid kan ge skador på hjärtklaffarna. Den amerikanska läkemedelsmyndigheten FDA rekommenderar tillverkarna att dra tillbaka pergolid från den amerikanska marknaden. (...)

Advarer mot Parkinson-medisin som gjør deg kåt
vg.no 7.3.2007
Statens legemiddelverk har gått ut med en advarsel om at man kan bli spilleavhengig og kåt ved å bruke legemidler mot Parkinsons sykdom.

Legemiddelverket oppfordrer både pasienter og leger til å være oppmerksomme på bivirkninger, skriver Aftenposten.

I advarselen heter det at «patologisk spilleavhengighet og økt libido (inkludert hyperseksualitet) er rapportert hos pasienter som behandles med dopaminagonister».

Dette er en gruppe legemidler som brukes til å behandle Parkinsons sykdom, men også enkelte hormonelle forstyrrelser og restless legs-syndrom. (...)

(Anm: Legemidlet gjør ikke mennesker "kåte" i vanlig forstand, ettersom denne type bivirkninger skyldes endringer i hjernen som kan utløse meget alvorlige unormale atferdsmessige endringer.)

Ny kunnskap om Parkinsons sykdom
Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2006; 126: 3072 (30.11.2006)
Tidlig debut av Parkinsons sykdom gir langsom sykdomsutvikling, pasienter med vedvarende skjelvinger blir ikke demente, og røyking bremser ikke sykdomsutviklingen. (...)

Stamcelle-gjennombrudd i USA
vg.no 8.1.2007
(VG Nett) Nye tester gir håp til Parkinson-rammede, diabetikere og Alzheimers-pasienter. (...)

Forskerne tror stamcellene kan være nøkkelen til å forstå og kurere mange alvorlige sykdommer, deriblant Alzheimers og diabetes. Cellene er i stand til å utvikle seg til et hvilket som helst organ, og de medisinske mulighetene er enorme. (...)

Studies Find Harm in 2 Parkinson’s Drugs (Studier finner skade ved bruk av to parkinsonlegemidler)
nytimes.com 4.1.2007
Two drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease and other disorders can seriously damage heart valves, researchers are reporting.

Dopamine Agonists and the Risk of Cardiac-Valve Regurgitation (NEJM) Abstract Only
Valvular Heart Disease and the Use of Dopamine Agonists for Parkinson's Disease (NEJM) Abstract Only

The drugs are pergolide, sold as Permax, and cabergoline, sold as Dostinex. Permax is approved in the United States and overseas for Parkinson’s. Dostinex is used for Parkinson’s in other countries but is approved in this country only for a hormonal disorder, hyperprolactinemia.

New findings on the drugs are described in two studies being published today in The New England Journal of Medicine. (...)

Parkinson's Drugs May Have More Risks
forbes.com 3.1.2007
The risk of heart valve damage with two drugs for Parkinson's disease may be far greater than was known, new research suggests. The drugs are not the main treatment for Parkinson's, but one is also sometimes used to treat restless legs syndrome.

A study by Italian researchers found that roughly one-fourth of Parkinson's patients taking pergolide or cabergoline, sold as Permax, Dostinex and other brands, had moderate to severe heart valve problems. Another study, by German doctors, found that users of either drug were five to seven times more likely to have leaky heart valves than those on other types of Parkinson's medications. Both studies were reported in Thursday's New England Journal of Medicine.

"This is an extraordinarily high risk," said Dr. Bryan Roth, a pharmacology professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

"It's a bad side effect. As far as I know, there are no medications that can reverse it," and valve replacement surgery is the only solution, he said. (...)

(Anm: Dopamine Agonists and the Risk of Cardiac-Valve Regurgitation. NEJM 2006 356:29-38 (January 4).)

Projected number of people with Parkinson disease in the most populous nations, 2005 through 2030
Abstract-- Based on published prevalence studies, we used two different methodologies to project the number of individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) in Western Europe’s 5 most and the world’s 10 most populous nations. The number of individuals with PD over age 50 in these countries was between 4.1 and 4.6 million in 2005 and will double to between 8.7 and 9.3 million by 2030. (...)

Lingering pesticides linked to Parkinson's
usatoday.com 17.9.2006
Past exposure to low levels of pesticides that linger in the environment might accelerate the development of Parkinson's, which would put baby boomers and millions of other aging Americans at risk of developing the brain disease earlier in life.

At the American Chemical Society meeting in San Francisco last week, researchers presented new findings that link Parkinson's to exposure to the pesticides dieldrin and DDT. The federal government banned the toxins in the 1970s, but low levels still linger in the soil, says lead researcher Gary Miller of Emory University in Atlanta. Miller's research focused on how exposure to the pesticides from years ago affected the later development of Parkinson's.

"If you're exposed to a pesticide like dieldrin, you might be diagnosed (with Parkinson's) at age 70 instead of at 80," Miller says. (...)

The mystery of motor asymmetry in Parkinson's disease
Lancet Neurology 2006; 5:796-802
Summary
The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are predominantly due to progressive degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons. In most cases there is a substantial asymmetry of clinical symptoms from disease onset, which occurs in sporadic and in hereditary forms of the disease. However, the mechanism of such unilaterality of symptom appearance is not understood. (...)

We also discuss several pathological, genetic, environmental, and toxic possibilities for explaining the mechanism of side predominance. (...)

Allergy linked with Parkinson's
netdoctor.co.uk 8.8.2006
A common allergic reaction to dust and pet hair that causes symptoms similar to a "permanent cold" has been linked with Parkinson's disease in new research.

In a study conducted by the Mayo Clinic in the US, suffering from the allergy (rhinitis) was found to be associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of developing Parkinson's.

Researchers studied nearly 200 Parkinson's sufferers, finding that rhinitis, a condition where the sinuses swell up as a result of an over-sensitive immune response, was unusually common. (...)

Head injury may increase risk of Parkinson's: study
reutershealth.com 25.7.2006
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A new study supports the hypothesis that head injury increases the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the study, which included twin pairs in which one twin had PD and the other did not, head injuries of mild-to-moderate severity were associated with a threefold increased risk of PD developing several decades later. (...9

Association of dopamine agonist use with impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease
Arch Neurol. 2006 Jul;63(7):969-73
(...) CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PD treated with a dopamine agonist should be made aware of the risk of developing an ICD and monitored clinically. Because dopamine agonists are increasingly being used for other indications, future research should assess the dopamine agonist-associated risk for ICDs in other populations.

(Anm: ICD (Impulse control disorder); ...a set of brain disorders including intermittent explosive disorder (hot-headedness), kleptomania (stealing), pathological gambling, pyromania (fire-starting) and trichotillomania (pulling one's hair out). Kilde: wikipedia.org.)

(Anm: En rekke preparater kan imidlertid utløse symptomer på ICD; bl.a SSRI-preparater.)

From Blessing to Curse?
latimes.com 23.5.2006
Drugs that relieve Parkinson's symptoms may also trigger odd urges: jet skiing up the coast, collecting toys or gambling compulsively.

Faced with steady deterioration from Parkinson's disease, Jim Sweet leapt at the chance to try a new drug that promised to relieve the tremors brought on by the death of cells deep in his brain.

Like older Parkinson's medicines, Mirapex could bolster the fading supply of a critical brain chemical called dopamine. It was a blessing for Sweet — until something unusual started happening.

First, he started buying things in EBay auctions — a camera, a leather reclining chair, a big-screen TV, sunglasses, costume jewelry and dozens of other items. He dived into online gambling, lottery tickets and penny stocks. Before long, he was disappearing for days to play slot machines at Indian casinos near his home in Rancho Cucamonga.

He ran through his savings and pawned his CD collection, his children's video game player and his wedding ring.

Gambling "was something I could not turn off," said Sweet, a 45-year-old former middle school teacher. (...)

Parkinson's Drugs Linked to Compulsive Behaviors
healthfinder.gov 5.4.2006
Heavy gambling, hypersexuality reported in rare cases.

-- New research provides more evidence that some Parkinson's drugs have rare and unusual side effects: They seem to make patients oversexed and turn them into compulsive gamblers.

The behaviors appear in only a small percentage of Parkinson's patients, but they're still more common than in ordinary people, a new study suggests. And the side effects can be serious: 10 people who developed a gambling compulsion after going on drugs such as levodopa lost an average of $150,000 each.

The compulsive behavior in patients who take the drugs "is treatable and reversible, but people need to be aware of it," said study co-author Dr. Valerie Voon, a research fellow at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

Researchers have known about links between Parkinson's drugs and compulsive behavior since the 1970s when doctors noticed that some patients were "hypersexual," Voon said. In 2005, a study reported on 11 Parkinson's patients who became compulsive gamblers after taking drugs to treat the disease; eight stopped the behavior after going off the medications.
In the new study, Voon and her colleagues surveyed 296 Parkinson's disease patients, many of whom were in their 60s and had developed the illness in their 50s.

The findings were to be presented Wednesday at the American Academy of Neurology annual meeting, in San Diego.

The researchers found that 10 patients -- 3.4 percent -- showed signs of compulsive gambling, about double the percentage seen in the general population. Patients preferred slot machines, Voon said. The devices don't "require as much cognitive process, and there's much more immediate gain as opposed to playing poker or waiting for the lotto to come through," she explained.

The researchers also found signs of oversexed behavior -- including excessive use of Internet pornography and visits to prostitutes -- in seven patients and compulsive shopping in two.

The patients who received two kinds of Parkinson's drugs -- levodopa and dopamine agonists -- were more likely to suffer from the apparent side effects. Sixteen percent of those who used both drugs showed signs of compulsive behavior, compared to 6 percent of those who just used one.
The link between the drugs and the behavior isn't clear. "There's probably some kind of underlying susceptibility," Voon said. "Whether it's an individual [issue] or Parkinson's-related is a separate question."

One potential explanation lies in the actions of dopamine, a brain chemical that sends a "reward" signal to the brain and assists with movement and balance.
If they work properly, Parkinson's drugs adjust dopamine levels to help patients fend the instability caused by the disease. But it's also possible "that the dopamine reward system in the brain is stimulated by these drugs," leading to compulsive behavior, said Paul R. Sanberg, director of the University of South Florida's Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair.

What to do? There's no reason for Parkinson's patients to panic, Voon said. The side effects affect only a small proportion of patients, "and the majority of people do fine."

Still, she said, there's reason to carefully monitor some patients, especially those who have a history of alcoholism and are risk-takers. "If you see those factors, it is possible that person may be more prone to developing these behaviors. Following them carefully would make a lot of sense."

More information
For more on Parkinson's disease, visit the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

(SOURCES: Valerie Voon, M.D., research fellow, National Institute of Neurologic Diseases and Stroke, Bethesda, Md., and staff psychiatrist, Toronto University Health Network, Canada; Paul R. Sanberg, Ph.D., D.Sc., director, Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Fla. April 5, 2006, presentation, American Academy of Neurology annual meeting, San Diego)

Forskere har avklart hjerneimpulsen som får oss til å shoppe
dn.no 5.1.2007
Slik kan de forutse om det blir kjøp eller ei. Shoppingimpuls synes på hjerneskanning. (...)

Websidene er designet og tilrettelagt av Hein Tore Tønnesen © 2009