Whole Brain Atlas (med.harvard.edu) (Time) (nhi.no)

MYSTERIES OF THE BRAIN (Science 2012)

Folsyre minsker risikoen for autisme hos barn (adressa.no 13.2.2013)

Han vil skjerpe hodet ditt (nrk.no 25.5.2012)

Brain Cells More Powerful Than You Think (healthfinder.gov 19.12.2007)

DNA Damage, Oxidative Stress and Cell Cycle (superarraybioscience.com)

The Human Brain and Muscular System (academicearth.org)

In animals, they said, brain damage prompts the birth of new cells. "Our study provides the foundation for this possibility in the adult human brain," they wrote in their report, published in the journal Science. (reuters.com 16.2.2007)

Carlsen blir hyllet som «sjakkens Mozart» i USA (CBS) (dagbladet.no 20.2.2012)

- Det siste vi har på plass, er det vi trenger mest (aftenposten.no 21.2.2008)

Brain Turns to Positive Thoughts When Faced With Death (healthfinder.gov 28.12.2007)

Protein avgjør hvor godt du takler motgang (vg.no 25.10.2007)

Avhengig? Hjernen har svaret (aftenposten.no 3.1.2008)

Blir ruset av sukker (aftenposten.no 10.11.2009)

Appelsinens hemmelighet (aftenposten.no 20.6.2008)

Verdensledende hjerneforskning i 70 år (apollon.uio.no 8.1.2008)

Ständig smärta stör hjärnans återhämtning (lakemedelsvarlden.se 19.2.2008)

Kan hindre hjernen i å gjøre feil (vg.no 22.4.2008)

- Påvirker immunsystemet vår sosiale atferd? (- Inntil relativt nylig er hjernen og immunsystemet antatt å arbeide isolert fra hverandre. Dette er nå kjent for ikke å være tilfelle.) (- Denne oppdagelsen reverseres vanlige oppfatninger om at hjernen er "immunprivilegert" og manglet direkte kommunikasjon mellom de to systemene.)

Does the immune system influence our social behavior? (Påvirker immunsystemet vår sosiale atferd?)
medicalnewstoday.com 23.7.2016
Banebrytende forskning publisert i Nature finner en fascinerende og uventet interaksjon mellom sosial atferd og immunsystemet. (Groundbreaking research, published in Nature, finds a fascinating and unexpected interaction between social behavior and the immune system.)

Studiet av menneskelig sosial atferd er en innfløkt og vanskelig oppgave. (The study of human social behavior is a dense and difficult endeavor.)

Det krever kompetanse på en rekke disipliner fra psykologi til sosiologi og nevrovitenskap til etnologi. (It calls for expertise in a range of disciplines, from psychology to sociology and neuroscience to ethnology.)

Iht. forskning omtalt nedenfor kan denne listen over spesialiteter snart inkludere immunologi. (Following the research covered below, that list of specialties may soon include immunology.)

Inntil relativt nylig er hjernen og immunsystemet antatt å arbeide isolert fra hverandre. Dette er nå kjent for ikke å være tilfelle. (Until relatively recently, the brain and immune system were considered to work in isolation from each other. This is now known not to be the case.)

Et team av forskere fra University of Virginia (UVA) School of Medicine har gått ett skritt videre, og viser at immunsystemet ikke bare påvirker sosial atferd, det kan også utøve kontroll over det. (...) (A team of researchers from the University of Virginia (UVA) School of Medicine has gone one step further, showing that the immune system not only affects social behavior, it might even exert control over it.)

En undersøkelse gjennomført i fjor av Jonathan Kipnis, Ph.D., leder av UVA Department of Neuroscience, avdekket fler forbindelser mellom hjernen og immunforsvaret. (An investigation carried out last year by Jonathan Kipnis, Ph.D., chairman of UVA's Department of Neuroscience, uncovered further connections between the brain and immune system.)

Spesielt fant de lenker mellom årene for hjernehinner (laget av vev som dekker sentralnervesystemet) og det lymfatiske system (og immune baner). (Specifically, they found links between the vessels of the meninges (layers of tissue that coat the central nervous system) and the lymphatic system (an immune highway).)

Denne oppdagelsen reverseres vanlige oppfatninger om at hjernen er "immunprivilegert" og manglet direkte kommunikasjon mellom de to systemene. (…) (This discovery reversed the common belief that the brain was "immune privileged" and lacked direct communication between the two systems.)

Konsekvenser for autisme og andre tilstander kan være stor, men det er for tidlig å spå. (…) (The implications for autism and other conditions could be huge, but it is too early to make predictions.)

- Ny del av hjernen oppdaget. Forskere har oppdaget en helt ny forbindelse mellom hjernen og immunsystemet. Oppdagelsen er gjort på mus, men kan likevel bli avgjørende for forskningen på autisme, Alzheimers og sklerose.

(Anm: Ny del av hjernen oppdaget. Forskere har oppdaget en helt ny forbindelse mellom hjernen og immunsystemet. Oppdagelsen er gjort på mus, men kan likevel bli avgjørende for forskningen på autisme, Alzheimers og sklerose. (…) De nyoppdagede lymfekarene (markert med lysegrønt) forbinder hjernen med immunsystemet. (Illustrasjon: University of Virginia Health System) (forskning.no 21.6.2015).)

(Anm: Unraveling the link between brain and lymphatic system.  (…) Lymphatic circulation forms a network that covers almost the whole body and is especially important to the tissue clearance of fluids and macromolecules as well as for immune defense mechanisms. Until now, the central nervous system has been considered an immune-privileged organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. (medicalnewstoday.com 16.6.2015).)

(Anm: Autistic people are three times more likely to have hallucinations. (…) A new finding from my research group suggests that autistic adults are particularly likely to have these kinds of experiences. (theconversation.com 18.5.2017).)

(Anm: Researchers explore link between gut microbiome and nutrition in autism spectrum disorder. (…) Sharon Donovan, a professor of nutrition at the University of Illinois explains that researchers have started to look at more specific disease states and the microbiome. "We are starting to see links with autism, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and almost every disease that is looked at. (news-medical.net 28.4.2017).)

(Anm: Babytenner linket til autisme, tungmetaller. Babytenner hos barn med autisme inneholder mer giftig bly og mindre av de essensielle næringsstoffene sink og mangan, sammenlignet med tenner fra barn uten autisme, ifølge en studie publisert i journal Nature Communications. Forskjellene i metallopptak mellom barn med og uten autisme var spesielt bemerkelsesverdige i løpet av månedene like før og etter at barna ble født. Forskere bestemte dette ved å bruke lasere til å kartlegge vekstringene i baby-tenner generert under ulike utviklingsperioder. (dgnews.docguide.com 2.6.2017).)

- Immunsystemet angriper hjernen ved Alzheimers, antyder studien.

(Anm: Immune system attacks the brain in Alzheimer's, study suggests. New research has identified direct evidence that the body’s immune system attacks the brain in Parkinson’s disease, seemingly confirming a theory of ‘autoimmunity’ which was first posited almost 100 years ago. The discovery could lead to strides forward in the treatment of the disease, with the research suggesting that immune system-suppressing drugs could be used to manage it. (pharmafile.com 22.6.2017).)

(Anm: Gut microbiota from multiple sclerosis patients enables spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2017 (PNAS Early Edition).)

- Type 1 diabetes: Kan endrede blodstamceller føre til en kur? (- "Den hellige gral" for forskere som søker en kur for type 1 diabetes er å finne en måte å forebygge eller stoppe immunforsvarets angrep på betacellene.)

(Anm: Type 1 diabetes: Could modified blood stem cells lead to a cure? Increasing levels of a certain protein in blood stem cells so that the immune system stops attacking insulin cells in the pancreas could be a way to halt type 1 diabetes, according to a new study reported in Science Translational Medicine. (…) The "holy grail" of scientists seeking a cure for type 1 diabetes is to find a way to prevent or stop the immune attack on the beta cells. (…) Now, in the new study, the researchers — who were led by senior investigator Paolo Fiorina, an assistant professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School's Boston Children's Hospital — might have discovered why treatments that use the person's own blood stem cells may not always work. "We found that in diabetes," explains Prof. Fiorina, "blood stem cells are defective, promoting inflammation and possibly leading to the onset of disease." The defect that they discovered is that the blood stem cells — that is, the progenitor cells that give rise to mature cells — do not produce enough of a protein called PD-L1 that reigns back attack by T cells. (medicalnewstoday.com 17.11.2017).)

(Anm: Type 1 Diabetes: What Are The Symptoms? (medicinenet.com 2.8.2016).)

(Anm: Type 2 Diabetes Overview (webmd 2.2.2016).)

(Anm: Diabetes: Kender du forskel på type 1 og 2? (netdoktor.dk 6.6.2017).)

(Anm: What is the immune system? (medicalnewstoday.com 17.11.2017).)

(Anm: Diabetes (mintankesmie.no).)

- Forskere oppdager ny mekanisme som forårsaker kronisk tarmbetennelse.

(Anm: Researchers discover new mechanism that causes chronic intestinal inflammation. Researchers at the University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and the German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München have discovered that too much of the oncogene Bcl-3 leads to chronic intestinal diseases. They describe in Nature Communications exactly how it throws the immune system off-balance. Chronic intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are caused by the body's own immune defense system. (news-medical.net 28.5.2017).)

(Anm: Hygiene (smittsomme sykdommer / infeksjoner / smittevern) (mintankesmie.no).)

- Immunsystem-utmattelse knyttet til irritabel tarm-syndrom (IBS).

(Anm: Immunsystem-utmattelse knyttet til irritabel tarm-syndrom (IBS). Immune system exhaustion associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Researchers from the University of Adelaide have linked a specific type of irritable bowel syndrome with the exhaustion of the immune system. In particular, it was found that T cells were not active to standard levels when patients’ symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were particularly acute. The small study, containing just 11 patients, followed the participants for a full year to measure blood samples and to ascertain when exactly the patients were suffering from symptoms most severely. The patients were living with diarrhoea-predominant IBS-D and the research found that there was a common link between patients in this sub-set of IBS, that of T-cell exhaustion. (pharmafile.com 21.6.2017).)

- Når personer bliver ramt af sklerose, skyldes det, at immuncellerne i stedet for at beskytte mod sygdomme og vira angriber kroppens egne celler og skaber det, der kaldes en autoimmun sygdom. (- Nerveceller er en slags lærere for immuncellerne, og derfor er kommunikationen mellem nerveceller og immunceller afgørende.)

(Anm: Forskere kan have fundet nøgle til sklerosebehandling. 14.500 danskere lider i dag af den frygtede og kroniske sygdom sklerose, og hvert år får omkring 600 flere stillet diagnosen. Men nu er forskere fra Københavns Universitet, KU, kommet tættere på en forståelse af årsagen til progressiv sklerose. Det skriver Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet på KU i en pressemeddelelse. (…) Studiet viser, at det er mangel på god kommunikation mellem nerveceller og immunsystem, der er afgørende for, at sklerose udvikler sig. De nye resultater kan være omdrejningspunkt for nye og mere målrettede behandlinger af sygdommen, lyder det fra KU-forskerne. Når personer bliver ramt af sklerose, skyldes det, at immuncellerne i stedet for at beskytte mod sygdomme og vira angriber kroppens egne celler og skaber det, der kaldes en autoimmun sygdom. Nerveceller er en slags lærere for immuncellerne, og derfor er kommunikationen mellem nerveceller og immunceller afgørende. Det fortæller professor på Biotech Research & Innovation Centre (Bric) Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas.  (jyllands-posten.dk 24.4.2017).)

- Norsk forskerbragd: Ditt eget immunforsvar kan utløse kronisk sykdom og ta liv. (- – Når dette immunapparatet overaktiveres, misforstår og går løs på kroppen selv, så blir det kroppens verste fiende, sier han. Da utløses en betennelsesreaksjon eller en blodforgiftning, og pasienten kan i verste fall dø.)

(Anm: Norsk forskerbragd: Ditt eget immunforsvar kan utløse kronisk sykdom og ta liv. Immunforsvaret kan bli kroppens verste fiende, ifølge ny, norsk forskning. Den norske legen Tom Eirik Mollnes høster internasjonal anerkjennelse for å ha bidratt med ny og skremmende kunnskap om kroppens eget immunforsvar. Udetonert bombe – Det er som en udetonert bombe, sier forskeren som tok sin doktorgrad i Oslo. Siden har han samarbeidet med en rekke medisinske miljøer i Norge og Danmark for å dokumentere sin teori om at kroppens eget immunforsvar i gitte situasjoner kan utløse kronisk sykdom og i verste fall ta liv. – Når dette immunapparatet overaktiveres, misforstår og går løs på kroppen selv, så blir det kroppens verste fiende, sier han. Da utløses en betennelsesreaksjon eller en blodforgiftning, og pasienten kan i verste fall dø. (tv2.no 14.11.2017).)

- En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn.

(Anm: En pasient på UNN døde av blodforgiftning som følge av et legemiddel mot psykiske lidelser, opplyser Statens helsetilsyn. (- Pasienten døde etter kort tid, og dødsårsaken var nøytropen sepsis (blodforgiftning), heter det i tilsynets rapport. (nrk.no 12.10.2016).)

(Anm: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body, frequently a response of the immune system to infection. (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Sepsis. Definisjon: SIRS + påvist/mistenkt infeksjon (f. eks. positiv blodkultur). SIRS- kriteriene er: - Feber > 38 ºC eller hypotermi < 36 ºC - Puls > 90/minutt - Respirasjonsfrekvens > 20/minutt eller hypokapni med pCO2 < 4,3 kPa i blodgass - Leukocytose ≥ 12 × 109/l eller leukopeni < 4 × 109/l eller > 10 % umodne leukocytter. (helsebiblioteket.no - Metodebok for indremedisinere, 2012).)

(Anm: Rollen til mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) ved sepsis (blodforgiftning)-indusert multiorgansvikt. (The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure). (Virulence. 2013 Nov 1;5(1).)

- Diagnostisering av sepsis. Sepsis, også kjent som blodforgiftning, er kroppens hyperaktive respons på en infeksjon som kan føre til betennelse, vevskader, organsvikt etc.

(Anm: Diagnosing Sepsis. Sepsis, also known as blood poisoning, is the body’s hyperactive response to an infection that can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, organ failure etc. It is a very dangerous state in which the immune system stops fighting with the invading agents  and turns to itself. Around one-third of patients who are affected with sepsis die every year. (news-medical.net 7.9.2017).)

- Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon.

(Anm: Å anerkjenne sepsis som en global helseprioritet - En WHO- resolusjon. Recognizing Sepsis as a Global Health Priority — A WHO Resolution. “Some very important clinical issues, some of them affecting life and death, stay largely in a backwater which is inhabited by academics and professionals and enthusiasts, dealt with very well at the clinical and scientific level but not visible to the public, political leaders, leaders of healthcare systems... The public and political space is the space in which [sepsis] needs to be in order for things to change.” NEJM (June 28, 2017).)

(Anm: Sepsis – den dödliga sjukdomen som glöms bort. Trots att infektionssjukdomen sepsis förekommer oftare än de vanligaste formerna av cancer och att upp emot hälften som drabbas av den allvarligaste formen dör, så har många knappt hört talas om sjukdomen. Sepsis som är den medicinska termen på blodförgiftning, drabbar omkring 40 000 svenskar varje år. (netdoktor.se 7.6.2017).)

- Ny kortlægning: Sådan bekæmper hjernen virusinfektioner. (- Forskningen kan have betydning for kampen mod alt fra sklerose til Alzheimers sygdom, skizofreni og depression.)

(Anm: Ny kortlægning: Sådan bekæmper hjernen virusinfektioner. (...) Forskningen kan have betydning for kampen mod alt fra sklerose til Alzheimers sygdom, skizofreni og depression. (...) Derfor er hjernen også udstyret med sit eget immunforsvar, og nu har danske forskere endelig fundet ud af, hvordan det immunforsvar fungerer. Det skriver Videnskab.dk. (...) Det nye forskningsresultat og hjernens forsvar mod infektioner indeholder en masse navne, der for de fleste mennesker ikke giver nogen mening. Det er blandt andet navne som mikroglia, astrocytter, neuroner, interferon og STING/cGas, som gør forskningsresultatet kompliceret at forstå. (jyllands-posten.dk 8.12.2016).)

(Anm: Gut bacteria can cause, predict and prevent rheumatoid arthritis. The bacteria in your gut do more than break down your food. They also can predict susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, suggests Veena Taneja, Ph.D., an immunologist at Mayo Clinic's Center for Individualized Medicine. Dr. Taneja recently published two studies—one in Genome Medicine and one in Arthritis and Rheumatology—connecting the dots between gut microbiota and rheumatoid arthritis. (…) "Using genomic sequencing technology, we were able to pin down some gut microbes that were normally rare and of low abundance in healthy individuals, but expanded in patients with rheumatoid arthritis," Dr. Taneja says. (medicalxpress.com 16.7.2016).)

- UCI, Italienske forskere begrenser akselerert cellulær aldring (senescens) forårsaket av bruk av metamfetamin.

(Anm: UCI, Italienske forskere begrenser akselerert cellulær aldring (senescens) forårsaket av bruk av metamfetamin. UCI, Italian scientists limit accelerated cellular aging caused by methamphetamine use. Grasp of underlying molecular mechanisms could improve addiction recovery efforts. The ravaged faces of methamphetamine addicts tell a terrible tale - abusing the drug dramatically accelerates aging. Now scientists from UC Irvine and the Italian Institute of Technology have discovered how this occurs at the cellular level and identified methods to limit the process. (medicalnewstoday.com 14.2.2015).)

- Forskning på cellulær senescens kan føre til nye måter å behandle aldersrelaterte lidelser på.

(Anm: Forskning på cellulær senescens kan føre til nye måter å behandle aldersrelaterte lidelser på. Research into cellular senescence may lead to new ways of treating age-related disorders. (…) In basic research conducted on human cell cultures and on mice, Dr. Krizhanovsky and his team asked, "what, exactly, ties senescent cells to aging?" (medicalnewstoday.com 18.5.2017).)

– Danske forskere finder vigtig årsag til skizofreni. Ny dansk forskning viser, at skizofreni skyldes skader på nogle specifikke hjerneceller, som man ikke tidligere har forbundet med sygdommen.

(Anm: Danske forskere finder vigtig årsag til skizofreni. Ny dansk forskning viser, at skizofreni skyldes skader på nogle specifikke hjerneceller, som man ikke tidligere har forbundet med sygdommen. Forskere er i gang med at teste stoffer, der kan bruges som medicin mod lidelsen. (…) »Genetiske mutationer gør, at gliacellerne er længere om at udvikle sig. Vi mener, at det er årsagen til udviklingen af skizofreni. Tidligere har man troet, at årsagen til skizofreni skulle findes i selve neuronerne, men vores studie viser noget andet. Det ser vi både i vores forsøg på mus og i patienter med skizofreni, som også har mindre myelin i hjernen,« forklarer Steven. A. Goldman. (…) Forskerne kan blandt andet se, at de defekte gener har med gliacellernes kalium-pumper (små pumper, der pumper kalium ind og ud af cellerne) at gøre. (videnskab.dk 2.8.2017).)

(Anm: Gennembrud: Danske forskere finder vigtig grund til skizofreni. (…) »Studiet give håb for nye behandlingsmuligheder for vores patienter. Med den nye viden om gliacellernes rolle kan der udvikles nye behandlinger, der er målrettet denne defekt. Det kan jeg som kliniker kun bifalde, da en del af vores patienter kun har sparsom eller slet ingen gavn af vores nuværende medicinske behandlinger,« siger Mette Ødegaard Nielsen til Videnskab.dk. Speciallægen påpeger dog også, at skizofreni som diagnose formentlig dækker over flere forskellige sygdomsmekanismer. »Indtil videre definerer vi skizofreni ud fra symptomerne og ikke ud fra en biologisk definition. Derfor er denne defekt i gliacellerne nok kun ansvarlig for nogle af de tilfælde af sindslidelser, som vi i dag karakteriserer som skizofreni,« siger Mette Ødegaard Nielsen. (jyllands-posten.dk 2.8.2017).)

- Mitokondriell dysfunksjon ved autismespektrumforstyrrelser: kliniske egenskaper og perspektiver.

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon ved autismespektrumforstyrrelser: kliniske egenskaper og perspektiver. Mitochondrial dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder: clinical features and perspectives. Abstract Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a prototypic pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social interaction, and communication deficits, repetitive, stereotypic patterns of behavior, and impairments in language and development. Clinical studies have identified mitochondrial disturbances at the levels of DNA, activity, complexes, oxidative stress, and metabolites in blood and urine of ASD patients. However, these observations from postmortem brains or peripheral tissues do not provide a direct link between autism and mitochondria. The synaptic abnormality of autistic patients has not been investigated yet. Here we review the findings of clinical studies investigating mitochondrial involvement in ASD patients, focusing particularly on the brain and the limitations and future directions needed in order to fully understand the role of mitochondria in ASD pathology. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2017 Jun 16;45:178-187. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Babytenner linket til autisme, tungmetaller. Babytenner hos barn med autisme inneholder mer giftig bly og mindre av de essensielle næringsstoffene sink og mangan, sammenlignet med tenner fra barn uten autisme, ifølge en studie publisert i journal Nature Communications. Forskjellene i metallopptak mellom barn med og uten autisme var spesielt bemerkelsesverdige i løpet av månedene like før og etter at barna ble født. Forskere bestemte dette ved å bruke lasere til å kartlegge vekstringene i baby-tenner generert under ulike utviklingsperioder. (dgnews.docguide.com 2.6.2017).)

(Anm: Treatments for anxiety disorders likely to prove efficacious in ASD (news-medical.net 30.8.2017).)

- Hjernens immunceller kan ha fremtredende roller ved nevrodegenerative, psykiatriske sykdommer.

(Anm: Hjernens immunceller kan ha fremtredende roller ved nevrodegenerative, psykiatriske sykdommer. Brain's immune cells may play roles in neurodegenerative, psychiatric illnesses. Scientists have, for the first time, characterized the molecular markers that make the brain's front lines of immune defense--cells called microglia--unique. In the process, they discovered further evidence that microglia may play roles in a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric illnesses, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases as well as schizophrenia, autism and depression. (news-medical.net 31.5.2017).)

(Anm: Three Alzheimer's genetic risk factors linked to immune cell dysfunction. People with a variant copy of the TREM2 gene have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, but researchers are only beginning to understand why. (medicalnewstoday.com 21.7.2016).)

- Da forskerne så musenes hoder gløde visste de at funnet var stort. (- Kari Alitalo had studied lymphatic vessels for more than two decades. So he knew that this network, which carries immune cells throughout the body and removes waste and toxins, didn’t extend into the brain: This had been accepted wisdom for more than 300 years.)

When scientists saw the mouse heads glowing, they knew the discovery was big
washingtonpost.com 21.5.2017

Kari Alitalo had studied lymphatic vessels for more than two decades. So he knew that this network, which carries immune cells throughout the body and removes waste and toxins, didn’t extend into the brain: This had been accepted wisdom for more than 300 years. “Nobody questioned that it stopped at the brain,” says Alitalo, a scientist at the University of Helsinki in Finland.

Three years ago, Alitalo wanted to develop a more precise map of the lymphatic system. To do this, he used genetically modified mice whose lymphatic vessels glowed when illuminated by a particular wavelength of light. (The mice had been given a gene from a species of glowing jellyfish.)

When viewing the modified mice under the light, Aleksanteri Aspelund, a medical student in Alitalo’s laboratory, saw something unexpected: The heads of the mice glowed. At first, he suspected that there was something wrong — with the animals, the lighting or the measuring equipment. But when Alitalo and Aspelund repeated the experiment, they got the same result. It seemed that the lymphatic vessels extended to the brain after all. (…)

- Forskere overrasket over å oppdage lymfatiske "renovasjonsarbeidende" hjerneceller.

(Anm: Forskere overrasket over å oppdage lymfatiske "renovasjonsarbeidende" hjerneceller. Scientists surprised to discover lymphatic 'scavenger' brain cells. The brain has its own inbuilt processes for mopping up damaging cellular waste—and these processes may provide protection from stroke and dementia. University of Queensland scientists discovered a new type of lymphatic brain "scavenger" cell by studying tropical freshwater zebrafish—which share many of the same cell types and organs as humans. Lead researcher Associate Professor Ben Hogan from UQ's Institute for Molecular Bioscience said the fundamental discovery would help scientists understand how the brain forms and functions. "It is rare to discover a cell type in the brain that we didn't know about previously, and particularly a cell type that we didn't expect to be there," he said. (medicalxpress.com 1.5.2017).)

(Anm: Væskestrømmen i hjernen avslørt for første gang. Fluid flow in the brain unravelled for the first time. (…) Exactly how the body manages to keep the blood flow in the brain so tightly controlled during the ups and downs of the cardiac cycle has remained largely a mystery. (…) In a new study, published in the journal Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, they found blood appears to be stored in the blood vessels in the space between the brain and skull. (medicalnewstoday.com 4.5.2017).)

(Anm: Ny forskning: Immunforsvaret påvirker danskernes indvandrerskepsis. Holdningen til flygtningestrømmen, grænsekontrol og integration bliver ubevidst påvirket af vores adfærdsmæssige immunforsvar, viser nyt studie fra Aarhus Universitet. (…) Sammenhængen mellem vores ubevidste indvandrerskepsis og immunforsvar er, at mennesket igennem evolutionen har opbygget et adfærdsmæssigt immunforsvar, som motiverer os til at undgå situationer, hvor vi kan blive inficeret med smitte. (jyllands-posten.dk 7.5.2017).)

(Anm: Nyt studie: Parasit indtager fisk og kontrollerer dens adfærd. For at parasitten kan fortsætte sin livscykles, er det altafgørende, at fisken bliver spist af en fugl. Parasitter, der lever i en lang række ferskvandsfisks øjeæbler, kan kontrollere den enkelte fisks adfærd. Det viser et nyt studie, som er foretaget af forskere fra det biologiske institut Severtsov i Moskva, skriver New Scientist. (jyllands-posten.dk 7.5.2017).)

- Tarmmikrobiom påvirker to sykdommer i nervesystemet. (- Tarmmikrobiomet er linket til sykdommer i hele kroppen, inkludert nervesystemet. De siste to forbindelser er nettopp blitt rapportert.)

Gut Microbiome Affects Two Nervous System Diseases (Tarmmikrobiom påvirker to sykdommer i nervesystemet)
NEJM 2017 (May 25)
Anthony L. Komaroff, MD reviewing Rowan S et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 May 15. Tang AT et al. Nature 2017 May 18.

The gut microbiome is being linked to diseases throughout the body, including the nervous system. The latest two associations have just been reported. (The gut microbiome is being linked to diseases throughout the body, including the nervous system. The latest two associations have just been reported.)

Epidemiologic data have suggested a link between high–glycemic index (HG) diets and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Using a mouse model for AMD, investigators confirmed that HG diets made AMD worse and that switching mice to low–glycemic index (LG) diets promptly arrested progression of AMD. This strong association depended on changes in the gut microbiome induced by the dietary changes. Specifically, the change from an HG to an LG diet increased the numbers of Bacteroidales species, which led to production of bacterial metabolites that protected against development of AMD.

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) can cause strokes and seizures. A new study in a mouse model of brain CCMs shows that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by gram-negative bacteria can penetrate the gut mucosa during inflammatory states and can enter the circulation. When LPS reaches the brain, it stimulates a particular receptor (TKR4) on the endothelial wall, and this triggers morphologic changes that evolve into CCMs. Natural polymorphisms that promote expression of the TLR4 gene (in mice and humans) are linked to higher numbers of CCMs. Antibiotic treatments that target gram-negative bacteria in CCM mice prevent formation of CCMs; antibiotics targeting gram-positive bacteria do not have this effect. (…)

- Prosjektbeskrivelse: Nekrotiserende enterocolitt (NEC) er en alvorlig tarmbetennelse hos nyfødte barn. Ekstremt premature barn er spesielt utsatt. Randomiserte kliniske studier har vist at bruk av probiotika kan redusere forekomsten av NEC.

Forskningsprosjekt - Tarmmikrobiomet til premature barn – en norsk multisenter studie
helseforskning.etikkom.no 26.5.2017
Vitenskapelig tittel:
The gut microbiome of preterm infants receiving probiotics - a Norwegian multi centre study

Prosjektbeskrivelse: Nekrotiserende enterocolitt (NEC) er en alvorlig tarmbetennelse hos nyfødte barn. Ekstremt premature barn er spesielt utsatt. Randomiserte kliniske studier har vist at bruk av probiotika kan redusere forekomsten av NEC. Ved nyfødtavdelinger i Norge ble det i 2014 innført en felles behandlingsprotokoll med probiotika til ekstremt premature barn. Vi ønsker å undersøke tarmmikrobiomet til barn som får probiotika og sammenligne med tarmmikrobiomet til moderat premature barn som ikke får probiotika. Avføringen analyseres med metagenom sekvensering for å se på bakteriell diversitet. Vi vil inkludere 62 barn som tar avføringsprøve på 4 tidspunkt i første leveår. Hovedhypotesen er at barn som får probiotika får et tarmmikrobiom som ligner mer på den man ser hos fullbårne enn premature barn som ikke får probiotika. Vi vil også se om varighet av antibiotikabehandling påvirker tarmfloraen til de som får probiotika og hvordan tarmfloraen utvikler seg etter avsluttet probiotikabehandling.

Ref. nr.: 2014/930      Prosjektstart: 01.09.2014       Prosjektslutt: 01.09.2018 (…)

(Anm: Tarmbakterier og hjernen: Er vi styrt av mikrober? (Gut bacteria and the brain: Are we controlled by microbes? Although the interaction between our brain and gut has been studied for years, its complexities run deeper than initially thought. It seems that our minds are, in some part, controlled by the bacteria in our bowels. (…) On the other side of the fence, recent research infers that dysregulation of gut bacteria might be an important factor in inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. The microbiome's role in health and disease is only slowly giving up its secrets. The latest and perhaps most remarkable finding is the ability that gut bacteria have to moderate our brain and behavior.) (medicalnewstoday.com 7.9.2016).)

- Oppdagelse kan påvirke forståelse, behandling av autoimmune og inflammatoriske sykdommer.

(Anm: Discovery could impact understanding, treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Scientists from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) may have cracked the code to understanding the function of special cells called regulatory T Cells. Treg cells, as they are often known, control and regulate our immune system to prevent excessive reactions. The findings, published in Science Immunology, could have a major impact in our understanding and treatment of all autoimmune diseases and most chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, Crohn's disease as well as broader conditions such as asthma, allergies and cancer. Researchers made this discovery by investigating a rare human mutation in a gene called FOXP3. Although the importance of the FOXP3 gene in the proper function of Treg cells has been well documented, its mechanisms were still not fully understood by scientists. (news-medical.net 5.7.2017).)

(Anm: Surprising finding provides more support for Alzheimer's being an autoimmune disease. Brain levels of the lipid ceramide are high in Alzheimer's disease, and now scientists have found increased levels of an antibody to the lipid in their disease model. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.3.2015).)

(Anm: Relationships Between Mitochondria and Neuroinflammation: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease. Curr Top Med Chem. 2015 Aug 26. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Problems finding your way around may be earliest sign of Alzheimer's disease (medicalnewstoday.com 22.4.2016).)

(Anm: T cell type that promotes damaging immune response discovered. For the first time, researchers have identified a type of T cell that plays a key role in promoting the damaging autoimmune response that inflames and attacks the joints in rheumatoid arthritis. The discovery - made with technologies that help to analyze just a "handful of cells" - offers vital new clues to the biology of the disease and could lead to more powerful, targeted treatments. The study - led by Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), a teaching affiliate of Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA - is published in the journal Nature. (medicalnewstoday.com 2.2.2017).)

(Anm: Microbiomet: Missing Link i nevropsykiatriske lidelser. Microbiome: The Missing Link in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Abstract. The relationship between intestinal microbiota and the brain has been the focus of attention of the scientific world in recent years; >90% of the articles discussing the microbiome have been published only recently.1 There is a strong and bidirectional relationship between the brain and the gut. Gut bacteria communicate with the intestinal epithelium and the immune system cells, with this communication causing many autoimmune, metabolic, and neuropsychiatric diseases. EMJ Innov. 2017;1[1]:83-88.)

(Anm: Nye kliniske studier viser «lovende resultater" for autisme (ASD)-behandling. ( New clinical trial shows 'promising results' for ASD treatment.) (medicalnewstoday.com 23.1.2017).)

(Anm: Editorial. Increasing support for association between immune system and severe mental illness - need to find the underlying mechanisms. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2016 (First published: 23 November 2016).)

- Hvordan hjernen hjelper kroppen å bekjempe bakterier.

(Anm: Hvordan hjernen hjelper kroppen å bekjempe bakterier. (How the brain helps the body fight bacteria. The brain may not only control our thoughts and basic physical functions. Recent studies indicate that it also controls the way our body responds to the threat of bacterial infections. It does this by boosting the production of a protective molecule called PCTR1 that helps white blood cells kill the invading bacteria. Our body is in constant contact with bacteria. For the most part these do not pose a threat since we have evolved defence systems to keep these organisms at bay. But in some instances, especially when the body’s defence systems are weakened or fail, bacteria may invade, leading to infection and, in extreme cases, sepsis, which can result in death.) (theconversation.com 5.1.2017).)

(Anm: Autism Risk Linked to Herpes Infection During Pregnancy. NEW YORK -- February 22, 2017 -- Women actively infected with genital herpes during early pregnancy had twice the odds of giving birth to a child later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a study published in mSphere, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). (dgnews.docguide.com 22.2.2017).)

(Anm: Cerebrospinal fluid: Potential biomarker for autism found. (…) The 6-month olds who eventually developed autism had 18 percent more CSF than the 6-month olds who did not. (…) Learn how a tuberculosis drug may be useful in treating autism. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.7.2017).)

(Anm: Infections and exposure to anti-infective agents and the risk of severe mental disorders: a nationwide study. (…) CONCLUSION: Infections treated with anti-infective agents and particularly infections requiring hospitalizations were associated with increased risks of schizophrenia and affective disorders, which may be mediated by effects of infections/inflammation on the brain, alterations of the microbiome, genetics, or other environmental factors. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2017 Feb;135(2):97-105.)

(Anm: B vitamins may improve schizophrenia symptoms. As schizophrenia does not yet have a cure, the standard treatment options available focus on eliminating the symptoms. A new, large-scale review of existing research suggests that B vitamins can reduce symptoms of schizophrenia (medicalnewstoday.com 16.2.2017).)

Schizophrenia

(Anm: The effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation on symptoms of schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (…) There is preliminary evidence that certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce psychiatric symptoms in some people with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 2017;47(9):1515-1527 (July 2017).)

(Anm: Luftveisinfeksjoner øker hjerteinfarktrisikoen 17 ganger. Respiratory infections raise heart attack risk by 17 times. The new study - published in the Internal Medicine Journal - found that respiratory infections such as pneumonia, the common influenza, and bronchitis all seem to increase the chances of having a heart attack. (medicalnewstoday.com 15.5.2017).)

(Anm: Certain immune reaction to viruses may cause learning problems. Researchers have discovered a mechanism by which the body's immune reaction to viruses like influenza and HIV may cause learning and memory problems. This is the finding of a study led by researchers from NYU Langone Medical Center and published online in Nature Medicine. (medicalnewstoday.com 15.5.2017).)

- Tarmbakterier kan holde nøkkelen til behandling av autoimmune sykdommer

Gut bacteria may hold key to treating autoimmune disease
medicalnewstoday.com 21.12.2016
Defects in the body's regulatory T cells (T reg cells) cause inflammation and autoimmune disease by altering the type of bacteria living in the gut, researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston have discovered. The study, "Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency-induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors," published online in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that replacing the missing gut bacteria, or restoring a key metabolite called inosine, could help treat children with a rare and often fatal autoimmune disease called IPEX syndrome. (…)

(Anm: Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency-induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors. J Exp Med. 2016 Dec 19. pii: jem.20160961.)

(Anm: Tarmbakterier fjerner autisme i mus. Sykdommer: Ny studie viser at man kan behandle mus med autismesymptomer ved hjelp av ekskrementer fra friske mus. (…) Det var særlig én tarmbakterie, Lactobacillus reuteri, de syke musene manglet. (illvit.no 29.6.2016).)

(Anm: Risikovurdering av kosttilskudd med Lactobacillus Reuteri Protectis. Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet (VKM) har vurdert probiotika som brukes i kosttilskudd til friske barn fra fødsel til tre år. Mangel på kunnskap gjør at VKM ikke kan trekke konklusjoner om hvilke langtidseffekter bruk av denne typen probiotika kan ha for barns helse. Risikovurderingen er gjort på oppdrag for Mattilsynet, med bakgrunn i kravet om mattrygghet. (…) Ukjente langtidseffekter. Mangel på kunnskap om effekt av langvarig bruk gjør at VKM ikke kan vurdere eventuelle langtidseffekter for barn i alderen 0 – 3 år, men VKM peker på at det er en økende erkjennelse av at sammensetningen av bakterier i tarmen hos nyfødte kan ha avgjørende betydning for senere utvikling av tarmflora og immunsystem. (…) Ingen rapporterte bivirkninger. Ingen av studiene som VKM har vurdert har rapportert om bivirkninger eller uønskede korttidseffekter. VKM konkluderer med at det ikke er noen grunn til å anta at bakteriestammen som er vurdert, og i de dosene som er anbefalt, vil kunne ha uønsket effekt på helsa. (vkm.no 11.3.2016).)

(Anm: Semper Dråper Melkesyrebakt 0mnd+. (…) Sammensetning. Solsikkeolje, kokosolje, palmekjerneolje, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 ( Lactobacillus reuteri protectis ). (boots.no).)

- Forskere finner flere nye mutasjoner linket til autisme hos barn, men ikke deres foreldre.

(Anm: Researchers find multiple new mutations linked to autism in children but not their parents. Most cases of autism appear to be associated with the appearance of new mutations that are not inherited from the child's parents, researchers from the University of Washington School of Medicine report. "We are excited by these early findings because they suggest that multiple new mutations in a child, both coding and non-coding, are important to understanding the genetics of the disease," said. The first author of the study, which was published online in the journal Cell. Although some forms of autism appear to run in families, most cases occur in families with no history of the disorder. This form of autism, called simplex autism, is thought to occur from new mutations that first appear when the the parents' sperm or eggs form. These newly formed, or de novo, mutations are found in the affected child's genome, but not in either parent's genome. They are unlikely to occur in the affected child's siblings. (news-medical.net 12.10.2017).)

(Anm: Researchers identify cells that drive autoimmune disease. Researchers at National Jewish Health have identified a trigger for autoimmune diseases such as lupus, Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis. The findings, published in the April 2017 issue of Journal of Clinical Investigation, help explain why women suffer autoimmune disease more frequently than men, and suggest a therapeutic target to prevent autoimmune disease in humans. (news-medical.net 11.5.2017).)

(Anm: Gut microbiota from multiple sclerosis patients enables spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2017 (PNAS Early Edition).)

(Anm: Signaler fra tarmens mikrobiotika til fjerntliggende organer mht. fysiologi og sykdom. Signals from the gut microbiota to distant organs in physiology and disease. (Nat Med. 2016 Oct 6;22(10):1079-1089.)

(Anm: Gut check: Newest microbiome startup concentrates on autism, Parkinson’s disease. What kind of relationship exists between the gut microbiome and diseases of the brain? A new startup called Axial Biotherapeutics has set out to find some answers, with $19.15 million in venture backing. (endpts.com 30.11.2016).)

(Anm: 'Teashirt' gene links autism and kidney problems, new study finds. A gene dubbed the 'Teashirt' by its discoverers has been identified as a link between children with kidney problems and autism, in a new study which has implications for how doctors working on both conditions administer tests to their patients. The new paper, published in the journal Nature Genetics, was led by the Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille, collaborating with The University of Manchester, and it describes the effects of mutations of Teashirt in people and mice. (medicalnewstoday.com 27.9.2016).)

(Anm: Blindtarmen har måske en vigtig biologisk funktion. (…) Men blindtarmen skal måske fjernes fra den liste og opgraderes fra blot at være en tikkende bombe i maven. Den kan nemlig spille en vigtig biologisk rolle, som mennesket ikke er klar til at undvære, skriver sciencealert.com. Det viser et nyt studie, som er publiceret i tidsskriftet Science Direct. (…) De arter, der beholdt eller genvandt deres blindtarm, havde gennemsnitligt højere kocentration af lymfoidestof i deres coecum, som er den største del af tyktarmen, hvorpå blindtarmen sidder. Det indikerer, at blindtarmen kan spille en vigtig rolle for en arts immunsystem, da lymfoidestoffet er kendt for at stimulere væksten af gavnlige mavebakterier. (videnskab.dk 13.1.2017).)

- Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency-induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors.

Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency-induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors.
J Exp Med. 2017 Jan;214(1):107-123. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
Abstract Regulatory T (T reg) cell deficiency causes lethal, CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune diseases. Stem cell transplantation is used to treat these diseases, but this procedure is limited by the availability of a suitable donor. The intestinal microbiota drives host immune homeostasis by regulating the differentiation and expansion of T reg, Th1, and Th2 cells. It is currently unclear if T reg cell deficiency-mediated autoimmune disorders can be treated by targeting the enteric microbiota. Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3+ T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse. Remodeling microbiota with Lactobacillus reuteri prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. L. reuteri changed the metabolomic profile disrupted by T reg cell deficiency, and a major effect was to restore levels of the purine metabolite inosine. Feeding inosine itself prolonged life and inhibited multiorgan inflammation by reducing Th1/Th2 cells and their associated cytokines. Mechanistically, the inhibition of inosine on the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro depended on adenosine A2A receptors, which were also required for the efficacy of inosine and of L. reuteri in vivo. These results reveal that the microbiota-inosine-A2A receptor axis might represent a potential avenue for combatting autoimmune diseases mediated by T reg cell dysfunction. (…)

- Flere fund peger også i retning af, at immunsystemet spiller en stigende rolle i blandt andet udviklingen af Alzheimers og andre sygdomme i hjernen.

Danskere kortlægger, hvordan hjernen bekæmper virus
videnskab.dk 6.12.2016
Dansk forskning har kortlagt, hvordan hjernen bekæmper virusinfektioner. Forskningen kan have betydning for kampen mod alt fra sclerose til Alzheimers sygdom, skizofreni og depression. (…)

Den danske forskning viser blandt andet, at en celletype, kaldet mikroglia, fungerer som indsatsledere, når hjernen skal forsvare sig selv.

Det gør den ved at koordinere immunsystemets forsvar mod de vira, der forsøger at inficere hjernen.

Når mikroglia ikke fungerer optimalt, kan det lede til betændelse i hjernen, og dysfunktionel mikroglia kan muligvis også være involveret i lidelser som sclerose, depression, skizofreni og Alzheimers sygdom.

»Vi har indikationer på, at fejl i mikrogliaernes signalveje blandt andet kan lede til inflammation i hjernen. Flere fund peger også i retning af, at immunsystemet spiller en stigende rolle i blandt andet udviklingen af Alzheimers og andre sygdomme i hjernen. Derfor kan man bruge det her forskningsresultat til at studere disse sygdomme og dermed blive klogere på dem,« fortæller en af forskerne bag det nye studie, lektor Line Reinert fra Institut for Biomedicin på Aarhus Universitet.

Hun står sammen med blandt andet kollegaen, professor Søren R. Palludan, bag det nye studie, der for nylig blev offentliggjort i det videnskabelige tidsskrift Nature Communications. (...)

(Anm: Sensing of HSV-1 by the cGAS–STING pathway in microglia orchestrates antiviral defence in the CNS. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 13348 (2016). (Published online: 10 November 2016).)

(Anm: Ny kortlægning: Sådan bekæmper hjernen virusinfektioner. (...) Forskningen kan have betydning for kampen mod alt fra sklerose til Alzheimers sygdom, skizofreni og depression. (...) Derfor er hjernen også udstyret med sit eget immunforsvar, og nu har danske forskere endelig fundet ud af, hvordan det immunforsvar fungerer. Det skriver Videnskab.dk. (...) Det nye forskningsresultat og hjernens forsvar mod infektioner indeholder en masse navne, der for de fleste mennesker ikke giver nogen mening. Det er blandt andet navne som mikroglia, astrocytter, neuroner, interferon og STING/cGas, som gør forskningsresultatet kompliceret at forstå. (jyllands-posten.dk 8.12.2016).)

(Anm: Hurtige lysglimt ser ud til at bremse Alzheimers. Hurtigt blinkende lys har vist sig at kunne fjerne en stor del af de proteinfragtmenter, der er forløber til Alzheimers, i mus med tidlig Alzheimers sygdom. (…) Forskere har observeret, at gammabølgerne kan blive forstyrret ved hjerneskade, skizofreni - og Alzheimers sygdom. (…) De placerede i en time musene i et rum med LED-lamper, som blinkede 40 gange i sekundet; den samme frekvens som gammabølgerne. (…) Ifølge Li-Huei Tsai, som er leder af Picower Institute for Learning and Menory og professor i neurovidenskab, var resultatet af eksperimentet en overraskelse for forskerne. »Det er helt vildt,« udtaler hun i et interview i podcasten Radiolab. (jyllands-posten.dk 8.1.2017).)

(Anm: Hay fever might alter the brain. (…) Increased neurogenesis, reduced microglia activity with allergic reaction. (…) The researchers say they are unable to say how these allergy-induced brain changes affect CNS function. They point out that neurogenesis in the hippocampus normally declines with age, contributing to memory-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, and this study suggests that allergic reaction increases neurogenesis. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.8.2016).)

(Anm: Get to Know Your Lymph Nodes (webmd.com 18.5.2016).)

(Anm: Ny del av hjernen oppdaget. Forskere har oppdaget en helt ny forbindelse mellom hjernen og immunsystemet. Oppdagelsen er gjort på mus, men kan likevel bli avgjørende for forskningen på autisme, Alzheimers og sklerose. (…) De nyoppdagede lymfekarene (markert med lysegrønt) forbinder hjernen med immunsystemet. (Illustrasjon: University of Virginia Health System) (forskning.no 21.6.2015).)

(Anm: Autism risk increased with prenatal exposure to banned chemicals. A class of compounds called organochlorines were banned from production in the United States in the 1970s, after they emerged as harmful to human health. A new study, however, reveals that exposure to these chemicals could still be high, and it could be putting children at significantly greater risk for autism. The research was recently published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.  (medicalnewstoday.com 23.8.2016).)

(Anm: Study Links Autism Severity to Genetics, Ultrasound. SEATTLE, Wash -- September 1, 2016 -- For children with autism and a class of genetic disorders, exposure to diagnostic ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy is linked to increased autism severity, according to a study published in the September 1 issue of Autism Research. (dgnews.docguide.com 1.9.2016).)

(Anm: Found: A potential new way to sway the immune system. A new international collaboration involving scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) opens a door to influencing the immune system, which would be useful to boost the effectiveness of vaccines or to counter autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. The research, published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, focused on a molecule called microRNA-155 (miR-155), a key player in the immune system's production of disease-fighting antibodies. "It's very exciting to see exactly how this molecule works in the body," said TSRI Associate Professor Changchun Xiao, who co-led the study with Professor Wen-Hsien Liu of Xiamen University in Fuijan province, China. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.8.2016).)

(Anm: How your microbes influence your love life. Microbes have exerted a similarly powerful influence on us via their perch from inside our bodies. Scientists are just starting to unravel the mysteries of the microbes that live in and on us, collectively known as the microbiome. (…) The microbes that live in human guts influence our risk of developing obesity, depression and anxiety. They may play a role in controlling our behavior as well. (ed.ted.com 11.8.2016).)

(Anm: 'Brain Age' May Help Predict When You'll Die. (HealthDay News) -- When the brain ages faster than normal, people are at heightened risk for brain disease and impairment, as well as early death, a new British study suggests.The study authors said the finding may introduce a way to use imaging of the brain as a biomarker -- a way to measure a biological condition or process. "Such biomarkers could potentially identify those at risk of age-associated health problems years before symptoms appear, and be used as outcome measures in trials of therapeutics aimed at delaying the onset of age-related disease," said study lead author James Cole, from Imperial College London. (…) The findings were published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry. (medicinenet.com 27.4.2017).)

- Barnmisshandel kan påskynda kroppens åldrande

Barnmisshandel kan påskynda kroppens åldrande
dn.se 21.11.2009
Fysisk eller psykisk misshandel under uppväxten kan påskynda kroppens åldrande, det visar en stuide utförd av amerikanska forskare.

Det är ett team från Brown University som forskar kring telomererna, de skyddande locken på kromosomerna som håller cellens DNA stabilt, som kommit fram till resultatet.

Teamet fann att telomererna hos personer som utsatts för misshandel eller övergrepp under barndomen tenderade att kortas ned snabbare än hos andra människor, skriver brittiska BBC. (...)

Studien utfördes på 31 personer. Professor Tim Spector vid King's College i London, som forskar om telomerer och åldrande, säger till BBC att studien är intressant, men att den måste upprepas i större skala för att vi ska kunna vara säkra på dess slutsatser.

2009 års Nobelpris i medicin gick till tre forskare som bidrog till upptäckten av telomerer. (...)

(Anm: Barnevern, omsorgssvikt, barnemishandling og barnedrap. (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Omsorgssvikt endrer barns hjerne. – Stressbelastning påvirker hjernens utvikling og traumer tidlig i livet kan forstyrre den normale utviklingen, sier barnepsykolog. (…) Jeg har sett på effekten omsorgssvikt har for stress tidlig i livet og på barnas kognitive og emosjonelle utvikling, sier Else-Marie Augusti, postdoktor ved enheten for kognitiv utviklingspsykologi ved Universitet i Oslo. Hun refererer til forskning som viser at kortisol påvirker hjernens utvikling. – Hjernens størrelse og struktur endres av omsorgssvikt. Barn som utsettes for dette sliter med regulering av følelser, opplyser hun. (nrk.no 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: Helsetilsynet slår alarm om svikt i barnevernet: Bryter loven og barn blir ikke hørt. Helsetilsynets rapport fra 225 kommuner og bydeler viser at barn ikke har fått den hjelpen de har krav på. (– Kommunene svikter. Til sammen har 225 kommuner eller bydeler hatt en gjennomgang av sitt arbeid med meldinger, og Helsetilsynets konklusjon er krystallklar: «Vi har i dette tilsynet sett at meldinger til barnevernet om barn som lever med omsorgssvikt ble henlagt. Barn som skulle hatt hjelp fikk det ikke. Bekymringen ble «lagt i skuffen».» (nrk.no 7.3.2017).)

(Anm: NRK og Adresseavisen lot tips om at lærer mobbet egne elever på barneskole i Trondheim ligge. (…) – Svikter barna. (…) Han undrer seg også over at ingen medier stiller kritiske spørsmål til de ansvarlige i kommunen om hvordan mobbingen kunne pågå. (…) NRK og Adresseavisen lot tips om at lærer mobbet egne elever på barneskole i Trondheim ligge. Sjefredaktør Tor Olav Mørseth i Adressa sier det handler om prioriteringer. (journalisten.no 24.2.2017).)

(Anm: TSRI researchers find 'lead actors' in immune cell development. A new study, led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), reveals a surprising twist in immune biology. The research in animal models suggests that members of a cluster of microRNAs (miRNAs) - small non-coding RNA molecules that play a role in regulating gene expression - work together throughout the different stages of immune cell generation. (medicalnewstoday.com 2.8.2016).)

(Anm: Flere årtiers hjerneforskning belastes af fejl i computersystem. Meget af det, vi tror, vi ved om hjernen, kan være forkert. For der er fejl i de softwaresystemer, hjerneforskere bruger til at analysere deres data, viser nye fund. (…) Populært har man talt om, at fMRI gav forskerne mulighed for at læse tanker. Nu viser en undersøgelse publiceret i det videnskabelige tidsskrift PNAS, at de computersystemer, forskerne bruger til at analysere fMRI-billeder af hjernen, laver alvorlige fejl. Det betyder, at der kan være forkerte konklusioner i tusindvis af psykologiske og neurovidenskabelige artikler, der i de senere år er publiceret. (videnskab.dk 5.8.2016).)

- Immunologiske sykdommer som MS, psoriasis kan være linket til risiko for demens.

Immune Disorders Such as MS, Psoriasis May Be Tied to Dementia Risk
medicinenet.com 1.3.2017
WEDNESDAY, March 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- People with autoimmune diseases -- conditions that cause a person's immune system to turn against the body -- appear to have an increased risk of developing dementia, a new British study suggests.

Researchers found that 18 out of 25 different autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, psoriasis or multiple sclerosis, "showed a statistically significant association with dementia," said study co-author Dr. Michael Goldacre. He's a professor of public health at the University of Oxford.

But Goldacre and other experts stressed that the study didn't prove that autoimmune diseases cause dementia. The research only showed that these conditions are associated with a higher risk of dementia.

Specifically, the study found that people with multiple sclerosis appeared to have nearly double the risk of dementia. Psoriasis was associated with a 29 percent increased risk of dementia. Lupus was linked to a 46 percent increased risk, and rheumatoid arthritis with a 13 percent increased risk. Crohn's disease was associated with a 10 percent increased risk.

"How do [autoimmune diseases] affect the brain? We don't know, although others have suggested that chronic inflammation, possibly autoimmune effects, or possibly both, may have a role in Alzheimer's," Goldacre said.

For this study, the researchers reviewed information from more than 1.8 million people in England. All had been admitted to a hospital with an autoimmune disease between 1998 and 2012. (…)

The autoimmune diseases had a much stronger impact on the risk of vascular dementia. The risk of vascular dementia was 28 percent higher in people with autoimmune diseases. People with vascular dementia experience a decline in their thinking skills due to conditions that block or reduce blood flow to the brain, starving brain cells of oxygen and nutrients.

This apparent increased risk for vascular dementia could be caused by the effect of autoimmune diseases on the circulatory system, the researchers said. The study also found that people with an autoimmune disease were 53 percent more likely to be hospitalized for heart disease. Those with an autoimmune disease were also 46 percent more likely to have a stroke.

The link between vascular dementia and autoimmune diseases is "something new," said James Hendrix. He's the director of global science initiatives for the Alzheimer's Association, based in Chicago.

This link could implicate chronic inflammation as a potential cause of progressive dementia, he said.

Hendrix explained that a person with a sprained ankle experiences inflammation and swelling as the immune system responds to their injury. If the inflammation continues for an extended period, that person could wind up with joint damage and arthritis.

"We are starting to think neuron inflammation is similar," Hendrix said. (…)

Rocca also pointed out that the 25 autoimmune diseases considered in the study are very different from each other. For example, some attack the joints or the endocrine glands, while others -- like multiple sclerosis -- may directly affect the brain.

Findings from the study were published March 1 in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. (…)

– Nesten halvparten av pasientene hadde kognitiv svekkelse ved start. Norsk tiårsoppfølging om kognitiv svekkelse hos MS-pasienter sjekket kognitive tester på telling, prosessering og hukommelse. (– Ved rekrutteringen til studien var omtrent femti prosent av pasientene allerede kognitivt svekket. Deretter hadde de omtrent parallelle kurver over ti år, som dalte sakte nedover, sier Jacobsen til Dagens Medisin.)

(Anm: – Nesten halvparten av pasientene hadde kognitiv svekkelse ved start. Norsk tiårsoppfølging om kognitiv svekkelse hos MS-pasienter sjekket kognitive tester på telling, prosessering og hukommelse. PARIS (DAGENS MEDISIN): Et av de norske bidragene på ECTRIMS denne uken, er en studie på kognitiv svekkelse av multippel sklerose-pasienter (MS) over en tiårs periode. Konstituert overlege og forsker Cecilie Osman Jacobsen ved Stavanger universitetssykehus, la under kongressen frem data fra studien, som viste at 46 pros ent av pasientene ble klassifisert med svekket funksjon ved studiens start. – Ved rekrutteringen til studien var omtrent femti prosent av pasientene allerede kognitivt svekket. Deretter hadde de omtrent parallelle kurver over ti år, som dalte sakte nedover, sier Jacobsen til Dagens Medisin. Studien er en del av doktorgradsarbeidet til Jacobsen ved Universitetet i Bergen. (dagensmedisin.no 27.10.2017).)

(Anm: Associations between specific autoimmune diseases and subsequent dementia: retrospective record-linkage cohort study, UK. (...) Conclusions The associations with vascular dementia may be one component of a broader association between autoimmune diseases and vascular damage. Though findings were significant, effect sizes were small. Clinicians should be aware of the possible coexistence of autoimmune disease and dementia in individuals. Further studies are needed to confirm or refute our findings and to explore possible mechanisms mediating any elevation of risk. J Epidemiol Community Health 2017;0:1–8.)

(Anm: Gut microbiota from multiple sclerosis patients enables spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2017 (PNAS Early Edition).

- Tarmdysbiose bryter ned immunologisk toleranse mot sentralnervesystemet i løpet ungdomstiden.

(Anm: Gut dysbiosis breaks immunological tolerance toward the central nervous system during young adulthood. Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system (CNS) mainly in young adults, and a breakage of immune tolerance to CNS self-antigens has been suggested to initiate CNS autoimmunity. Age and microbial infection are well-known factors involved in the development of autoimmune diseases, including MS. Recent studies have suggested that alterations in the gut microbiota, referred to as dysbiosis, are associated with MS. However, it is still largely unknown how gut dysbiosis affects the onset and progression of CNS autoimmunity. In this study, we investigated the effects of age and gut dysbiosis on the development of CNS autoimmunity in humanized transgenic mice expressing the MS-associated MHC class II (MHC-II) gene, HLA-DR2a, and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes specific for MBP87-99/DR2a that were derived from an MS patient. We show here that the induction of gut dysbiosis triggers the development of spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) during adolescence and early young adulthood, while an increase in immunological tolerance with aging suppresses disease onset after late young adulthood in mice. Furthermore, gut dysbiosis induces the expression of complement C3 and production of the anaphylatoxin C3a, and down-regulates the expression of the Foxp3 gene and anergy-related E3 ubiquitin ligase genes. Consequently, gut dysbiosis was able to trigger the development of encephalitogenic T cells and promote the induction of EAE during the age window of young adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Oct 16. pii: 201615715.)

– Legemiddel mot allergi gjenoppretter nervesystemets funksjon hos pasienter med kronisk MS.

(Anm: Allergy medication restores nervous system function in patients with chronic MS. In a remarkably rapid translation of laboratory research findings into a treatment with the potential to benefit patients, UC San Francisco scientists have successfully completed a Phase II clinical trial showing that an FDA-approved antihistamine restores nervous system function in patients with chronic multiple sclerosis (MS). The drug tested in the trial, clemastine fumarate, was first identified as a candidate treatment for MS in 2013 by UCSF's Jonah R. Chan, PhD, Debbie and Andy Rachleff Distinguished Professor of Neurology, vice chief of the Division of Neuroinflammation and Glial Biology, and senior author of the new study. First approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1977 for allergies, the drug has been available over the counter in generic form since 1993. The researchers said that the Phase II results, published online on 10 October, 2017 in The Lancet, are the first in which a drug has been shown to reliably restore any brain function damaged by a neurological disease in human patients. (news-medical.net 16.10.2017).)

- Forskere reparerer hjernen efter slagtilfælde

Forskere reparerer hjernen efter slagtilfælde
videnskab.dk 2.9.2016
Forskere har ved hjælp af stamceller og et specielt protein repareret musehjerner efter slagtilfælde. Hvis behandlingen også virker i mennesker, kan det være et betydeligt gennembrud, siger forsker.
Slagtilfælde kan lave store og uoprettelige skader på hjernen. Det ved de 35.000 til 40.000 danskere, der i dag lever med eftervirkningerne af en blodprop i hjernen, alt om.

Hidtil har der ikke været nogen måde, hvorpå læger kan udbedre skader på hjernecellerne eller genskabe nye hjerneceller efter et slagtilfælde, men det kan snart være slut.

Nye forsøg - der ganske vist er udført på mus - viser nemlig, hvordan transplanterede stamceller og et modificeret protein, kaldet 3K3A-APC (APC), kan reparere hjernen og skabe nye neuroner til at erstatte dem, som blev ødelagt, da blodproppen ramte hjernen. (…)

(Anm: Loss of cohesin complex components STAG2 or STAG3 confers resistance to BRAF inhibition in melanoma. Nat Med. 2016 Aug 8.)

(Anm: Systemfejl sår tvivl om årtiers hjerneforskning. Der er fejl i de softwaresystemer, som hjerneforskere bruger til at analysere data, viser nye fund. (…) De såkaldte fMRI-skanninger er i de seneste årtier blevet brugt i over 40.000 studier, og en lang række opsigtsvækkende resultater er kommet ud af det, skriver Videnskab.dk. Professor: Dele af hjerneforskningen skal skrives om. (jyllands-posten.dk 5.8.2016).)

- Slik kommuniserer hjernen. (- Overføringene viser seg å være overraskende presise, ifølge forskerne bak studien som ble publisert i Nature denne uken.)

Slik kommuniserer hjernen
forskning.no 29.7.2016
Nytt innsyn i hjernens arkitektur kan gi bedre forståelse av hjernesykdommer som depresjon, schizofreni og Alzheimers sykdom. Det kan gi bedre behandlingsmåter.

Både koblingene mellom hjernens celler og signalstoffene mellom dem har et uventet presist mønster når signaler overføres fra en hjernecelle til en annen.

I over hundre år har hjerneforskere visst at nerveceller kommuniserer med hverandre ved at stoffer som kalles nevrotransmittere, overføres fra den ene nervecellen til den andre gjennom synapsene. 

Synapsen er kontaktpunktet mellom to nerveceller. Der overføres informasjon i form av kjemiske signalstoff, som kalles nevrotransmittere. Utskillingen av signalstoffene er nøye kontrollert av bestemte proteinmolekyler.

Les mer: Nervecellenes stemme

Men hittil har det vært uklart hvordan dette skjer i minste detalj. Nå har forskere for første gang klart å belyse dette.

Overføringene viser seg å være overraskende presise, ifølge forskerne bak studien som ble publisert i Nature denne uken. 

Her kan du se video som illustrerer overføringen av signaler i hjernen. (…)

(Anm: A trans-synaptic nanocolumn aligns neurotransmitter release to receptors Nature 2016 (Published online  27 July 2016).)

(Anm: For the first time, researchers see structure that allows brain cells to communicate (medicalxpress.com 27.7.2016).)

(Anm: Forskning: Er du av typen som banner, roter og er oppe sent? Da har du vunnet intelligens-lotteriet ifølge forskerne. (…) Også det å være et nattmenneske, rote og å bruke banneord, er tegn på høyere intelligens viser studier. (…) Rotehode. Å ha stygg håndskrift brukes ofte som tegn på at man er intelligent. Nå kan de som er roterte, også skylde det på sin høye intelligens. (…) En studie utført ved Universitetet i Minnesota viser en sammenheng mellom det å ikke være glad i å rydde og høyere intelligens. De rotete har rett og slett tankene andre steder. (side3.no 6.10.2016).)

(Anm: A ‘Dirty Mouth' May Be A Sign Of Integrity; Study Associates Swearing With Increased Honesty. Swearing may be considered impolite and vulgar, but a new two-part study has revealed a more gracious attribute for those with an off-color vocabulary: Honesty. According to the research, people are more likely to swear as a way to express themselves, rather than cause harm to others, and the more an individual swears, the more honest they are likely to be. (medicaldaily.com 3.1.2017).)

(Anm: Prenatal Exposure to Paracetamol May Increase Autism Spectrum Symptoms (Prenatal (før fødselen) eksponering for paracetamol kan øke autismespekter symptomer) Int J Epidemiol. 2016 Jun 28. pii: dyw115.)

(Anm: Bruk av Paracetamol i svangerskapet linket til autisme, ADHD hos barn (Acetaminophen use in pregnancy linked to autism, ADHD in offspring) (medicalnewstoday.com 4.7.2016).)

(Anm: Babytenner linket til autisme, tungmetaller. Babytenner hos barn med autisme inneholder mer giftig bly og mindre av de essensielle næringsstoffene sink og mangan, sammenlignet med tenner fra barn uten autisme, ifølge en studie publisert i journal Nature Communications. Forskjellene i metallopptak mellom barn med og uten autisme var spesielt bemerkelsesverdige i løpet av månedene like før og etter at barna ble født. Forskere bestemte dette ved å bruke lasere til å kartlegge vekstringene i baby-tenner generert under ulike utviklingsperioder. (dgnews.docguide.com 2.6.2017).)

(Anm: Studie: Hovedpinepiller reducerer din evne til at føle empati. (videnskab.dk 15.7.2016).)

(Anm: Gene linked to autism lowers serotonin activity in mice, slows movement in gut. Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) have found evidence in mice that, for some types of autism, gastrointestinal difficulties may originate from the same genetic changes that lead to the behavioral and social characteristics of the condition. The study was published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.  (medicalnewstoday.com 25.4.2016).)

(Anm: Tarmbakterier fjerner autisme i mus. Sykdommer: Ny studie viser at man kan behandle mus med autismesymptomer ved hjelp av ekskrementer fra friske mus. (…) Det var særlig én tarmbakterie, Lactobacillus reuteri, de syke musene manglet. (illvit.no 29.6.2016).)

(Anm: - Nye kliniske studier viser «lovende resultater" for autisme (ASD)-behandling. (New clinical trial shows 'promising results' for ASD treatment. The gut microbiota is a fascinating part of the human body; it plays a crucial role in immunity and keeps our bodies healthy. New research suggests that the gut microbiome may even hold the key to a potential treatment for autism. (medicalnewstoday.com 23.1.2017).)1234uytre12gdfs

(Anm: 50.000 nordmenn vil utvikle schizofreni i løpet av livet. - De som lider av denne psykoselidelsen har tanker om verden som ikke stemmer, sier ekspert. (…) Uklare symptomer i starten. Symptomer på Schizofreni utvikler seg over tid, og er i starten litt uklare. Ofte blir de mer fremtredende etter hvert. - Da vises blant annet sosial tilbaketrekning, man mister kontakt med virkeligheten, har vrangforestillinger, hallusinasjoner, tap av matlyst og tap av hygiene. Det er store individuelle variasjoner og mange opplever det som en berg- og dalbane, sier Tove Gundersen, som er generalsekretær i Rådet for psykisk helse. (kk.no 26.9.2016).)

- Vanlig parasitt linket til epilepsi og andre hjernelidelser.

(Anm: Common parasite linked to epilepsy and other brain disorders. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a very common parasite that is often associated with cats and is thought to cause very few symptoms and no serious effects in humans. However, research led by the University of Chicago has now shown that it might, in fact, play a role in the development of epilepsy and other brain disorders. The findings are published in the journal Scientific Reports. T. gondii is able to live in the brain cells of nearly all warm-blooded animals. Evidence shows that 30-50% of the world population is infected with T. gondii, but most people aren’t aware of it. Occasionally, however, it causes a condition called toxoplasmosis, and if a woman is infected before or during pregnancy, the parasite can, in rare cases, seriously harm the brain and eyes of the developing child. (…) The latest study, which involved 32 scientists across 16 institutions, used a database containing information about 246 people who had become infected with T. gondii in the womb. The team searched for parasite-generated signs (known as biomarkers) that were not present in an unaffected group of people and examined their probable impact on health. (…) In addition, the researchers found evidence that T.gondii proteins can disrupt GABA signalling, thus disturbing the balance between excitation and inhibition in the brain and increasing the risk of epileptic seizures. (…) You can read about the harmful effects of T. gondii in other animals here. Click here for more epilepsy news. (epilepsyresearch.org.uk 15.9.2017).)

(Anm: Katteparasitt kan gi schizofreni og tvangslidelser. Forskere har funnet en sammenheng mellom katteparasitten Toxoplasma gondii og utviklingen av forskjellige psykiske lidelser hos mennesker. (…) En parasitt fra katteavføring, T. gondii, kan sette fast seg i menneskehjernen og føre til schizofreni, manisk depressiv sinnslidelse, avhengighet og tvangstanker. (nrk.no 29.6.2015).)

(Anm: No, Your Cat Isn't a Threat to Your Mental Health. (…) But mental health worries aside, pregnant women should still be cautious about exposure to cat litter boxes, another researcher warned. "There is good evidence that T. gondii exposure during pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects and other health problems in children," said study senior author Dr. James Kirkbride. (medicinenet.com 21.2.2017).)

(Anm: Angstbehandling spres til utlandet. Her er nederlandske psykologer i Bergen for å lære om behandlingen som kan kurere tvangstanker på fire dager. Nå spres behandlingsopplegget til andre sykdommer og utover Norges grenser. (dagensmedisin.no 21.12.2016).)

(Anm: Schizofreni kopplas till TBE-smitta. Det kan finnas en koppling mellan virusinfektioner som TBE och neuropsykiatriska sjukdomar som schizofreni. Det har svenska forskare kommit fram till i en studie som presenterades på en konferens i San Diego på måndagen. (svd.se 6.11.2007).)

(Anm: Scientists find chemical pathway responsible for schizophrenia symptoms. Recent studies have suggested that kynurenic acid (KYNA) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia have been shown to possess higher levels of KYNA than healthy individuals. KYNA helps to metabolize tryptophan - an essential amino acid that, in turn, helps the body to produce the "happiness" neurotransmitter serotonin, and the vitamin niacin. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.2.2017).)

(Anm: Psykose. Alle mennesker kan utvikle psykose. - Balansegangen mellom opplevd stress og ballast til å stå imot, er avgjørende, forteller psykiater. (…) - Stress er et sentralt tema. For eksempel har vi forskjellige måter å takle en belastende hendelse på jobb på. (…) - Man kan kalle det en forvirringstilstand, selv om heller ikke det er helt dekkende. (…) Symptomer ved psykose. Tidlige tegn kan være at man: (…) - Det er en kjempebelastning å ha en psykose. Mange blir redde og opplever ting de ikke forstår. Man vet at noen mennesker kan få tanker og impulser om å ta sitt eget liv, legger hun til. (lommelegen.no 13.6.2016).)

(Anm: Samtaleterapi styrker hjernens forbindelser for behandling av psykose. (Talk therapy strengthens brain connections to treat psychosis. Cognitive behavior therapy is used to help treat a number of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. For the first time, researchers have shown how this type of therapy triggers brain changes to produce long-term benefits for patients with psycosis. Researchers have found evidence to suggest that talk therapy can alter the brain in a way that leads to long-term recovery from psychosis. Lead study author Dr. Liam Mason, of King's College London in the United Kingdom, and colleagues report their findings in the journal Translational Psychiatry.) (medicalnewstoday.com 22.1.2017).)

(Anm: Forskningen på schizofreni og psykose er i dyp krise | Paul Møller, dr. med. og spesialist i psykiatri. Hjernen kan måles, veies og avbildes eksakt og detaljert. Psyken er derimot subjektiv, flytende, flyktig og abstrakt, og derfor langt mer krevende å forske på. (aftenposten.no 26.1.2017).)

(Anm: Fem myter om schizofreni | Bjørn Rishovd Rund, professor, Psykologisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo Fem myter om schizofreni. Begrepet schizofreni er sterkt belastet. Det skyldes til dels noen myter som er vanskelige å knekke. Bjørn Rishovd Rund professor, Psykologisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo (aftenposten.no 5.2.2017).)

(Anm: Det vakreste mennesket jeg kjenner, har diagnosen schizofreni. Likevel kaller du ham gal | Karoline Kongshaug (aftenposten.no 29.6.2017).)

(Anm: Probiotics may help treat yeast infections, bowel problems in men with schizophrenia. The findings, published in the May 1 issue of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, support growing evidence of close links between the mind and the gut. (…) The commercially available probiotic contained over 1 billion colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium animalis in each pill. PANSS scores were reassessed every two weeks, and the participants self-reported on the ease of their bowel movements weekly on a scale of 0 to 4. At the end of the study, the researchers collected another blood sample. Using the blood samples, the researchers measured antibody levels to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as brewer's yeast, and Candida albicans, known to cause yeast infections, before and after the probiotic treatment. Both types of yeast are elevated in people with schizophrenia. (news-medical.net 5.4.2017).)

- Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency-induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors.

Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency-induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors.
J Exp Med. 2017 Jan;214(1):107-123. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
Abstract Regulatory T (T reg) cell deficiency causes lethal, CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune diseases. Stem cell transplantation is used to treat these diseases, but this procedure is limited by the availability of a suitable donor. The intestinal microbiota drives host immune homeostasis by regulating the differentiation and expansion of T reg, Th1, and Th2 cells. It is currently unclear if T reg cell deficiency-mediated autoimmune disorders can be treated by targeting the enteric microbiota. Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3+ T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse. Remodeling microbiota with Lactobacillus reuteri prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. L. reuteri changed the metabolomic profile disrupted by T reg cell deficiency, and a major effect was to restore levels of the purine metabolite inosine. Feeding inosine itself prolonged life and inhibited multiorgan inflammation by reducing Th1/Th2 cells and their associated cytokines. Mechanistically, the inhibition of inosine on the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro depended on adenosine A2A receptors, which were also required for the efficacy of inosine and of L. reuteri in vivo. These results reveal that the microbiota-inosine-A2A receptor axis might represent a potential avenue for combatting autoimmune diseases mediated by T reg cell dysfunction. (…)

(Anm: Antibiotika tidlig i livet endret adferd hos mus. Penicillin under graviditeten og amming gjorde museungene mer aggressive og mindre sosiale. Forskerne er bekymret for også barn kan få varige endringer i hjernen som følge av mors antibiotikabruk. Bruk av antibiotika blir møtt med stadig økt bekymring fra forskere. I en ny studie publisert i Nature Communications fikk drektige mus penicillin i vanlige små doser til i en uke på slutten av svangerskapet og mens de ammet. Museunger som hadde blitt påvirket av antibiotika fikk forandringer i hjernen og endret adferd i forhold til vanlige mus. Mødre som tok antibiotika fikk mer aggressive, mindre engstelige og mindre sosiale avkom. (nrk.no 19.4.2017).)

(Anm: Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior. Abstract There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children's health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood-brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression. Concurrent supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 prevents some of these alterations. These results warrant further studies on the potential role of early-life antibiotic use in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the possible attenuation of these by beneficial bacteria. Nat Commun. 2017 Apr 4;8:15062.)

(Anm: Psychosis: Link to brain inflammation antibodies raises new treatment hope. For the first time, researchers reveal that some people presenting with a first episode of psychosis have specific antibodies in their blood. The antibodies are the same ones known to cause encephalitis or brain inflammation. The discovery raises the question of whether the removal of these antibodies could be an effective treatment for psychosis as it is for encephalitis. The researchers - led by Belinda R. Lennox, a professor in the department of psychiatry at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom - report their findings in The Lancet Psychiatry. (…) Previous studies have already fueled discussion about the role antibodies targeting neural proteins may play in psychosis. For example, a study reported in 2015 of children experiencing their first episode of psychosis, also found links to an antibody response to NMDAR. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.12.2016).)

(Anm: Psykose som målestokk for tvungent psykisk helsevern. Sammendrag Abstract  Denne artikkelen handlar om vilkåra for tvungent psykisk helsevern. Det er særleg fokusert på ei drøfting omkring det såkalla hovudvilkåret etter lov om psykisk helsevern (phvl.) § 3-3 (1) nr. 3. I artikkelen vert det drøfta om dagens rettsregel og dei vurderingstema den set opp, gjer ei god avgrensing sett i høve til føremåla med tvungent psykisk helsevern. Det vert òg skissert ei betre løysing for tolking av vilkåret. Kritisk juss03 / 2016 (Volum 2) Side: 217-237DOI: 10.18261/issn.2387-4546-2016-03-03.)

- For Franz Kafka var søvnløshet en litterær metode

For Franz Kafka, insomnia was a literary method
Lancet neurology 2016;15(12):207 (November 2016
We read with great interest the Focal Point by Antonio Perciaccante and Alessia Coralli1 about Franz Kafka's insomnia and parasomnias. For all his writing life, Kafka had insomnia and the hypnagogic hallucinations arising from his lack of sleep shaped much of his writing. However, to conclude, as the authors do, that “The Metamorphosis” can be read as a metaphor for ill effects of insomnia would be incorrect.

“I believe this sleeplessness comes only because I write”, Kafka noted in one of his diary entries in 1910.2 In 1922, to Max Brod, he writes: “Perhaps there are other forms of writing, but I know only this kind; at night, when fear keeps me from sleeping, I know only this kind.”3 As Aaron Mishara notes, for Kafka, writing is a trance-like Dionysian activity at night, opening the endless inner darkness of self as an abyss without an end.4 Kafka, writing about one of his sleepless nights, mentions a great fire in which everything appears and disappears, which Mishara suggests represents a state of cortical excitability after his withdrawal from social stimuli with sleep deprivation. Kafka was eager for seperation from his family, with whom he spent much of his life (much like Gregor Samsa in The Metamorphosis, who also had a difficult relationship with his family).5 Social withdrawal and photic withdrawal are essential for self-induced hypnagogic-like-trances. Kafka scheduled his writing during the night in a sleep-deprived state purposely because this state of prolonged sleep deprivation could serve as a psychotomimetic state (a psychotic-like state in an otherwise healthy individual). “It is not alertness but self-oblivion that is the precondition of writing”, Kafka writes to Max Brod.3

Drawing from these and numerous other diary entries and letters, we pose that, even if Kafka was tortured by the incessant insomnia, it was his preferred and perhaps his only method of journeying (in Jungian terms) into the depths of his unconscious. His insomnia was not at all dehumanising (as suggested by Perciccante and Correlli), but the exact opposite—ie, humanising the self by bringing to surface elements of unconscious that guide most actions of our waking life. (…)

(Anm: Språk, språkforståelse og utdanning (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Psykose forbundet med lave nivåer av fysisk aktivitet. (Psychosis associated with low levels of physical activity. A large international study of more than 200,000 people in nearly 50 countries has revealed that people with psychosis engage in low levels of physical activity, and men with psychosis are over two times more likely to miss global activity targets compared to people without the illness.) (medicalnewstoday.com 26.8.2016).)

(Anm: Autism: Disruption of a uniquely human developmental program. Every time a child or adult learns something new, new contacts form between neurons in the brain. This process (synaptogenesis) is especially active in children during the first 10 years of life. What's more, such long period of active neuronal plasticity is unique to humans as a species: even in some of our closest relatives, chimpanzees and macaques, it ends within several months or a year after birth. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.10.2016).)

- For mye aktivitet i en av hjernens viktigste minneområder er ikke bra for din hukommelse og oppmerksomhet

Too much activity in one of the brain's key memory regions is bad for your memory and attention (For mye aktivitet i en av hjernens viktigste minneområder er ikke bra for din hukommelse og oppmerksomhet)
medicalnewstoday.com 24.8.2016
Neurons in the brain interact by sending each other chemical messages, so-called neurotransmitters. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter, which is important to restrain neural activity, preventing neurons from getting too trigger-happy and from firing too much or responding to irrelevant stimuli.

Researchers led by Dr Tobias Bast in the School of Psychology at The University of Nottingham have found that faulty inhibitory neurotransmission and abnormally increased activity in the hippocampus impairs our memory and attention.

Their latest research - "Hippocampal neural disinhibition causes attentional and memory deficits" - published in the academic journal Cerebral Cortex, has implications for understanding cognitive deficits in a variety of brain disorders, including schizophrenia, age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's, and for the treatment of cognitive deficits.

The hippocampus - a part of the brain that sits within our temporal lobes - plays a major role in our everyday memory of events and of where and when they happen - for example remembering where we parked our car before going shopping.

This research has shown that a lack of restraint in the neural firing within the hippocampus disrupts hippocampus-dependent memory; in addition, such aberrant neuron firing within the hippocampus also disrupted attention - a cognitive function that does not normally require the hippocampus.  (…)

Dr Bast, said: "One emerging idea is that early stages of cognitive disorders, such as schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's, are characterised by faulty inhibition and too much activity; this excess neural activity leads then to neuronal damage and the reduced brain activity characterizing later stages of these disorders. So, rebalancing aberrant activity early on may not only restore attention and memory, but also prevent further decline.

"We have new studies on the way where we aim to identify medicines that might be able to re-balance neural activity within hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and to restore memory and attention." (…)

(Anm: Hippocampal Neural Disinhibition Causes Attentional and Memory Deficits. Cereb. Cortex 2016 (First published online: August 22, 2016).)

(Anm: SSRI-er (lykkepiller) forårsaker en varig serotonerg ubalanse grunnet legemidlenes skadelige endringer mht. serotonin og andre nevrotransmittere, mitokondriell dysfunksjon, avkortet levetid, plutselige dødsfall etc. (- SSRI-er øker nivået av serotonin i deler av hjernen med opptil 700 % (eller mer?), samt reduserer serotonin i blod med opptil 93 %.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Effekten av psykostimulerende legemidler på blod-hjerne barrierens funksjon og nevroinflammasjon. (The effects of psychostimulant drugs on blood brain barrier function and neuroinflammation) (Front. Pharmacol. 2012;3:121 (Published online: 29 June 2012).)

- Studier av epilepsipatienter avdekker ledetråder til hvordan hjernen husker.

(Anm: Studier av epilepsipatienter avdekker ledetråder til hvordan hjernen husker. Studies of epilepsy patients uncover clues to how the brain remembers. (…) In one study, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, the patients correctly remembered 38 percent of the word pairs they were shown. Electrical recordings showed that the brain waves the patients experienced when they correctly stored and remembered a word pair often occurred in the temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex regions. Nevertheless, the researchers showed that the waves that appeared when recalling the words happened faster than the waves that were present when they initially stored them as memories. "Our results suggest the brain replays memories on fast forward," said Dr. Zaghloul. (medicalxpress.com 10.6.2017).)

(Anm: Human Cortical Neurons in the Anterior Temporal Lobe Reinstate Spiking Activity during Verbal Memory Retrieval. Curr Biol. 2017 Jun 5;27(11):1700-1705.e5. Epub 2017 May 25.)

- Ida undersøger menneskets gener: Sædceller husker dårlige vaner.

(Anm: Ida undersøger menneskets gener: Sædceller husker dårlige vaner. Ida Donkin har gennem sin forskning opdaget, at sædceller husker farens dårlige livsstil, og den dårlige livsstil har indflydelse på børnenes risiko for at udvikle fedme og sukkersyge. At den ene generation kan påvirke den anden generation så direkte, er en helt ny vinkel på evolutionsteorien. (…) Mandens sædceller bærer nemlig ikke kun arvemassen videre, men bliver også påvirket af den livsstil, han har. De husker så at sige de dårlige – eller gode – vaner. (jyllands-posten.dk 7.7.2017).)

- Slik trener du hjernen. Visste du at hjernen kan endres? Den kan faktisk trenes opp og deler av hjernen kan bli fysisk større. Hjerneforskeren deler tre enkle tips til hvordan man trene opp hjernen.

(Anm: Slik trener du hjernen. Visste du at hjernen kan endres? Den kan faktisk trenes opp og deler av hjernen kan bli fysisk større. Hjerneforskeren deler tre enkle tips til hvordan man trene opp hjernen. (…) Studien viste at den delen av hjernen hvor man finner stedsorientering og hukommelse var blitt større hos taxisjåførene enn hos gjennomsnittsbefolkningen, forteller Nordengen. (…) Lær noe nytt (og ikke glem det) (nrk.no 9.10.2016).)

(Anm: Ny metastudie: – Du kan ikke trene hjernen til å bli smartere. Ny studie med deprimerende resultat. Kan du trene opp hjernen til å bli smartere og mer fokusert? Finnes det øvelser som styrker hukommelsen din? Neppe. Det er, kort sagt, konklusjonen til en stor, ny metastudie, ledet av psykolog David Simons fra Universitetet i Illinios. Det skriver NPR. (side3.no 9.10.2016).)

- Forbindelser mellom tarm, hjerne, og immunsystemet styrket

Connections between gut, brain, and immune system strengthened
medicalnewstoday.com 12.8.2016
Over recent years, researchers have given the common phrase "gut feeling" scientific backing. The interplay between the two systems is slowly being unraveled. New research finds that the gut-brain interaction might also play a role in immunity. (…)

The interaction between gut and brain has recently been implicated in a number of brain-based disorders, including Parkinson's disease, autism, Alzheimer's disease, depression, and anxiety.

It is only now that the complexity and ramifications of these relationships are coming to light. (…)

- Forskere gjør overraskende funn om hvordan nevroner kommuniserer med hverandre. (- Neuroner kommuniserer med hverandre ved å frigjøre kjemikalier kalt neurotransmittere, som dopamin og glutamat inn i det lille rommet mellom to nevroner som er kjent som synaps. (- "Våre funn viser for første gang at nevroner kan forandre hvor mye dopamin de frigjør som en funksjon av deres generelle aktivitet. Når denne mekanismen ikke fungerer som den skal, kan det ha store helseeffekter…

(Anm: Researchers make surprising discovery about how neurons talk to each other. Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have uncovered the mechanism by which neurons keep up with the demands of repeatedly sending signals to other neurons. The new findings, made in fruit flies and mice, challenge the existing dogma about how neurons that release the chemical signal dopamine communicate, and may have important implications for many dopamine-related diseases, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and addiction. The research conducted at Pitt and Columbia University was published online today in the journal Neuron. Neurons communicate with one another by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and glutamate, into the small space between two neurons that is known as a synapse. Inside neurons, neurotransmitters awaiting release are housed in small sacs called synaptic vesicles. "Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that neurons can change how much dopamine they release as a function of their overall activity. When this mechanism doesn't work properly, it could lead to profound effects on health," explained the study's senior author Zachary Freyberg, M.D., Ph.D., who recently joined Pitt as an assistant professor of psychiatry and cell biology. Freyberg initiated the research while at Columbia University. (medicalxpress.com 17.8.2017).)

(Anm: Neural Inhibition of Dopaminergic Signaling Enhances Immunity in a Cell-Non-autonomous Manner. Current Biology 2016 (August 2016).)

- SSRI-er (lykkepiller) forårsaker en varig serotonerg ubalanse grunnet legemidlenes skadelige endringer mht. serotonin og andre nevrotransmittere, mitokondriell dysfunksjon, avkortet levetid, plutselige dødsfall etc.

(Anm: SSRI-er (lykkepiller) forårsaker en varig serotonerg ubalanse grunnet legemidlenes skadelige endringer mht. serotonin og andre nevrotransmittere, mitokondriell dysfunksjon, avkortet levetid, plutselige dødsfall etc. (- SSRI-er øker nivået av serotonin i deler av hjernen med opptil 700 % (eller mer?), samt reduserer serotonin i blod med opptil 93 %.) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Effekten av psykostimulerende legemidler på blod-hjerne barrierens funksjon og nevroinflammasjon. (The effects of psychostimulant drugs on blood brain barrier function and neuroinflammation) (Front. Pharmacol. 2012;3:121 (Published online: 29 June 2012).)

- Pfizers Zyvoxid (Zyvox) og antidepressiva kan være en dødelig kombinasjon.

(Anm: - Pfizers Zyvoxid (Zyvox) og antidepressiva kan være en dødelig kombinasjon. (- Det antas at når linezolid gis til pasienter, som behandles med serotonerge psykofarmaka, kan forhøyede nivåer av serotonin bygge seg opp i hjernen og forårsake toksisitet (giftighet). Dette er referert til som Serotonin syndrom - tegn og symptomer inkluderer mentale endringer (forvirring, hyperaktivitet, minneproblemer), muskelrykninger, overdreven svetting, skjelving eller risting, diaré, problemer med koordinasjon og / eller feber.) (fda.gov 21.10.2011).)

- Nye søvnfremmende hjerneceller identifisert. Ny forskning på mus identifiserer en rekke neuroner som kan være involvert i å fremme søvn. Resultatene kan snart endre terapeutisk praksis for å behandle søvnforstyrrelser.

(Anm: New sleep-promoting brain cells identified. New research in mice identifies a range of neurons that may be involved in promoting sleep. The findings may soon change therapeutic practices for treating sleep disorders. Insomnia affects around 60 million people in the United States every year. It is associated with a variety of health concerns, particularly among the elderly, including cognitive impairment and metabolic syndrome. (medicalnewstoday.com 4.9.2017).)

- Forskere identifiserer nevroner som styrer hjernens indre ur. Neuroner i hjernen som produserer den glede-signaliserende neurotransmitteren dopamin, styrer også hjernens sirkadiske senter (døgnrytmesenteret), eller "indre ur" - området som regulerer spisesykluser, metabolisme og våkne / hvilesykluser - en nøkkelforbindelse som muligens påvirker kroppens evne til å tilpasse seg jetlag og roterende skiftarbeid, har en ny studie ved University of Virginia vist.

(Anm: Researchers identify neurons that control brain's body clock. Neurons in the brain that produce the pleasure-signaling neurotransmitter dopamine also directly control the brain's circadian center, or "body clock" - the area that regulates eating cycles, metabolism and waking/resting cycles - a key link that possibly affects the body's ability to adapt to jet lag and rotating shift work, a new University of Virginia study has demonstrated. The finding is reported in today's online edition of the journal Current Biology. (medicalxpress.com 3.8.2017).)

(Anm: Direct Midbrain Dopamine Input to the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Accelerates Circadian Entrainment. Current Biology 2017;27(16):2465–2475.e3 (21 August 2017).)

- Indre urs genvarianter kan føre til stressmigrene.

(Anm: Body clock gene variations may lead to stress migraines. New research has suggested that financial worries may cause migraines in people who have two specific variations in a gene that regulates our biological clock. Our so-called biological clock is the collective name given to a range of interacting molecules that regulate our sleep-wakefulness cycle and the bodily and behavioral changes that go with it. New research examines the link between this clock - which is also regulated genetically - and the risk of developing migraines. The first author of the study is Daniel Baksa, of Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary, and the findings were recently presented at the ENCP Congress, held in Paris, France. As the authors explain, their research was prompted by previous studies suggesting that people with mood disorders often have symptoms that signal a disruption of their circadian rhythm. (medicalnewstoday.com 4.9.2017).)

- Serotonin og dopamintransportør PET endrer seg i den premotoriske fasen av LRRK2 parkinsonisme: tverrsnittsstudier. FORTOLKNING: Dopaminerge og serotonerge endringer foregår på lignende måte i LRRK2-mutasjonsbærere med påtagelig Parkinsons sykdom og individer med sporadisk Parkinsons sykdom, men LRRK2-mutasjonsbærere uten påtagelig Parkinsons sykdom viser økt serotonintransportørbinding i striatum, hjernestamme og hypotalamus, muligens reflekterende kompenserende endringer i serotonerg innervering før motorikk påvirkes av Parkinsons sykdom.

(Anm: Serotonin and dopamine transporter PET changes in the premotor phase of LRRK2 parkinsonism: cross-sectional studies. INTERPRETATION: Dopaminergic and serotonergic changes progress in a similar fashion in LRRK2 mutation carriers with manifest Parkinson's disease and individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease, but LRRK2 mutation carriers without manifest Parkinson's disease show increased serotonin transporter binding in the striatum, brainstem, and hypothalamus, possibly reflecting compensatory changes in serotonergic innervation preceding the motor onset of Parkinson's disease. Increased serotonergic innervation might contribute to clinical differences in LRRK2 Parkinson's disease, including the emergence of non-motor symptoms and, potentially, differences in the long-term response to levodopa. Lancet Neurol. 2017 Mar 20. pii: S1474-4422(17)30056-X.)

- Sentral fatigue: serotoninhypotesen og underliggende årsaker. (- Det er imidlertid viktig å merke seg at hjernens funksjon ikke er bestemt av et enkelt nevrotransmittersystem og at interaksjonen mellom serotonin og dopamin i hjernen under langvarig trening er påvist å ha en regulerende rolle i utviklingen av tretthet.)

(Anm: Sentral fatigue: serotoninhypotesen og underliggende årsaker. (…) Det er imidlertid viktig å merke seg at hjernens funksjon ikke er bestemt av et enkelt nevrotransmittersystem og at interaksjonen mellom serotonin og dopamin i hjernen under langvarig trening er påvist å ha en regulerende rolle i utviklingen av tretthet.) (Central fatigue: the serotonin hypothesis and beyond. However, it is important to note that brain function is not determined by a single neurotransmitter system and the interaction between brain serotonin and dopamine during prolonged exercise has also been explored as having a regulative role in the development of fatigue. Sports Med. 2006;36(10):881-909.)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (SSRI-er) kan utløse sentral fatigue (sentral utmattelse) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Konklusjoner. Bruk av SSRI var assosiert med vektøkning og forekomst av usunn atferd, inkludert vestlig diett, "sedentarisme" (blir stillesittende/inaktiv) og røyking. (Conclusions SSRIs use was associated with weight gain in the presence of unhealthy behaviours including Western diet, sedentarism and smoking. BMJ Open 2017;7:e016224.)

(Anm: Fatigue/utmattelse etter traumatisk hjerneskade og hjerneslag. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2015; 135:331 – 5 (24.2.2015).)

(Anm: Vanlige alvorlige øyerelaterte bivirkninger for antidepressiva, antipsykotika etc. (CNS Drugs. 2010 Jun 1;24(6):501-26.).)

(Anm: Serious Signs of Eye Problems. What Eye Problems Look Like (webmd.com 20.12.2016).)

(Anm: Selv mild synshemning har innflytelse på livskvalitet (…) Even mild vision impairment has influence on quality of life. In a study published online by JAMA Ophthalmology, Phillippa M. Cumberland, M.Sc., and Jugnoo S. Rahi, Ph.D., F.R.C.Ophth., of the University College London Institute of Child Health, London, and the UK Biobank Eye and Vision Consortium, and colleagues examined the association of visual health (across the full acuity spectrum) with social determinants of general health and the association between visual health and health and social outcomes.  (medicalnewstoday.com 29.7.2016).)

(Anm: Study suggests new way of preventing diabetes-associated blindness  (medicalnewstoday.com 26.5.2015).)

(Anm: - Plutselig oppstått dobbeltsyn (- Visuelle komplikasjoner er vanlig etter hjerneslag) Sudden onset double vision BMJ 2014;348:g3286 (19 May 2014).)

(Anm: En av tre blev dement efter återkommande stroke. (…) Den nya analysen, som publiceras i dag, torsdag, på tidskriften Lancet Neurologys hemsida, baseras på 22 sjukhusstudier och åtta populationsstudier. Undersökningarna är utförda mellan 1950 och 2009. (dagensmedicin.se 24.9.2009).)

(Anm: Alder, helse og bruk av antidepressiva linket til øyesykdommer (Age, health and antidepressant use linked to eye disorders) (medicalnewstoday.com 6.5.2014).)

(Anm: Antidepressiv medicin kan øge risiko for infektion med tarmbakterie. Infektioner med bakterien Clostridium difficile ses oftere hos personer i behandling for depression. (dagenspharma.dk 14.5.2013).)

(Anm: Legemidler (bl.a. antidepressiva, antipsykotika etc. kan øke risikoen for tarmsykdommer (dysbiose)), inklusive sepsis, Clostridium difficile (C difficile) etc.(mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Rebiotix microbiome drug success against C diff infection. Patients suffering from a recurrent infection with the C difficile bacteria have benefited from a microbiome treatment from Rebiotix. The results from the open label phase 2 trial confirm that Rebiotix’s drug, RBX2660, is the frontrunner among a coming wave of new microbiome treatments. (…) Companies are focusing on gastrointestinal conditions first, but the potential for treatments is also being investigated in conditions such as multiple sclerosis and depression. (pharmaphorum.com 13.4.2017).)

- Immunforsvaret kan påvirkes via tarm-hjerne-forbindelser

Targeting the gut-brain connection can impact immunity
sciencedaily.com 13.8.2016
Drugs aimed at nervous system act on immune system as well

Summary: The brain and the gut are connected through neural networks that signal hunger and satiety, love and fear, even safety and danger. These networks employ myriad chemical signals that include the powerful neurotransmitter dopamine. Researchers have shown that manipulating dopamine signaling in the nervous system of the worm C. elegans can control inflammation in the gut. The study demonstrates that the immune system might be controlled using drugs originally designed to target the nervous system, such as antipsychotics. (…)

There's a reason it's called a gut feeling. The brain and the gut are connected by intricate neural networks that signal hunger and satiety, love and fear, even safety and danger. These networks employ myriad chemical signals that include dopamine, a powerful neurotransmitter most famous for its role in reward and addiction.

Duke University researchers have shown that manipulating dopamine signaling in the nervous system of the nematode worm C. elegans can control inflammation in the gut.

The study, which appears Aug. 12 in Current Biology, provides a proof of principle that the immune system can be controlled using drugs originally designed to target the nervous system, such as antipsychotics.

"We are talking about an existing set of drugs and drug targets that could open up the spectrum of potential therapeutic applications by targeting pathways that fine-tune the inflammatory response," said Alejandro Aballay, Ph.D., a professor of molecular genetics and microbiology at Duke School of Medicine. (…)

The researchers believe their findings indicate that dopamine signaling acts by putting the brakes on the body's inflammatory response so it doesn't go too far.

"Worms have evolved mechanisms to deal with colonizing bacteria," Aballay said. "That is true for us as well. Humans have trillions of microorganisms in our guts, and we have to be careful when activating antimicrobial defenses so that we mainly target potentially harmful microbes, without damaging our good bacteria -- or even our own cells -- in the process."

"The nervous system appears to be the perfect system for integrating all these different physiological cues to keep the amount of damage in check," Aballay said.

Aballay plans continue his studies in C. elegans to identify the different cues involved in fine-tuning the immune response. He also thinks it is worth looking at different analogues or different doses of dopamine antagonists to see if their effects on psychosis can be separated from their effects on immunity. (…)

(Anm: Neural Inhibition of Dopaminergic Signaling Enhances Immunity in a Cell-Non-autonomous Manner. Current Biology 2016 (August 2016).)

(Anm: Compromised immune system can be re-activated. Failure of the immune system during blood poisoning (sepsis) can be reversed by a specific sugar. This restores the ability of immune cells to respond effectively to infections. This week, researchers from Radboud University and Radboudumc published an article on this topic in Cell. These insights can lead to improved treatment of sepsis. (…) Sepsis is a life threatening complication during infections that occurs when the immune system is unable to gain control of the infection-causing microorganism. (…) As a result, he discovered one of the "control switches" of the immune system that is driven by a sugar, beta-glucan. "By adding beta-glucan to blood samples of trial subjects with a disabled immune system, the macrophages were re-activated". (medicalnewstoday.com 21.11.2016).)

(Anm: Mouse study suggests autism is not just a disease of the brain. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired social interactions and repetitive behaviors, often accompanied by abnormal reactions to sensory stimuli. ASD is generally thought to be caused by deficits in brain development, but a study in mice, published June 9 in Cell, now suggests that at least some aspects of the disorder—including how touch is perceived, anxiety, and social abnormalities—are linked to defects in another area of the nervous system, the peripheral nerves found throughout the limbs, digits, and other parts of the body that communicate sensory information to the brain.  (medicalxpress.com 9.6.2016).)

(Anm: Pride in autistic diversity. The annual Autistic Pride Day falls every June 18, with an ongoing theme of neurodiversity. The pride label is intended to encourage a celebration of autistic differences, rather than reinforcing stereotypical perceptions of autism as a disease. Lancet 2016;387(10037):2479 (18 June 2016).)

(Anm: Autism May Benefit Runners (Washington Post). Certain autistic traits that seem limiting could, under the right guidance, help autistic runners excel. In a virtuous cycle, running then offers beneficial effects, The Washington Post reported. (medpagetoday.com 9.5.2017).)

(Anm: Risk of autism with intellectual disability linked with maternal immune dysfunction during pregnancy (medicalnewstoday.com 8.6.2016).)

- Barneautisme: Anette må passe på sønnen til enhver tid

Barneautisme: Anette må passe på sønnen til enhver tid
kk.no 22.3.2017
- Det er krevende å være alenemor, og enda mer krevende med et barn som har nedsatt funksjonsevne – det vil alltid være mangel på hender.

Anette Wessel-Håvåg ble mor til Felix i oktober 2010. Utviklingen var noenlunde normal frem til han begynte i barnehagen ved toårsalder. Språket og de sosiale ferdighetene stagnerte – han utviklet seg ikke på lik linje med jevnaldrende.

– Felix interesserte seg ikke så veldig mye for andre barn, og da han var liten var han heller ikke interessert i å leke. Ved treårsalder kom BUP inn i bildet, og et års tid senere fikk han diagnosen barneautisme.

Da diagnosen ble et faktum var Anette lettet. Hun hadde brukt svært mye tid på å lære ham ting, og tatt imot haugevis av råd fra andre – innimellom trodde hun at det var hun selv som gjorde noe galt.

– Jeg hadde vel en sorgprosess underveis da jeg forsto at vi kom til å lande på en alvorlig autismediagnose. Jeg husker at jeg tenkte på sorgen over aldri å få bli bestemor. (…)

(Anm: "I care for you", says the autistic moral brain (medicalnewstoday.com 29.3.2016).)

(Anm: Study: Autism intervention studies lack diversity. (medicalnewstoday.com 29.3.2016).)

(Anm: Se verden gennem en autists øjne. I et nyt studie har forskere undersøgt, hvordan autister fokuserer deres opmærksomhed markant anderledes end andre. Den nye viden kan måske hjælpe læger med bedre diagnosticering og behandling. (…) Ud over at bekræfte, at autister fokuserer mindre på ansigter end andre, viste studiet også, at autister fokuserer meget på midten af billedet (uanset hvad der er i midten af billedet) og på objekter, som 'stikker ud' fra resten af billedet – for eksempel på grund af placering eller farveforskel. (jyllands-posten.dk 10.11.2015).)

(Anm: A new study disproves a common stereotype about autism. "Autistic people are cold and feel no empathy." True? It is a pervasive stereotype, but when analyzed through the lens of science, reality turns out to be quite different. According to a study at SISSA, carried out in collaboration with the University of Vienna, when autistic people are placed in "moral dilemma" situations, they show an empathic response similar to the general population. The myth of coldness in autism is likely due to the presence of the subclinical trait of alexithymia, which is often associated with autism, but is distinct and can be present in the general population, and is characterized by the inability to recognize one's own, or others' emotions. The study was published in the journal Scientific Reports. (medicalnewstoday.com 29.3.2016).)

(Anm: Vascular brain injury is evident in people in their 40s. A large, multi-center study led by the UC Davis School of Medicine for the first time has shown that people as young as their 40s have stiffening of the arteries that is associated with subtle structural damage to the brain that is implicated in cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease later in life. (medicalnewstoday.com 29.3.2016).)

(Anm: Scientists show how memories are linked in the brain. (…) A new study led by The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), looks at this connection between memories and illustrates how certain memories become linked in the brain. The study is published in the July 22 online edition of Science. (medicalxpress.com 22.7.2016).)

(Anm: Autoimmune Diseases: All You Need to Know. Autoimmune diseases are some of the most troubling and hard-to-treat immune system-related diseases. They occur when the immune system attacks healthy cells in the body. Autoimmune disorders can be diagnosed wrongly or remain undiagnosed for years because many share similar symptoms. Once one is correctly diagnosed, a specialist helps the patient manage their illness with the right therapy.  (medicalnewstoday.com 24.7.2016).)

- Autisme: Ny forskning gir håp om funn av en kur mot autisme. Forsøk på mus har vist at en kreftmedisin kan stoppe bl.a. sosial fobi hos mus i alle aldere med autisme.

Kreftmedisin fjerner symptomer for autisme
illvit.no 1.3.2016
Autisme: Ny forskning gir håp om funn av en kur mot autisme. Forsøk på mus har vist at en kreftmedisin kan stoppe bl.a. sosial fobi hos mus i alle aldere med autisme.

På samme måte som du slår på en bryter, har forskere funnet at de kan slå på et gen i kampen mot autisme.

Forskere ved MIT i USA har designet mus som blir født med et gen som heter Shank3, men som er satt ut av funksjon. Genet er slått av hos 1 % av autismepasienter.

Ved å slå på Shank3-genet kunne forskerne stoppe symptomer forbundet med autisme som det å unngå sosial interaksjon, tvangshandlinger og repeterende handlinger. Og forskerne er spesielt begeistret for at behandlingen virket på både voksne og helt unge mus. Det er nettopp blitt offentliggjort i tidsskriftet Nature. (…)

(Anm: Adult restoration of Shank3 expression rescues selective autistic-like phenotypes. Nature. 2016 Feb 25;530(7591):481-4. doi: 10.1038/nature16971. Epub 2016 Feb 17.)

(Anm: För tidigt födda barn riskerar att få autism. Barn som föds mer än 13 veckor fört tidigt löper stor risk att drabbas av hjärnskador, autism, adhd och inlärningssvårigheter. Orsaken tros vara att fostret utsätts för många stressfaktorer under en period som är kritisk för hjärnans utveckling, enligt en ny studie som gjorts på 100 barn. (netdoktor.se 23.12.2015).)

(Anm: Mothers’ Combination of Obesity, Diabetes Significantly Increases Risk of Autism in Children. ELK GROVE VILLAGE, Ill -- February 12, 2016 -- The combination of obesity and diabetes in women significantly increases the risk of autism in their offspring, according to a study published in the February 2016 issue of Pediatrics. (dgnews.docguide.com 12.2.2016).)

(Anm: Research sheds new light on surprising link between blood sugar and brain cancers. New research further illuminates the surprising relationship between blood sugar and brain tumors and could begin to shed light on how certain cancers develop. While many cancers are more common among those with diabetes, cancerous brain tumors called gliomas are less common among those with elevated blood sugar and diabetes, a study from The Ohio State University has found. (news-medical.net 3.5.2017).)

(Anm: Autism, mitochondria and polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2016 Apr 13. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Poor Brain Growth in Extremely Preterm Neonates Long Before the Onset of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms. Cereb Cortex. 2015 Dec 21. pii: bhv300. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Study links autism symptoms to change in brain chemistry. Researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Current Biology have uncovered a direct link between the behavioral symptoms of people with autism and reduced action of an inhibitory neurotransmitter called GABA. GABA's primary responsibility is to dampen neural activity in the brain. The findings suggest that drugs that increase brain concentrations of GABA might have potential for autism treatment, the researchers say. (medicalnewstoday.com 17.12.2015).)

(Anm: Autism genes are in all of us, new research reveals. (medicalnewstoday.com 22.3.2016).)

- Epilepsimedisin kobles til fosterskader hos 450 barn. (- I 2013 viste studier utført av forskere ved Aarhus Universitet at kvinner som tok valporat under graviditeten hadde tre ganger så høy risiko for å få et barn med autisme sammenlignet med mødre som ikke hadde fått i seg stoffet.)

Epilepsimedisin kobles til fosterskader hos 450 barn.
dagbladet.no 24.2.2016
Knyttes til misdannelser og autisme.

Et mye brukt legemiddel til behandling av epilepsi kobles direkte til misdannelser hos omkring 450 nyfødte barn i Frankrike.

Franske helsemyndigheter advarer kvinner om risikoen ved å bruke legemiddelet depakine under graviditeten, skriver nyhetsbyrået AFP.

Ifølge en rapport som ble lagt fram tirsdag ble mellom 425 og 450 barn, som ble født med misdannelser i perioden 2006-2014, eksponert for stoffet valproat i livmoren under graviditeten.

Epilepsimedisinen kommer derfor med en ekstra advarsel om risiko for gravide på pakken fra 1. mars.

 I 2013 viste studier utført av forskere ved Aarhus Universitet at kvinner som tok valporat under graviditeten hadde tre ganger så høy risiko for å få et barn med autisme sammenlignet med mødre som ikke hadde fått i seg stoffet. (NTB)

(Anm: Orfiril (Valproate, Depacon, Depakene etc.) (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: VALPROATE (valproic acid) (dailymed.nlm.nih.gov).)

(Anm: Valproat gir stor risiko for fosterskader. Valproat er fosterskadelig og gir stor risiko for medfødte misdannelser og utviklingsforstyrrelser. Barn av mødre som har brukt valproat i svangerskapet har høy risiko for alvorlige utviklingsforstyrrelser og medfødte misdannelser: - Risikoen for medfødte misdannelser er 10 % - Inntil 40 % opplever forsinket psykomotorisk utvikling - Gjennomsnittlig intelligenskvotient (IQ) reduseres med 7-10 poeng - Økt forekomst av autismelignende tilstander og ADHD  (legemiddelverket.no 26.5.2016 / 15.12.2014).)

(Anm: Bivirkninger og bivirkningsovervåkning (legemiddelsikkerhet) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Skader og ulykker i Norge. 2500 dør og 300 000 behandles årlig på sykehus for skader. Mange alvorlige skader er knyttet til alkohol og andre rusmidler, fall og trafikk. (…) Hva er et forgiftningsdødsfall? (fhi.no 14.12.2016).)

(Anm: Medisinske feil — den tredje viktigste dødsårsaken i USA. Hvert år oppstår mer enn 250 000 dødsfall i USA som et resultat av medisinske feil. Medisinske feil inkluderes ikke i dødsattester eller i rangeringen av dødsårsaker. (Medical error—the third leading cause of death in the US.) BMJ 2016;353:i2139 (Published 03 May 2016).)

- However, when looked at together, only mothers with obesity and PGDM and those with obesity and gestational diabetes were at significantly higher risk of having children with ASD. The first group was nearly 4 times as likely, whereas the second was more than 3 times so.

Autism and Intellectual Disabilities
clinicalpsychiatrynews.com 4.2.2016
These maternal factors seem to elevate risk

 Children are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities if their mothers are both obese and have diabetes, according to a study involving more than 2,700 youths.

Participants, 102 of whom had ASD, had at least 1 postnatal study visit. Risks of developmental disorder were categorized according to maternal prepregnancy obesity and diabetes status.

Among the results:

• Maternal prepregnancy obesity and pregestational diabetes (PGDM) were each linked with risk of ASD when researchers analyzed them individually.

• However, when looked at together, only mothers with obesity and PGDM and those with obesity and gestational diabetes were at significantly higher risk of having children with ASD. The first group was nearly 4 times as likely, whereas the second was more than 3 times so.

• Intellectual disabilities produced a similar link with obesity and PGDM combined; the risk pattern occurred mostly in those with both ASD and intellectual disabilities. (...)

(Anm: Mothers’ Combination of Obesity, Diabetes Significantly Increases Risk of Autism in Children. ELK GROVE VILLAGE, Ill -- February 12, 2016 -- The combination of obesity and diabetes in women significantly increases the risk of autism in their offspring, according to a study published in the February 2016 issue of Pediatrics. (dgnews.docguide.com 12.2.2016).)

(Anm: Cohen Children's Medical Center study: Children on autism spectrum more likely to wander, disappear. A new study by researchers at Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York (CCMC) suggests that more than one-quarter million school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other developmental disorders wander away from adult supervision each year. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.2.2016).)

(Anm: The association of maternal obesity and diabetes with autism and other developmental disabilities. Pediatrics. 2016;137(2):1-10.)          

(Anm: Kvinnor med PCOS löper ökad risk få barn med autism. Kvinnor med PCOS, polycystiskt ovariesyndrom, löper högre risk att få barn som utvecklar autismspektrumtillstånd, AST. Det visar en ny epidemiologisk studie från Karolinska Institutet. (netdoktor.se 9.12.2015).)

(Anm: Polycystisk ovariesyndrom (PCOS). PCOS er en tilstand som kjennetegnes av økt nivå av mannlige kjønnshormoner, mange små blærer (cyster) på eggstokkene og sjeldne, uregelmessige menstruasjoner. Mange sliter med overvekt, økt behåring, kviser og nedsatt fruktbarhet. (nhi.no 22.2.2016).)

(Anm: A gut check for PCOS-related obesity. In a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome, researchers find links between changes to gut bacteria and obesity, diabetes. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.3.2016).)

(Anm: PCOS kopplas till ökad risk för psykisk sjukdom. Forskare kopplar polycystiskt ovariesyndrom, PCOS, till förhöjd psykisk sjuklighet i en ny studie. Även hos syskon till kvinnor med sjukdomen sågs en liten ökad risk. (dagensmedicin.se 2.9.2016).)

(Anm: Irritabel tarm – fra psykisk til fysisk. (- Dermed er det kanskje ikke så rart at mange fagfolk har sett i psyken for å finne årsakene til lidelsen.) (forskning.no 27.6.2016).)

(Anm: Autism kopplat till hormonstörning. Kvinnor som lider av polycystiskt ovariesyndrom löper högre risk att få barn som utvecklar autism. Fyndet stärker idén om ett samband mellan autism och för mycket manliga könshormoner tidigt i livet. Ungefär en av tio kvinnor lider av en hormonell rubbning vid namn polycystiskt ovariesyndrom, PCOS. Sjukdomen, som resulterar i ett flertal cystor i äggstockarna, beror på för mycket manliga könshormoner, androgener. (dagensmedicin.se 8.12.2015).)

(Anm: Brain study reveals insights into genetic basis of autism (medicalnewstoday.com 14.7.2015).)

(Anm: Missing link found between brain, immune system -- with major disease implications. Implications profound for neurological diseases from autism to Alzheimer's to multiple sclerosis (eurekalert.org 1.6.2015).)

(Anm: You are what you eat: Immune cells remember their first meal. Scientists at the University of Bristol have identified the trigger for immune cells' inflammatory response - a discovery that may pave the way for new treatments for many human diseases.  (medicalnewstoday.com 20.5.2016).)

(Anm: Healthy intestinal flora keeps the mind sharp - with some help from the immune system. (…) The research findings are of significance when it comes to the effects of using antibiotics in the long term, and could also help to alleviate the symptoms of mental disorders.  (medicalnewstoday.com 20.5.2016).)

(Anm: How recurrent strep A infections affect the brain. Researchers have discovered how immune cells triggered by recurrent Strep A infections enter the brain, causing inflammation that may lead to autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders in children. (medicalnewstoday.com 16.12.2015).)

(Anm: Immune-disorder treatment in mice holds potential for multiple sclerosis patients (medicalnewstoday.com 24.11.2015).)

(Anm: Could the gut microbiome be a new therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis? An increasing number of clinical studies are pointing to a link between the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and the composition of microbes in the human gut, sparking new research on the gut microbiome as a potential target for MS treatment and prevention. A comprehensive review article examining the proposed role of gut bacteria and the viruses that infect them in the development and progression of MS is published in Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research (JICR) from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the JICR website until August 6, 2016. (medicalnewstoday.com 8.7.2016).)

(Anm: Tarmmikrobiota fra pasienter med multippel sklerose aktiverer spontan autoimmun encefalomyelitt hos mus. Gut microbiota from multiple sclerosis patients enables spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) 2017;114(40):10719–10724.)

(Anm: 'Landmark discovery' of vessels connecting brain to immune system. (…)  Not only is it surprising that the vessels connecting these two bodily systems have escaped detection for so long - when the lymphatic system has been so comprehensively studied - but the researchers say the discovery could have a huge impact on the study and treatment of neurological diseases such as autism, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.6.2015).)

(Anm: How many human body parts remain undiscovered? In recent months, scientists have described a new layer in the cornea of the human eye and a long-overlooked ligament in the knee. In our modern age of imaging and other advanced medical technologies, how is it possible that we still don't know everything there is to know about our anatomy? (abc.net.au 13.11.2013).)

(Anm: Forskning: Kreativitet kommer fra lillehjernen. Lillehjernen har flere oppgaver enn å la oss gå uten å tenke over hvilket bein vi setter først, eller å holde balansen når vi sykler. Lillehjernen til mennesker er koblet opp mot mange sentere i hjernen, og bidrar også til kreativitet, viser forskning fra Stanford University i USA. (vg.no 21.6.2015).)

(Anm: Hver 50. person kan ha aphantasia. Legene er først nå blitt klar over tilstanden. Evnen til å kunne lukke øynene og danne et bilde i hodet av en strand, telle sauer når du skal forsøke å sove eller se for deg en venns bryllup, er en egenskap de fleste av oss tar for gitt. (side3.no 30.8.2015).)

(Anm: - Antipsykotika (og antidepressiva?) nærmere tredobler risikoen for demens. (...) Use of antipsychotics (2.75 [2.09-3.60]; 0.12), depression (1.89 [1.53-2.34]; 0.28). JAMA Intern Med. 2013 (Published online August 12, 2013).)

(Anm: Study finds link between very early stages of brain and heart disease. By analyzing brain scans and blood tests of thousands of adults, researchers have discovered a link between the very early stages of brain and heart disease. (…) "We know that myocardial infarction, heart failure and atrial fibrillation are associated with an increased risk of stroke and dementia. Our study investigates whether the heart-brain link is present at an earlier stage of disease." (medicalnewstoday.com 2.12.2015).)

(Anm: – Jeg tror det vil skje en revolusjon i psykiatrien de neste tiårene. – Forstår vi hvordan høyere hjernefunksjoner oppstår, kan vi være på god vei til å få bukt med tankemessige og emosjonelle lidelser, mener nobelprisvinner og NTNU-professor Edvar Moser. (…) Ifølge Moser er den beregnede årlige totalkostnaden i Norge for sykdommer i hjernen på 55 milliarder kroner. (dagensmedisin.no 3.12.2015).)

- Ny viden om betændelser leder psykiatrien i en ny retning

Ny viden om betændelser leder psykiatrien i en ny retning
dagenspharma.dk 12.8.2015
Betændelse i hjernen kan udløse psykiske sygdomme som f.eks. depression, angst og skizofreni. Det viser en stribe studier, der dirigerer psykiatrien i en helt ny retning.

Ny forskning viser, at patienter med et bredt udsnit af psykiske sygdomme har tegn på betændelse i hjernen, og at det, der trigger immunforsvaret til at gå amok og skabe såkaldt neuroinflammation, kan være alt fra infektioner, autoimmune sygdomme og stress. Resultatet er en lang række af psykiatriske lidelser som f.eks. skizofreni, depression, bipolar sygdom, […]

(Anm: Antibiotika (tarmbakterier, probiotika, mikrobiota etc.) (Dysbiose; dysbiosis (also called dysbacteriosis (dysbakteriose)). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Signaler fra tarmens mikrobiotika til fjerntliggende organer mht. fysiologi og sykdom. (Signals from the gut microbiota to distant organs in physiology and disease.) (Nat Med. 2016 Oct 6;22(10):1079-1089.)

(Anm: - Hadde medisinerne på et tidligere tidspunkt hatt et evolusjonært perspektiv på sin medisinering, ville vi ikke vært i den kritiske situasjon vi er kommet i med hensyn til resistens. (aftenposten.no 22.8.2016).)

(Anm: Antibiotika kan gi flere kroniske sykdommer. (…) Folkehelseinstituttet: – Faren er underkommunisert. – Advarslene er høyst betimelige, sier lege og seniorforsker Merete Eggesbø ved Folkehelseinstituttet. (…) Ifølge Blaser viser ny forskning at det er en sammenheng mellom endringen av den naturlige tarmfloraen vår og utvikling av nye sykdommer som fedme, diabetes, astma,(...) Advarslene er høyst betimelige, sier lege og seniorforsker Merete Eggesbø ved Folkehelseinstituttet. (…) Ifølge Blaser viser ny forskning at det er en sammenheng mellom endringen av den naturlige tarmfloraen vår og utvikling av nye sykdommer som fedme, diabetes, astma, allergi, autisme og mageinfeksjoner. (nrk.no 30.10.2016).)

(Anm: Researchers explore link between gut microbiome and nutrition in autism spectrum disorder. (…) Sharon Donovan, a professor of nutrition at the University of Illinois explains that researchers have started to look at more specific disease states and the microbiome. "We are starting to see links with autism, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and almost every disease that is looked at. (news-medical.net 28.4.2017).)

(Anm: Researchers discover new mechanism that causes chronic intestinal inflammation. Researchers at the University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and the German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München have discovered that too much of the oncogene Bcl-3 leads to chronic intestinal diseases. They describe in Nature Communications exactly how it throws the immune system off-balance. Chronic intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are caused by the body's own immune defense system. (news-medical.net 28.5.2017).)

(Anm: Infeksjoner er forårsaket av mikrorganismer som bakterier, virus, protozoer og sopp. De er usynlige for det nakne øye, og de invaderer og formerer seg i kroppen og forårsaker sykdom. Infeksjoner er forårsaket av bittesmå organismer som er usynlige for det nakne øye, og som invaderer og formerer seg i kroppen. Noen bakterier, virus, protozoer og sopp kan forårsake infeksjoner hos friske personer. Andre mikroorganismer forårsaker infeksjoner hos mennesker der kroppens forsvarsverk er svekket. Dette forsvarsverket betegnes immunsystemet. Vanligvis er kroppen i stand til motangrep gjennom immunsystemet mot slike invaderende mikroorganismer. En infeksjon opptrer når motangrepet mislykkes, og kroppen ikke får kontroll over de inntrengende organismene. (nhi.no 4.4.2017).)

- Kan stamceller reversere aldringsprosessen? Stamceller i hjernen bestemmer hvor raskt kroppen våre ldres, har forskere bemerket.

(Anm: Could stem cells reverse the aging process? Stem cells in the brain determine how quickly our bodies age, researchers have noted. But by introducing fresh stem cells, part of the aging process could be slowed down or reversed, a new study finds. As humans, we persist in being baffled by the steady aging of our bodies, which sometimes seems to occur at a faster rate than we might expect. Consequently, we often do our best to try to stall or "cheat" the aging process using a wide range of "remedies," from improving our diets to undergoing plastic surgery. Researchers are now looking into how stem cells found in a region of our brain called the hypothalamus might play a key role in how swiftly we age. Dr. Dongsheng Cai, from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, in New York City, NY, alongside a team of specialists, has found that adding fresh stem cells to the hypothalamus might be the way to go if we want to delay old age. The results of this study are published in the current issue of Nature. (medicalnewstoday.com 28.7.2017).)

(Anm: Why drinking increases sexual urges but decreases sexual performance: Hypothalamus and pituitary: The hypothalamus and pituitary coordinate automatic brain functions and hormone release. Alcohol depresses nerve centers in the hypothalamus that control sexual arousal and performance. Although sexual urge may increase, sexual performance decreases. (forbes.com 6.10.2012).)

(Anm: Forsiktighet kreves ved samtidig forskrivning av antibiotika med psykofarmaka hos eldre pasienter. (…) Antibiotika har flere legemiddelinteraksjoner med psykofarmaka som kan føre til bivirkninger eller behandlingssvikt og betydelig øke kostnadene for behandlinger. (dgnews.docguide.com 3.4.2017).)

(Anm: Antibiotika associeras med högre risk för tarmcancer. (…) Det här är första studien som visar på sambandet mellan antibiotikaanvändning och utveckling av adenom i tjock- och ändtarmen. Studien publiceras i den vetenskapliga tidskriften Gut. (…) Resultatet visade att långvarig antibiotikaanvändning tidigare i livet, i åldern 20 till 59 år, hade samband med diagnostiserade adenom. (lakemedelsvarlden.se 5.4.2017.)

(Anm: Ny forskning viser hvor raskt bakterien blir motstandsdyktig mot antibiotika. E. coli bakterien muteres raskt i kraftig antibiotikadose. Forskere ved Harvard-universitetet har registrert hvor raskt E. coli bakterien klarer å bli motstandsdyktig og overleve antibiotika. I Harvards pressemelding står det at på ti dager overlevde bakterien en antibiotikadose som var 1000 ganger sterkere enn det som vanligvis dreper bakterien. (dagbladet.no 12.9.2016).)

(Anm: Prebiotika kan hjelpe å behandle anstrengelsesutløst astma (Prebiotics could help treat exercise-induced asthma) (medicalnewstoday.com 6.8.2016).)

(Anm: PTSD kan forebygges med tarmbakterier, antyder studie. (PTSD could be prevented with gut microbes, study suggests.) (medicalnewstoday.com 2.5.2016).)

- PTSD kan være fysisk og ikke bare psykologisk.

(Anm: PTSD kan være fysisk og ikke bare psykologisk. PTSD may be physical and not only psychological. The part of the brain that helps control emotion may be larger in people who develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after brain injury compared to those with a brain injury without PTSD, according to a study that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's Sports Concussion Conference in Jacksonville, Fla., July 14 to 16, 2017. "Many consider PTSD to be a psychological disorder, but our study found a key physical difference in the brains of military-trained individuals with brain injury and PTSD, specifically the size of the right amygdala," said Joel Pieper, MD, MS, of University of California, San Diego. "These findings have the potential to change the way we approach PTSD diagnosis and treatment." (medicalnewstoday.com 14.7.2017).)

(Anm: Ny tilnærming kan snart spille nøkkelrolle for å hjelpe veteraner å overvinne PTSD. Novel approach could soon play key role in helping veterans overcome PTSD. A novel approach of using visual and physical stimulus to help military veterans address their traumatic experiences could soon play a significant role in helping British veterans overcome post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), thanks to a new Cardiff University research project. (…) The researchers hope that exposure to traumatic memories, enhanced with walking, music and high effect pictures, will eliminate cognitive avoidance – a coping strategy that can contribute to the worsening of PTSD symptoms. (news-medical.net 24.7.2017).)

(Anm: Concussion in Adolescent Girls Is Associated with Irregular Menses. John D. Cowden, MD, MPH reviewing Snook ML et al. JAMA Pediatr 2017 Jul 3. Menstrual abnormalities were more common among adolescent girls and young women after sport-related concussion than after non-head orthopedic injuries, suggesting a connection between concussion and the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Neuroendocrine disorders from traumatic brain injury have been reported in adults, including menstrual dysfunction in women. These findings raise the question of whether adolescent girls and young women may experience menstrual problems after concussion. (…) Specifically, participants with concussion had higher risk for intermenstrual interval <21 days (OR, 5.60) and bleeding duration <3 days (OR, 2.30). NEJM 2017 (July 7, 2017).)

- Hjernerystelser hos tenåringer linket til senere risiko for MS.

(Anm: Teenage concussion linked to later risk of MS. A new study provides further evidence of the potential long-term harms of head trauma, after finding that individuals who suffer a concussion in adolescence may be at greater risk of developing multiple sclerosis. Concussion is a form of traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by a sudden blow or jolt to the head, which can interfere with brain functioning. (…) One study reported by Medical News Today in 2015, for example, found that professional football players who experienced concussion were more likely to have memory impairments in later life than those who did not suffer concussion. Now, researchers have identified a link between concussion in adolescence and later-life multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. (medicalnewstoday.com 22.9.2017).)

(Anm: PTSD and cognitive decline linked in 9/11 responders. A study, published in Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, investigates the lo- Hjernerystelse hos tenåringer linket til senere risiko for MS.

- En av fem amerikanske ungdommer rapporterer minst en hjernerystelse.

(Anm: One in Five U.S. Adolescents Reports at Least One Concussion. Alain Joffe, MD, MPH, FAAP reviewing Veliz P et al. JAMA 2017 Sep 26. Males, 10th and 12th graders, and those playing contact sports were at greater risk. National data on the prevalence of concussion among school youth are lacking. To fill this gap, investigators analyzed data from the 2016 Monitoring the Future survey of eighth, 10th, and 12th graders, to which a question about concussion had been added. Students could answer “no,” “yes once,” or “yes more than once” to the question “Have you ever had a head injury that was diagnosed as a concussion?” Of 13,000 students who participated in the survey, 14% reported one concussion and nearly 6% reported more than one. Females were almost 20% less likely than males to report concussions, while African-American and Hispanic students were roughly 50% less likely than white students to do so. Students in 10th and 12th grade were significantly more likely than eighth graders to report at least one concussion, as were students playing contact (e.g., football), semi-contact (e.g., basketball and soccer), and noncontact (e.g., swimming and tennis) sports, compared with those who did not play any sport. NEJM 2017 (September 26, 2017).)

(Anm: Teenage concussion linked to later risk of MS. A new study provides further evidence of the potential long-term harms of head trauma, after finding that individuals who suffer a concussion in adolescence may be at greater risk of developing multiple sclerosis. Concussion is a form of traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by a sudden blow or jolt to the head, which can interfere with brain functioning. (…) One study reported by Medical News Today in 2015, for example, found that professional football players who experienced concussion were more likely to have memory impairments in later life than those who did not suffer concussion. Now, researchers have identified a link between concussion in adolescence and later-life multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. (medicalnewstoday.com 22.9.2017).)

ng-term effects of trauma on the cognitive performance of responders to the World Trade Center on 9/11. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition that can arise in individuals who have experienced shocking, dangerous, or frightening events. (medicalnewstoday.com 30.8.2016).)

(Anm: Tarmbakterier fjerner autisme i mus. Sykdommer: Ny studie viser at man kan behandle mus med autismesymptomer ved hjelp av ekskrementer fra friske mus. (…) Det var særlig én tarmbakterie, Lactobacillus reuteri, de syke musene manglet. (illvit.no 29.6.2016).)

(Anm: - Nye kliniske studier viser «lovende resultater" for autisme (ASD)-behandling. (New clinical trial shows 'promising results' for ASD treatment. The gut microbiota is a fascinating part of the human body; it plays a crucial role in immunity and keeps our bodies healthy. New research suggests that the gut microbiome may even hold the key to a potential treatment for autism. (medicalnewstoday.com 23.1.2017).)

(Anm: Påvirker immunsystemet vår sosiale atferd? (Does the immune system influence our social behavior?) Inntil relativt nylig er hjernen og immunsystemet antatt å arbeide isolert fra hverandre. Dette er nå kjent for ikke å være tilfelle. Denne oppdagelsen reverseres vanlige oppfatninger om at hjernen er "immunprivilegert" og manglet direkte kommunikasjon mellom de to systemene. (medicalnewstoday.com 22.7.2016).)

(Anm: Can the Nervous System Be Hacked? (…) The vagus nerve and its branches conduct nerve impulses — called action potentials — to every major organ. But communication between nerves and the immune system was considered impossible, according to the scientific consensus in 1998. (...) “I was like: C’mon? You’re gonna give a shock and it changes the immune system? I was very skeptical. But finally I agreed to visit Kevin’s lab. I wanted the data, the evidence. I don’t like hot air.”(nytimes.com 23.5.2016).)

(Anm: Spesifikke tarmbakterier reversere autismelignende atferd hos mus (Specific gut bacteria reverse autism-like behavior in mice) Forskere ved Baylor College of Medicine, TX, undersøkte nylig rollen til mors kosthold og tarmbakterier på de sosiale egenskapene til mus. Deres funn vil uten tvil igangsette forskning på muligheten for probiotiske inngrep for en rekke nevrologiske lidelser. (medicalnewstoday.com 17.6.2016).)

(Anm: Big data and bacteria explain why your diet isn't working. A study published in the journal Cell links the bacteria that live in the human gut - the microbiome - with how the body manages food. "Our research suggests that each person's microbiome is driving food effects on the body," said Eran Elinav, of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, and lead immunologist on the study. (medicalnewstoday.com 20.11.2015).)

(Anm: Inflammation linked to weakened reward circuits in depression. Brain imaging shows distinctive aspects of high-inflammation depression. About one third of people with depression have high levels of inflammation markers in their blood. New research indicates that persistent inflammation affects the brain in ways that are connected with stubborn symptoms of depression, such as anhedonia, the inability to experience pleasure. The results were published online on Nov. 10 in Molecular Psychiatry. (…) "Some patients taking antidepressants continue to suffer from anhedonia," Felger says. "Our data suggest that by blocking inflammation or its effects on the brain, we may be able to reverse anhedonia and help depressed individuals who fail to respond to antidepressants." (medicalnewstoday.com 23.11.2015).)

(Anm: Age-related immune system decline slowed by antioxidants. (...) Findings from the study, published in Cell Reports, also lend support to the "free-radical theory" of aging, whereby reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide that are produced by normal metabolism cause damage to cells. This damage contributes to both aging and age-related diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.8.2015).)

(Anm: Controlling inflammation to reduce chronic disease risk. (…) Inflammation is a normal component of host defence, but elevated unresolved chronic inflammation is a core perturbation in a range of chronic diseases. Prevention or control of low-grade inflammation therefore seems to be an attractive target effect for healthy food or food ingredients. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.8.2015).)

(Anm: Hjernen ændrer sig, når du har ondt. En simpel, men smertefuld tennisalbue påvirker hjernen i en sådan grad, at den efter få dage begynder at reorganisere sig selv. Det viser et nyt studie, som kan være et vigtigt skridt på vejen til at forklare kroniske smerter. (…) (jyllandsposten.dk 12.9.2015).)

(Anm: Common antidepressant may change brain. (…) A commonly prescribed antidepressant may alter brain structures in depressed and non-depressed individuals in very different ways, according to new research at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. (...) MRI images taken at the end of the treatment phase revealed that in depressed subjects the drug significantly increased the volume of one region of the brain, the anterior cingulate cortex, while decreasing the volume of this same region and the hippocampus in non-depressed subjects. Both of these areas are highly interconnected with other areas of the brain; are critical in a wide array of functions including memory, learning, spatial navigation, will, motivation and emotion; and are implicated in major depressive disorder. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.9.2015).)

(Anm: Common antidepressant may change brain. (…) A commonly prescribed antidepressant may alter brain structures in depressed and non-depressed individuals in very different ways, according to new research at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. (...) MRI images taken at the end of the treatment phase revealed that in depressed subjects the drug significantly increased the volume of one region of the brain, the anterior cingulate cortex, while decreasing the volume of this same region and the hippocampus in non-depressed subjects. Both of these areas are highly interconnected with other areas of the brain; are critical in a wide array of functions including memory, learning, spatial navigation, will, motivation and emotion; and are implicated in major depressive disorder. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.9.2015).)

(Anm: Antipsychotic drugs linked to brain tissue loss in patients with schizophrenia. Antipsychotic medications are the most common treatment for individuals with schizophrenia, helping to relieve some of the debilitating symptoms caused by the disorder. But according to a new study, long-term use of these drugs may also negatively impact brain structure. Researchers say long-term use of antipsychotic medications - particularly first-generation antipsychotics - may lead to gray matter loss in the brain. First author Dr. Antonio Vita, professor of psychiatry at the University of Brescia in Italy, and colleagues publish their findings in the journal Biological Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.9.2015).)

(Anm: Gray Matter Abnormalities in the Inhibitory Circuitry of Young Binge Drinkers: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study. (…) Binge drinking (BD) is defined as a pattern of high alcohol intake in a short time followed by periods of abstinence. Front. Psychol., 13 September 2017.)

(Anm: Antipsykotika kan krympe hjernevolumet (Antipsychotics May Shrink Brain Volume) (medpagetoday.com 8.2.2011).)

(Anm: Antidepressiv medicin kan øge risiko for infektion med tarmbakterie. Infektioner med bakterien Clostridium difficile ses oftere hos personer i behandling for depression. (dagenspharma.dk 14.5.2013).)

(Anm: Legemidler (bl.a. antidepressiva, antipsykotika etc. kan øke risikoen for tarmsykdommer (dysbiose)), inklusive sepsis, Clostridium difficile (C difficile) etc.(mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Rebiotix microbiome drug success against C diff infection. Patients suffering from a recurrent infection with the C difficile bacteria have benefited from a microbiome treatment from Rebiotix. The results from the open label phase 2 trial confirm that Rebiotix’s drug, RBX2660, is the frontrunner among a coming wave of new microbiome treatments. (…) Companies are focusing on gastrointestinal conditions first, but the potential for treatments is also being investigated in conditions such as multiple sclerosis and depression. (pharmaphorum.com 13.4.2017).)

(Anm: Gray matter abnormality predicts neurodevelopmental problems in smaller premature babies (medicalnewstoday.com 8.4.2016).)

- Studie viser at hjernen kan produsere nye celler.

Stort antal nervceller nybildas i hjärnan
dagensmedicin.se 7.6.2013
En tredjedel av nervcellerna i hippocampus nybildas, enligt en ny svensk forskning.

Påståendet att nervceller i hjärnan inte kan nybildas har redan tidigare i studier visat sig vara fel. Men nu har forskare för första gången kunnat visa hur stor nybildningen är.

Med hjälp av kol-14-metoden har forskare vid Karolinska institutet åldersbestämt nervceller i hippocampus i limbiska systemet i hjärnan hos 55 avlidna män och kvinnor i olika åldrar. De har då kunnat se att cirka 1 400 nya nervceller bildas där dagligen. Nybildningen avtar dock något med åldern. Sammantaget byts ungefär en tredjedel av hippoacampus nervceller ut.

– Det har varit känt sedan flera år att nervceller nybildas i människans hippocampus, men det har varit oklart om det sker i en omfattning som kan ha någon betydelse. Nu visar vi att ett betydande antal nya nervceller bildas i hippocampus i hjärnan hos människan under hela livet och att de antagligen bidrar till hjärnans funktion, säger Jonas Frisén, professor vid institutionen för cell- och molekylärbiologi vid Karolinska institutet och en av forskarna bakom studien, i ett pressmeddelande.

Han anser att kunskapen om nybildningen av nervceller i hjärnan kan tänkas få tillämpning inom exempelvis behandling av depression.

– Man har länge misstänkt att depression är relaterad till minskad nybildning av nervceller i hippocampus och våra resultat väcker frågan om mer effektiva antidepressiva läkemedel skulle kunna utvecklas, säger Jonas Frisén.(...)

(Anm: Dynamics of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Humans. Cell 2013;153(6):1219-1227 (6 June 2013).)

(Anm: Inflammation reparerar hjärnan efter stroke Efter en stroke uppstår ofta en inflammation i hjärnan, som hittills setts som något negativt. Men nu tror forskare vid Lunds universitet att inflammationen i själva verket är något positivt. Vid en stroke dör hjärnans nervceller i det skadade området. Följden blir en inflammation som drar till sig celler från immunförsvaret, något som hittills setts som något negativt. (nyteknik.se 14.4.2016).)

(Anm: Immune cells help the brain to self-heal after a stroke. After a stroke, there is inflammation in the damaged part of the brain. Until now, the inflammation has been seen as a negative consequence that needs to be abolished as soon as possible. But, as it turns out, there are also some positive sides to the inflammation, and it can actually help the brain to self-repair. (medicalnewstoday.com 15.4.2016).)

(Anm: Capacity to balance on one leg reflects brain health (medicalnewstoday.com 19.12.2014).)

(Anm: Professor: - Alle over 50 bør gjøre denne hjernetrimmen. Forskere har sett nærmere på hvilken type hjernetrim som fungerer best mot demens. (…) Nylig ble interessante funn fra en ny studie ved Universitetet i Sør-Florida presentert, skriver TIME. (side3.no 26.7.2016).)

(Anm:  Veslemøy Hedvig Østrem | Marita E. Valvik. Hjernen har ikke forandret seg på 40.000 år. Er den i det hele tatt brukbar i dag? (…) Hun trekker frem et klassisk eksempel: – Si at du skal slutte og røyke og at du etter tre uker uten sigaretter sprekker du når du er på fest. Klandrer du deg selv og tenker «jeg har ikke noen karakter», «jeg er et dårlig menneske» eller «sånn er jeg bare», da øker sannsynligheten for å mislykkes. (aftenposten.no 20.7.2016).)

(Anm: Brain's inability to repair DNA may explain dementia, memory loss (medicalnewstoday.com 10.2.2015).)

(Anm: Memory and the hippocampus. Size may not matter as much as we thought. (medicalnewstoday.com 17.5.2015).)

(Anm: Memory and the hippocampus. (medicalnewstoday.com 17.5.2015).)

(Anm: Hjernen din krymper etter hvert som årene går, men ifølge nye hjerneskanninger som fra University of Illinois, forsvinner ikke hjernecellene. Skanningene ble gjort av verdens til nå kraftigste MR-maskin. Forskerne håper å lære mer om Alzheimers. (aftenposten.no 16.6.2015).)

(Anm: Cell density remains constant as brain shrinks with age. New, ultra-high-field magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago provide the most detailed images to date to show that while the brain shrinks with age, brain cell density remains constant. In other words, the number of cells stays the same, they just get smaller. (news.uic.edu 12.6.2015).)

(Anm: Quantitative sodium MRI of the human brain at 9.4 T provides assessment of tissue sodium concentration and cell volume fraction during normal aging. NMR in Biomedicine 2015 (Article first published online: 9 JUN 2015).)

(Anm: Human exposure to metal cadmium may accelerate cellular aging (medicalnewstoday.com 16.12.2014).)

(Anm: Probiotic bacteria could provide some protection against cadmium poisoning (medicalnewstoday.com 20.5.2016).)

(Anm: Probiotic could help alleviate hay fever symptoms. Researchers found that a probiotic consisting of both Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria helped to alleviate hay fever symptoms and improved quality of life during allergy season. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.3.2017).)

(Anm: Microbiota promotes systemic T-cell survival through suppression of an apoptotic factor. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) 2017 (Published ahead of print May 9, 2017).)

(Anm: The metabolic regulation of aging. (…) In addition, the role of mitochondria as both a metabolic and signaling organelle is discussed. Nat Med. 2015 Dec 8;21(12):1416-23.)

(Anm: Quantitative sodium MRI of the human brain at 9.4 T provides assessment of tissue sodium concentration and cell volume fraction during normal aging. NMR in Biomedicine 2015 (Article first published online: 9 JUN 2015).)

(Anm: Could we upload a brain to a computer – and should we even try? (…) Perhaps the most dramatic way transhumanists believe that technology will transform the human condition is the idea that someone’s mind could be converted into digital data and “uploaded” into an immensely powerful computer. (theconversation.com 5.7.2016).)

- Forsker: Hjerneceller kan påvirke hinanden uden at have kontakt.

Forsker: Hjerneceller kan påvirke hinanden uden at have kontakt
videnskab.dk 23.2.2016
Nerveceller kan sende bølger af aktivitet gennem hjernen via elektriske felter uden at være forbundne, viser ny forskning. Det kan åbne op for en ny forståelse af sygdomme som epilepsi, vurderer forskere.

Hjernen er den mest komplekse maskine, vi kender til, og den bliver ved med at overraske.

En ny undersøgelse viser, at nerveceller i hjernen kan aktivere hinanden gennem elektriske felter og starte en bølge af aktivitet, uden at være forbundne eller tæt op af hinanden (se faktaboks for mere om elektriske felter). Det har ellers været gængs antagelse, at nervecellerne kun påvirker hinanden ved at udveksle atomer eller molekyler (se faktaboks).

Det er en vigtig opdagelse, da det giver os en mere komplet forståelse af, hvordan hjerneceller kommunikerer og påvirker hinanden, konkluderer forskerne bag undersøgelsen.

»Med en mere komplet forståelse af, hvordan celleaktiviteten i hjernen fungerer og spreder sig, kan vi forhåbentligt komme tættere på at kurere hjernelidelser som epilepsi, men også forstå, hvad der sker under søvnen,« skriver Dominique Durand i en mail til Videnskab.dk.

Han er professor i biomedical engineering ved Case Western Reserve University i USA og medforfatter til forskningsartiklen, der lige er blevet udgivet i tidsskriftet The Journal of Neuroscience. Danske forskere er dog mere skeptiske omkring det nye studies resultater - mere om det længere nede i artiklen. (…)

(Anm: Can Neural Activity Propagate by Endogenous Electrical Field? J Neurosci. 2015 Dec 2;35(48):15800-11.)

(Anm: Brainstem 'stop neurons' make us halt when we walk. A population of 'stop cells' in the brainstem is essential for the ability of mice to stop their locomotion, according to a new study by scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. In an article published in the journal Cell, they report a brainstem pathway specifically dedicated to enforce locomotor arrest; its selective activation stops locomotion, while its silencing favors it. The study thus identifies a novel descending modality essential for gating the episodic nature of locomotor behavior. (medicalnewstoday.com 20.11.2015).)

(Anm: Stamceller redder 71 år gammel kvinne fra rullestolen. Stamceller:En nesten lam kvinne rammet av slag er nå på beina igjen etter å ha mottatt eksperimentell behandling med stamceller. Alle de andre 17 pasientene i forsøket viste tegn på bedring. (illvit.no 8.6.2016).)

(Anm: Stroke patients' speech loss linked to loss of brain interconnections. When brain regions that control speech and reading comprehension are destroyed due to blockage of blood flow, patients are often unable to speak or comprehend spoken or written language. These difficulties with language, or "aphasia," are a common symptom in the aftermath of stroke. However, in a new study published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, researchers report that damage to the underlying connections among different areas of the brain can also affect the severity of aphasia. (medicalxpress.com 2.2.2016).)

(Anm: Gut microbes affect brain injury after stroke. Altering the gut microbiota of mice can reduce brain damage after a stroke, reports a new study published online in Nature Medicine. These findings highlight a previously unrecognized link between the intestine and the brain. Communities of microbes - the microbiome - colonize the gut and other barrier surfaces in the body early in life, and they have a pronounced influence on the development of the immune system and on metabolic processes. Alterations in the microbiome have been identified in several diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and asthma, and they influence disease outcome. (medicalnewstoday.com 29.3.2016).)

(Anm: 'Helper cells' can turn toxic in brain injury and diseases. For many years, research on neurodegenerative diseases and spinal cord and brain injury has focused on damage to nerve cells, or neurons. Now, a new study of astrocytes - a type of cell that surrounds and supports neurons - finds that there is a subtype that can turn rogue and kill neurons, instead of helping to repair them during injury or disease. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.2.2017).)

(Anm: – Kan teknologien gjøre kroppen overflødig? – Hvis hjernens utvikling og læring er avhengig av hendenes og kroppens «brukspress», kan manglende bruk nedregulere nevronale forbindelser, skriver Tone Skjerven. (…) MEKANISK HUKOMMELSE. Professor Arild Utaker stiller spørsmålet om hvorvidt stadig mer avansert teknologisk utvikling kan ende med å gjøre kroppen overflødig og derved bringe menneskets historie til ende. (dagensmedisin.no 7.3.2016).)

(Anm: Here’s the Memory Trick That Science Says Works. You draw it. Even in childhood, when the brain is as clear and uncluttered as it will ever be, memory is still imperfect, given to random failures, depending on how rested we are, how attentive we’re being and a range of other things. Now, a new paper published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology suggests an unusual strategy for improving it: drawing. (…) “We observed a significant recall advantage for words that were drawn as compared to those that were written,” said Wammes in a prepared statement. “Participants often recalled more than twice as many drawn words.” (time.com 22.4.2016).)

(Anm: Ny atlas visar hjärnans okända vrår. Forskare har tagit fram en detaljerad hjärnkarta som kan bli en ny standard inom hjärnforskningen. (dagensmedicin.se 21.7.2016).)

(Anm: A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex. Nature 2016; (Published online  20 July 2016).)

- Hjernens tenketilstand er funne (– Det verker som om vi har to veldig generelle nettverk i hjernen, eitt for kvile, og eitt for tenking)

Hjernens tenketilstand er funne
nrk.no 22.8.2015
Norske og amerikanske forskarar har gjort ei banebrytande oppdaging av eit hjernenettverk som kjenneteiknar all tenking. Funnet kan medverke til å forklare psykiske lidingar, trur forskarane.

Hjerneforskarane Kenneth Hugdahl og Karsten Specht ved Universitet i Bergen har oppdaga eit til no ukjent aktivitetsmønster i hjernen som kjenneteiknar alle tankeprosessar.

Mønsteret, som blir kalla Extrinsic mode network (EMN), er motstykket til eit mønster som kjenneteiknar den kvilande hjernen.

– Det verker som om vi har to veldig generelle nettverk i hjernen, eitt for kvile, og eitt for tenking, seier professor Kenneth Hugdahl til NRK.

Samhandlinga mellom dei to tilstandane kan ha innverknad på utvikling av psykiske eller nevrologisk lidingar, skriv forskarane i forskingsartikkelen i Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

Les også: Meiner lærebøkene må skrivast om etter hjerneoppdaging (…)

(Anm: On the existence of a generalized non-specific task-dependent network. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 2015 (06 August 2015).)

(Anm: Ny forskning: Barn kan arve foreldrenes traumer En oppsiktsvekkende studie av Holocaust-overlevere viser at deres opplevelser kan påvirke barnas gener. En oppsiktsvekkende studie av Holocaust-overlevere viser at deres opplevelser kan påvirke barnas gener. Foreldre som sliter med vedvarende angst og depresjon etter ekstreme opplevelser, har genforandringer som kan overføres til barna og gjøre dem mer utsatt for lignende psykiske lidelser. (…) Det er imidlertid ikke bare stress og traumer som kan overføres til neste generasjon, men også miljøforhold som kosthold, røyking og annet. Det er derfor man i forskningsmiljøerhalvt i spøk og halvt i alvor snakker om «arvesynden». (aftenposten.no 14.9.2015).)

(Anm: Barn arver neppe foreldrenes traumer. Aftenposten videreformidler onsdag tilsynelatende sensasjonelle forskningsfunn om at overlevende fra Holocaust har videreført sine traumer til avkommets gener. Påstanden gis tyngde ved at direktør ved Bioteknologinemda, Sissel Rogne, går god for studiens konklusjoner. Rogne kan neppe ha lest originalartikkelen, som sto på trykk i Biological Psychiatry i april 2015. Studien er faglig usedvanlig svak og burde vært stoppet av redaktøren i forbindelse med fagfellevurderingen av arbeidet. (aftenposten.no 19.9.2015).)

- Nervceller nybildas i sjukdomsdrabbad del av hjärnan

Nervceller nybildas i sjukdomsdrabbad del av hjärnan
netdoktor.se 24.2.2014
Ny forskning visar att det bildas nya nervceller under hela livet i en del av hjärnan, striatum, som ofta är påverkad vid neurologiska sjukdomar.

Vi föds och dör med samma nervceller, med undantag för några typer av nervceller som kontinuerligt byts ut under hela livet.

Nu visar en ny studie att det bildas nya nervceller i ett område som kallas striatum i hjärnan och som är viktigt för en viss typ av inlärning och koordinering av rörelser. Forskarna fann också att de nyfödda nervcellerna i detta område hade förlorats vid Huntingtons sjukdom, en ovanlig och ärftlig neurodegenerativ sjukdom.

Kanske kan det i framtiden bli möjligt att stimulera nybildningen av celler för att ersätta förlorade nervceller vid till exempel stroke. Forskarna vid Karolinska Institutet ska nu gå vidare och undersöka det. (...)

(Anm: Neurogenesis in the Striatum of the Adult Human Brain. Cell 2014 (20 February 2014).)

(Anm: Nerve Signalling: Tracing the Wiring of Life (nobelprize.org First published 16 September 2009).)

(Anm: Ny viten om nervecellekommunikasjon.Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2014; 134:1387 (12.8.2014).)

(Anm: Raushet innen hjerneforskning - Vi skjønner nesten ingenting av hva som skjer i de tett sammenkoblede nettverkene av 100 milliarder nerveceller som utgjør vår hjerne. (morgenbladet.no 8.8.2014).)

(Anm: Hjärnan växer snabbast i början (svd.se 12.8.2014).)

(Anm: Har framstilt kunstig nervecelle. Svenske forskere har laga en kunstig nervecelle i plast. Ved hjelp av nanoteknologi håper de å gjøre den så liten at den kan implanteres i mennesker. (nrk.no 25.6.2015).)

(Anm: – Maskinene får bevissthet i løpet av vår levetid. Forskere på kunstig intelligens mener det er uunngåelig at datamaskinene som kan tenke som oss i løpet av de kommende tiårene. Det åpner for du kan få en assistent som alle vil tro er deg. I programmet "Evig ung – Lenge leve hjernen" forsøker programleder Solveig Hareide å gjenskape seg selv som et robot-hologram. De fleste av teknologiene som gjør at du kan ha en meningsfylt samtale med ditt eget hologram finnes allerede. Men følelsen av å snakke med et vesen med sjel eller bevissthet mangler. (nrk.no 21.4.2017).)

(Anm: New technology discovered for brain repair: Chemical transformation of human glial cells into neurons (medicalnewstoday.com 15.10.2015).)

(Anm: Potential drugs and targets for brain repair. Summary: Researchers have discovered drugs that activate signaling pathways leading to specific adult brain cell types from stem cells in the mouse brain, according to a new study. The results may open new avenues for drug development aimed at treatment of degenerative brain disorders. (…) They found several potentially important differences between neuron-specific and oligodendrocyte-specific microdomains, and used these findings to identify similar changes in gene expression in the small molecule drug database. (…) They showed that one such molecule, called LY-294002 specifically enhanced normal oligodendrogenesis from neural stem cells in newborn mice. In adult mice, different molecules (AR-A014418 and CHIR99021) counteracted the gradual loss of neurogenic capacity and lineage diversity of the adult subventricular zone. Finally, this later molecule promoted robust regeneration of oligodendrocytes and a smaller increase in neurons in a model of perinatal hypoxic brain injury. (sciencedaily.com 29.3.2017).)

(Anm: How fatty foods could be damaging your brain. (…) Published in the journal Brain, Behavior and Immunity, the study suggests a high-fat diet destroys synapses - connections that aid communication between neurons, or brain cells - in the hippocampus of the brain, which may impair learning and memory. (…) Excess fat triggers autoimmune response that destroys synapses. (…) Switching to low-fat diet reversed synaptic loss and function (medicalnewstoday.com 28.11.2015).)

- Sjeldne nevroner aktiverer mental fleksibilitet (- Atferdsfleksibilitet - muligheten til å endre strategi når reglene endres - styres av bestemte nerveceller i hjernen.)

Rare neurons enable mental flexibility
medicalnewstoday.com 25.6.2015 (Sjeldne nevroner aktiverer mental fleksibilitet)
Atferdsfleksibilitet - muligheten til å endre strategi når reglene endres - styres av bestemte nerveceller i hjernen, har forskere ved Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) bekreftet. Kolinerge interneuroner er sjeldne - de utgjør bare én til to prosent av nevroner i striatum, en viktig del av hjernen som er involvert j beslutninger på høyere nivå. Forskere har mistanke om at de spiller en rolle i skiftende strategier, og forskere ved OIST bekreftet nylig dette med eksperimenter. Resultatene er publisert i The Journal of Neuroscience. (Behavioral flexibility -- the ability to change strategy when the rules change -- is controlled by specific neurons in the brain, Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have confirmed. Cholinergic interneurons are rare -- they make up just one to two percent of the neurons in the striatum, a key part of the brain involved with higher-level decision-making. Scientists have suspected they play a role in changing strategies, and researchers at OIST recently confirmed this with experiments. Their findings were published in The Journal of Neuroscience.)

Bildet til venstre viser alle nevroner (de svarte prikker) i rottestriatum, en del av hjernen som er involvert i overordnede beslutninger.
Bildet til høyre viser bare de kolinerge interneuroner. Det er langt færre sorte prikker fordi kolinerge interneuroner utgjør bare 1 til 2 prosent av nevroner i striatum. Det er disse nevronene som påvirker mental fleksibilitet. De store hvite flekker er bunter av nerver.) (…) (The image on the left shows all neurons (the black dots) in the rat striatum, a part of the brain that is involved in higher-level decision-making. The image on the right shows just the cholinergic interneurons. There are far fewer black dots because cholinergic interneurons make up only 1 to 2 percent of the neurons in the striatum. It is these neurons that influence mental flexibility. (The large white spots are bundles of nerves.)

"Ikke mye er kjent om disse nevronene," sier Sho Aoki, en postdoktor ved OIST og hovedforfatter av studien. Men vi har nå klare bevis på at de spiller en nøkkelrolle i resterende fleksibilitet i denne stadig skiftende verden." ("Not much is known about these neurons," said Sho Aoki, a post-doctoral researcher at OIST and lead author of the paper. "But we now have clear evidence that they play a key role in remaining flexible in this ever-changing world." )

Tidligere studier forsøkte å identifisere rollen kolinerge interneuroner ved å registrere hjernebølgeaktivitet under atferdsoppgaver. Siden dette sterkt kan indikere at spesifikke nevroner er korrelert med en bestemt atferd, er den ikke eksakt. I denne studien utslettet Aoki kolinerge interneuroner med en gift som direkte er rettet mot dem, og observerte deretter hvordan rotter reagerte på regelendringer sammenlignet med normale rotter med intakte nerveceller. "Våre eksperimenter viser direkte årsakssammenheng, ikke korrelasjon," opplyste Aoki. (Previous studies tried to identify the role of cholinergic interneurons by recording brain wave activity during behavioral tasks. While that can strongly indicate specific neurons are correlated with a particular behavior, it is not definitive. In this study, Aoki killed cholinergic interneurons with a toxin that directly targets them, and then observed how rats reacted to rule changes compared with normal rats with intact neurons. "Our experiments show direct causation, not correlation," Aoki said.)

Rotter med og uten skadde nerveceller ble gitt oppgaver i flere uker - de måtte trykke enten spake A eller B for å få en sukkerpellet som belønning. I løpet av de første dagene, resulterte spake A alltid i en belønning. Begge grupper av rotter hadde ikke noe problem å lære den første strategien for å få sukkerpellet - trykk spake A. (...) (Rats with and without damaged neurons were given tasks for several weeks -- they had to press either lever A or B to get a sugar pellet reward. During the first few days, Lever A always resulted in a reward. Both groups of rats had no problem learning the initial strategy to get the sugar pellet -- press Lever A.)

Men så ble spillereglene endret. En ny stimulans ble introdusert - et lys blinket over den riktige spaken, som svingte mellom spake A og B. For å få sitt sukkertøy måtte rottene skifte strategi og ta hensyn til denne nye informasjonen. Mens normale rotter svarte raskt til lyset, kunne rotter med ødelagte nerveceller ikke dette. Den sistnevnte gruppen fortsatte å gjenta strategien de allerede hadde lært, og var uvillige til å utforske hva lyset betydde. (...) (But then, the rules of the game changed. A novel stimulus was introduced -- a light flashed above the correct lever, which oscillated between Lever A and B. To get their sugar fix, the rats had to shift strategy and pay attention to this new information. While normal rats quickly responded to the light, rats with damaged neurons could not. The latter group continued to repeat the strategy they had already learned, and were disinclined to explore what the light meant.)

(Anm: Researchers activate repair program for nerve fibers: Releasing molecular brake allowed damaged neurons to regenerate. (…) Treatment of mice with "Pregabalin", a drug that acts upon the growth inhibiting mechanism, caused damaged nerve connections to regenerate. Researchers led by neurobiologist Frank Bradke report on these findings in the journal Neuron. (medicalnewstoday.com 11.10.2016).)

- Nerveceller i hjernebarken som dør erstattes ikke etter hjerneslag

Nervceller ersätts inte efter stroke
svd.se 22.4.2014
De nervceller i hjärnbarken som dör i samband med att en person drabbas av stroke ersätts inte av nya nervceller.

Det har forskare från Uppsala och Stockholm visat i en studie som publiceras i tidskriften Nature Neuroscience, skriver Upsala Nya Tidning.

- Det är intressant att notera att en återhämtning efter en stroke alltså sker utan utbyte av skadade nervceller, säger docent Mehran Salehpour vid Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala universitet. (...)

(Anm: Høyere langtidsdødelighet etter hjerneslag. Blant de som levde i minst ett år etter et hjerneslag, var dødeligheten på lang sikt drøyt 35 prosent høyere enn hos ikke-slagrammede. (dagensmedisin.no 24.2.2016).)

(Anm: Scientists make surprising finding in stroke research (…) Scientists at The University of Manchester have made an important new discovery about the brain's immune system that could lead to potential new treatments for stroke and other related conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com 18.3.2015).)

(Anm: Substance abuse reduces brain volume in women but not men. Stimulant drug abuse has long-term effects on brain volume in women, according to a new study published online in the journal Radiology. Brain structures involved in reward, learning and executive control showed vast changes even after a prolonged period of abstinence from drug use. (medicalnewstoday.com 14.7.2015).)

- Ny forståelse av skader etter et hjerneslag kan hjelpe med rekonvalesens (restitusjon)

New understanding of stroke damage may aid recovery (Ny forståelse av skader etter et hjerneslag kan hjelpe med rekonvalesens (restitusjon))
medicalnewstoday.com 9.3.2015
Stroke can lead to a wide range of problems such as depression and difficulty moving, speaking and paying attention. Scientists have thought these issues were caused by damage to the brain's "computer processors" - cells in the brain's outer layer that do much of the work involved in higher brain functions.

But a new study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has found compelling evidence that stroke damage to "cables" buried inside the brain plays an important role in these impairments. The cables connect cells on the brain's surface to each other, to other cells deep in the brain and to cells in the spinal cord that link the brain to the rest of the body. (…)

With the advent of modern brain scans, scientists later discovered that stroke only rarely affects the cortex but often involves the tissue underneath the cortex, which is primarily composed of the fibers connecting different parts of the brain. In 2007, for example, a team used MRI to image the brain of Broca's first patient and found the stroke had caused significant damage to the white matter.

To get a better sense of how stroke damages the brain, Corbetta and his colleagues initiated a study of patients who had just suffered first-time strokes. The new study uses data gathered from 132 patients treated at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. (…)

The results show that stroke is more likely to inflict the most harm in three areas of the brain, all under the cortex: the white matter; the basal ganglia, which are important in movement and reward; and the thalamus, which regulates sleep and consciousness, and plays roles in vision, hearing and touch. (…)

The researchers also found that deficits after stroke are better described by three groupings rather than by many individual deficits. The first group was associated with problems with language and memory; the second was linked to problems with vision, left body movement, general attention and awareness of the left side of space; and the third was linked to problems with right body movement and awareness of the right side of space. The combination of deficits across many patients was not due to the extent of damage caused by the strokes but to damage of white matter "crossroads," regions with fibers that have many connections. According to Corbetta, these lesions affect communication across many brain regions, which helps explain why the damage they produce causes such a diverse array of symptoms.

"The majority of research in stroke, including funding at the National Institute of Health, has focused on the cortex," Corbetta said. "Our results show the importance of loss of connections due to white matter damage, and highlight the need to look at the impact of stroke on the ability of undamaged brain regions to communicate. Future studies should focus on how the stroke affects brain function. This should be very helpful in diagnosis and treatment of these patients." (…)

(Anm: Leukoaraiosis is associated with short- and long-term mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 Oct;22(7):919-25. Epub 2013 Feb 21.)

(Anm: Personality traits linked to differences in brain structure. Our personality may be shaped by how our brain works, but in fact the shape of our brain can itself provide surprising clues about how we behave - and our risk of developing mental health disorders - suggests a study published in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.  (medicalnewstoday.com 26.1.2017).)

(Anm: Sleep Disordered Breathing and White Matter Hyperintensities in Community-Dwelling Elders. To examine the association between markers of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume in an elderly, multiethnic, community-dwelling cohort. (…) Conclusions: In community-dwelling older adults, self-reported measures of SDB are associated with larger WMH volumes. The cognitive effects of SDB that are increasingly being recognized may be mediated at the small vessel level.Sleep. 2016;39(4):785–791).)

(Anm: Forstyrret kroppsoppfatning etter hjerneslag. Mange som har hatt et hjerneslag får forstyrrelser i kroppsoppfatningen. Dette medfører at man f.eks. har problemer med å orientere seg eller utføre bestemte handlinger. (nhi.no 9.3.2015).)

(Anm: New understanding of stroke damage may aid recovery (medic alnewstoday.com 9.3.2015).)

- Ny innsikt i hjernebetennelse kan forklare varig mén etter hjerneslag

New insights into brain inflammation may explain residual disability after stroke (Ny innsikt i hjernebetennelse kan forklare varig mén etter hjerneslag)
medicalnewstoday.com 9.3.2015
Inflammation is the body's natural response to injury or "invasion" - it summons immune system cells and agents to repair the damage or deal with the "aggressor." But sometimes the inflammation response can be too strong and cause harm.

In the brain, inflammation occurs when there is a stroke, or with diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
Now researchers have discovered some new clues about inflammation in the brain that could lead to new treatments.

The research was led by Dr. Miguel Burguillos when he was based at the University of Lund and the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. He is now Senior Researcher in Brain and Spinal Injury at Queen Mary University of London in the UK.

In the journal Cell Reports, Dr. Burguillos and colleagues describe new insights about the receptor TLR4 and how it interacts with a protein called galectin-3 to create a vicious cycle that keeps inflammation going.
TLR4 plays a very important role in the innate immune system - the scientists who discovered this won the Nobel Prize in 2011.

The team found that galectin-3 is secreted by microglial cells, a type of immune cell that acts as the first line of defense in the brain.

The protein is absent in healthy brains but present in brains with ongoing inflammation. (…)  

(Anm: Repairing the cerebral cortex: It can be done. These studies open up new approaches for repairing the damaged brain, particularly following stroke or brain trauma," they explain. (medicalnewstoday.com 16.3.2015).)

(Anm: New pathway reveals how immune system is regulated; gives hope for chronic diseases (…)The team discovered a novel pathway that regulates the movement of pathogenic immune cells from the blood into tissue during an inflammatory response. (…) Importantly, the team were then able to show how the addition of this molecule to immune cells from patients with diabetes and arthritis could regain control of the movement of their immune cells, thereby reversing the pathogenic changes seen in these diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com 22.4.2015).)

- Nye funn på 'nøkkelspillere" ved hjernebetennelse

New findings on 'key players' in brain inflammation (Nye funn på 'nøkkelspillere " ved hjernebetennelse)
medicalnewstoday.com 12.3.2015
Inflammatory processes occur in the brain in conjunction with stroke and neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Researchers from Lund University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, in close cooperation with a group led by Professor José L. Venero at the University of Seville, have presented new findings about some of the 'key players' in inflammation. In the long term, these findings could lead to new treatments.

One of these key players is a receptor called TLR4. The receptor plays such an important role in the body's innate immune system that the researchers who discovered it were awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The other key player is a protein called galectin-3, which is absent in healthy brains but present in a brain suffering ongoing inflammation.

"We have demonstrated that galectin-3 is secreted by microglial cells, a type of immune cell in the brain. The protein binds to the TLR4 receptor and amplifies the reactions that lead to inflammation. More galectin-3 is produced and binds to the immune cells, and the immune response is further intensified in a self-sustaining process", explained Tomas Deierborg, associate professor at Lund University. (…)

(Anm: Relation between TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation by 27-hydroxycholesterol and 4-hydroxynonenal, and atherosclerotic plaque instability. Aging Cell. 2015 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print].)

- Hodeskadepasienter viser tegn til raskere aldring i hjernen. (- Hodeskader kan skade hundrevis av gener som øker risikoen for alvorlige hjernesykdommer.)

Head injury patients show signs of faster ageing in the brain (Hodeskadepasienter viser tegn til raskere aldring i hjernen)
medicalnewstoday.com 27.3.2015
People who have suffered serious head injuries show changes in brain structure resembling those seen in older people, according to a new study.

Researchers at Imperial College London analysed brain scans from over 1,500 healthy people to develop a computer program that could predict a person's age from their brain scan. Then they used the program to estimate the "brain age" of 113 more healthy people and 99 patients who had suffered traumatic brain injuries.

The brain injury patients were estimated to be around five years older on average than their real age.

Head injuries are already known to increase the risk of age-related neurological conditions such as dementia later in life. The age prediction model may be useful as a screening tool to identify patients who are likely to develop problems and to target strategies that prevent or slow their decline.

"Your chronological age is not necessarily the best indicator of your health or how much longer you will live," said Dr James Cole, who led the study, from the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London. "There is a lot of interest in finding biomarkers of ageing that can be used to measure a certain aspect of your health and predict future problems."

The study, published in the Annals of Neurology, used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study changes in brain structure. The researchers used a machine learning algorithm to develop a computer program that could recognise age-related differences in the volume of white matter and grey matter in different parts of the brain. (…)

(Anm: Study finds repetitive brain injuries may accelerate aging, dementia risk (medicalnewstoday.com 15.5.2015).)

(Anm: Hodeskader kan skade hundrevis av gener som øker risikoen for alvorlige hjernesykdommer. Head injuries can harm hundreds of genes to increase risk for severe brain disorders. Head injuries can harm hundreds of genes in the brain in a way that increases people's risk for a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, UCLA life scientists report. The researchers identified for the first time master genes that they believe control hundreds of other genes which are linked to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, post-traumatic stress disorder, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, depression, schizophrenia and other disorders. (news-medical.net 13.3.2017).)

(Anm: 'Helper cells' can turn toxic in brain injury and diseases. For many years, research on neurodegenerative diseases and spinal cord and brain injury has focused on damage to nerve cells, or neurons. Now, a new study of astrocytes - a type of cell that surrounds and supports neurons - finds that there is a subtype that can turn rogue and kill neurons, instead of helping to repair them during injury or disease. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.2.2017).)

(Anm: hvit substans; hvit substans, margkledde nervefibrer, utløpere fra nervecellene i hjerne og ryggmarg. Den hvite fargen skyldes myelin, et fettholdig stoff som danner margskjeder omkring nervefibrene. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: white matter (hvit substans); Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common disease which affects white matter (wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Behandling med antidepressiva og forverring av hvit substans påvist ved MRI hos eldre. (…) Resultater — Bruk av hvilken som helst antidepressiva i løpet av studien ble assosiert med forverring av hvit substans.) (Antidepressant Treatment and Worsening White Matter on Serial Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Elderly. (…) Results— Use of any antidepressant during the period of study was associated with worsening white matter.) (Stroke 2008; 39: 857-862).)

(Anm: PTSD og psykoaktive legemidler knyttet til økt risiko for demens. (PTSD and psychoactive drugs linked to increased risk for dementiaI) (…) I denne studien oppdaget forskerne at det å ta visse antidepressiva, sedativer, beroligende midler eller antipsykotika økte veteranernes risiko for å utvikle demens sammenlignet med risikoen for veteraner som ikke tok slike legemidler. (…) En ny studie, publisert i Journal of the American Geriatrics Society undersøkte denne forbindelsen. (newmedpagetoday.com 9.5.2017).)

(Anm: Veterans with PTSD have an increased 'fight or flight' response. Young veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have an increased 'fight or flight' response during mental stress, according to new findings published in The Journal of Physiology. (medicalnewstoday.com 16.5.2017).)

(Anm: NY NORSK FORSKNING: Etter bare én natt uten søvn endrer noe seg i hjernen din. (…) – Vi vet fra før at søvnmangel svekker hjernens funksjoner, men våre og andre forskeres resultater tyder på at også hjernens struktur kan endre seg, sier Elvsåshagen. (…) – Vi fant tegn til forandringer i hjernens hvite substans. Den inneholder blant annet nervecellenes utløpere, som overfører signaler fra et hjerneområde til et annet. Jo større forandringene i den hvite substansen var, desto søvnigere følte deltakerne seg. (tv2.no 17.3.2016).)

(Anm: White matter abnormalities could act as bipolar disorder biomarkers. (…)“The reported impairment in verbal fluency and changes in [white matter] integrity in fiber tracts connecting to the internal capsule, the corona radiata, and the corpus callosum may serve as cognitive and neural markers of BD [bipolar disorder],” the investigators concluded. (clinicalpsychiatrynews.com 2.4.2015).)

- Behandling med antidepressiva og forverring av hvit substans påvist ved MRI hos eldre

Antidepressant Treatment and Worsening White Matter on Serial Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Elderly (Behandling med antidepressiva og forverring av hvit substans påvist ved MRI hos eldre)
Stroke 2008;   39:  857-862
Background and Purpose— In some studies, late life depression is associated with white matter lesions on MRI. The effect of different classes of antidepressants on progression of white matter lesions is unknown. Selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may decrease platelet aggregation. We hypothesized that Cardiovascular Health Study participants taking SSRIs would less often have worsening white matter on serial MRI than participants not on antidepressants.

Methods— Among 1826 participants who were not using an antidepressant at initial MRI scan, we examined the association of worsening in white matter grade from initial to follow-up MRI scans, 5 years apart on average, and antidepressant use between the scans. Logistic regression models were used, controlling for a variety of potential confounding variables.

Results— Use of any antidepressant during the period of study was associated with worsening white matter. In a multivariable model, risk was slightly increased, not reduced, with use of serotonergic agents (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.87 to 2.12) and was significantly increased with the use of tricyclic antidepressants (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.94).

Conclusions— The association between worsening white matter and use of tricyclic antidepressants was an unexpected finding that may relate to indications for use other than depression or to side effects such as hypotension. Protection against worsening was not seen with use of serotonergic agents. (…)

(Anm: Leukoaraiosis is associated with short- and long-term mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 Oct;22(7):919-25. Epub 2013 Feb 21.)

(Anm: Personality traits linked to differences in brain structure. Our personality may be shaped by how our brain works, but in fact the shape of our brain can itself provide surprising clues about how we behave - and our risk of developing mental health disorders - suggests a study published in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience.  (medicalnewstoday.com 26.1.2017).)

(Anm: Sleep Disordered Breathing and White Matter Hyperintensities in Community-Dwelling Elders. To examine the association between markers of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume in an elderly, multiethnic, community-dwelling cohort. (…) Conclusions: In community-dwelling older adults, self-reported measures of SDB are associated with larger WMH volumes. The cognitive effects of SDB that are increasingly being recognized may be mediated at the small vessel level.Sleep. 2016;39(4):785–791).)

- Kombination av NSAID och antidepressiva kan öka risk för hjärnblödning

Kombination av NSAID och antidepressiva kan öka risk för hjärnblödning
dagensmedicin.se 16.7.2015
Att kombinera antidepressiva läkemedel och värktabletter ökar risken för hjärnblödning enligt en studie som publicerats i British Medical Journal.

I studien såg de koreanska forskarna att när antidepressiva läkemedel och värktabletter i form av NSAIDs kombineras, ökar risken för intrakraniell blödning under den första månaden av medicineringen (riskkvot på 1,6). Det var ingen skillnad i risk mellan olika typer av antidepressiva läkemedel. Den grupp som hade högst riskökning för hjärnblödningar var männen, med riskkvoten 2,6 jämfört med 1,2 för kvinnorna.

Båda läkemedelsgrupperna har en omfattande användning och samsjuklighet i depression och smärta är också stor. Enligt forskarna har cirka 65 procent av de med egentlig depression också kronisk smärta.

Forskarna påpekar att det inte kan uteslutas att den ökade blödningsrisken kan ha en annan orsak än medicineringen, men menar ändå att resultaten visar att man som läkare bör vara särskilt uppmärksam när en patient för första gången använder denna kombination av läkemedel. (…)

(Anm: Mitochondria (mitokondrie) (mitokondriesykdommer) (mitokondrielle sykdommer). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon ligger bak kognitive defekter som et resultat av nevral stamcelleutarmning og nedsatt neurogenese. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies cognitive defects as a result of neural stem cell depletion and impaired neurogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jun 8.)

- Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser.

(Anm: Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser. (Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.) (…) Dette resultatet forklarer de kliniske og deres respektive histopatologiske effekter av tramadol, for eksempel anfall og røde nevroner (markør for apoptose). (The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss.) (Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Dec;31(12):1325-33).)

(Anm: Telomere length and depression: prospective cohort study and Mendelian randomisation study in 67 306 individuals. Background. Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. (…) Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. (…) Conclusions. Short telomeres were not associated with depression in prospective or in causal, genetic analyses. The British Journal of Psychiatry Jan 2017, 210 (1) 31-38.)

(Anm: Betennelser endrer mitokondrier til giftige fabrikker. Å lære hvordan å kontrollere betennelser kan ha store implikasjoner for behandlingen av mange sykdommer. Banebrytende forskning oppdager hvordan makrofager endrer mitokondriene til giftige kjemisk-produserende betennelsespromotører. (Inflammation turns mitochondria into toxic factories. Learning how to control inflammation could have huge implications for the treatment of many diseases. Breaking research discovers how macrophages turn mitochondria into toxic chemical-producing inflammation-promoters.) (medicalnewstoday.com 25.9.2016).)

(Anm: Research may show new ways to repress inflammation at outset. (…) Professor Alexander Weber of the Interfaculty Institute of Cell Biology says the enzyme - Bruton's tyrosine kinase or BTK - is switched on when an inflammation occurs in the body, playing a key role in the inflammation's subsequent development. (medicinenet.com 21.2.2017).)

- Tramadol - bivirkninger og bruk. Tramadol er et opioid til behandling av moderate smerter. Ved siden av opioid effekt påvirker tramadol også reopptak av serotonin og noradrenalin på samme måte som det antidepressive midlet venlafaksin. På grunn av sin virkningsmekanisme er det ventet at noen pasienter vil få psykiske bivirkninger.

(Anm: Tramadol - bivirkninger og bruk. Tramadol er et opioid til behandling av moderate smerter. Ved siden av opioid effekt påvirker tramadol også reopptak av serotonin og noradrenalin på samme måte som det antidepressive midlet venlafaksin. På grunn av sin virkningsmekanisme er det ventet at noen pasienter vil få psykiske bivirkninger. Bruken har steget kraftig de siste årene, fra om lag 90 000 brukere i 2007 til om lag 220 000 brukere i 2016 (1). I takt med økende bruk får også Legemiddelverket flere bivirknings- meldinger. Bivirkningsmeldingene belyser problemer som kan oppstå ved bruk. Lege- middelverket har fått meldinger blant annet om søvnvansker, humørsvingninger,  hallusinasjoner, forvirring, uro og angst. Risikoen for psykiske bivirkninger er antagelig størst hos eldre pasienter. Kombinasjon av tramadol og antidepressive legemidler kan i sjeldne tilfeller utløse serotonergt syndrom. Som alle andre opioide legemidler kan tramadol gi avhengighet. Legemiddelverket har fått 10 meldinger om avhengighet. (legemiddelverket.no 7.9.2017).)

- Tramadol har været markedsført som mindre farligt end andre morfinpræparater, når det kommer til risikoen for at udvikle afhængighed. I DR2-dokumentaren ‘Morfinpillens skyggeside’ påpeger flere læger, at der ikke er hold i den påstand. (- Omkring 300.000 danskere bruger i dag smertestillende medicin med midlet tramadol, som er et syntetisk morfinpræparat.)

(Anm: Smertestillende medicin skaber debat. Medicinen tramadol har tidligere været markedsført som værende mindre vanedannende end andre morfinpræparater. Eksperter påpeger nu, at det kan give falsk tryghed. Omkring 300.000 danskere bruger i dag smertestillende medicin med midlet tramadol, som er et syntetisk morfinpræparat. Tramadol har været markedsført som mindre farligt end andre morfinpræparater, når det kommer til risikoen for at udvikle afhængighed. I DR2-dokumentaren ‘Morfinpillens skyggeside’ påpeger flere læger, at der ikke er hold i den påstand. Gitte Handberg, specialeansvarlig overlæge på Smertecenter Syd på Odense Universitetshospital og formand for Dansk Smerteforum, fortæller i Politiken.dk, Tramadol er mindst lige så vanedannende som alle andre morfinpræparater. Det er hverken værre eller bedre. Alle vil – efter brug af tramadol i 2-3 uger – blive fysisk afhængige. netdoktor. (dk 12.6.2017).)

(Anm: Serotonin syndrom (SS), kramper, parkinsonisme osv. (forhøyet kroppstemperatur) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Ørsmå mitokondrier spiller en svært stor rolle mht. menneskets evolusjon og sykdom (Tiny mitochondria play outsized role in human evolution and disease.) (medicalnewstoday.com 25.9.2015).)

(Anm: Does SSRI Use During Pregnancy Increase the Risk for PPHN? Yes, though perhaps more modestly than previously suggested. (…) Comment This is the most comprehensive analysis to date of the relationship between SSRI use and PPHN in the U.S. Although questions remain about whether SSRI use is associated with milder versus severe PPHN, this is the first study to rigorously control for maternal depression and provides important data indicating that the overall risk for PPHN following maternal SSRI use might be more modest than previously described. NEJM 2015 (July 13, 2015).)

(Anm: Impairment of left ventricular function early in treatment with clozapine: a preliminary study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015 Jun 5. [Epub ahead of print].)

- Danske forskere kritiserer milliardstort hjerne-projekt (- Human Brain Project)

Danske forskere kritiserer milliardstort hjerne-projekt
jyllands-posten.dk 24.8.2014
Forskere fra hele verden kritiserer det 1,2 milliarder dyre hjerneforskningsprojekt - Human Brain Project - for at have en for snæver tilgang til hjernen.

Forskere fra hele verden mener, at et prestigefyldt EU-hjerneprojekt har en for snæver tilgang til hjernen. Projektet udelader blandt andet en type forskning, vi er gode til i Danmark.

Forskere er ikke altid enige om, hvordan forskning skal bedrives, og projekter skal ledes.

Det er det store forskningsprojekt Human Brain Project til 1,2 milliarder euro et godt eksempel på.

Projektet har modtaget kritik fra forskere over hele verden for blandt andet at overse store dele af hjerneforskningen og være forudindtaget omkring, hvordan hjernen og sindet hænger sammen. Nu stemmer danske forskere i, skriver Videnskab.dk, hvor du kan læse mere om projektet, der har været under stor kritik.

»Der er god grund til at frygte, at Human Brain Project ikke vil lykkes, fordi projektet primært fokuserer på de små detaljer i hjernens biologi og undlader forskning i, hvordan hjernens celler frembringer højere funktioner som sprog og bevidsthed,« siger Jesper Mogensen, professor i neurovidenskab ved Institut for Psykologi og leder af the Unit for Cognitive Neuroscience ved Københavns Universitet. (...)

(Anm: Forskere: Milliardstort hjerne-projekt på vej mod fiasko (videnskab.dk 24.8.2014).)

(Anm: Supergamlingarnas hjärnor – så ser de ut (dn.se 5.2.2015).)

(Anm: Hjärnforskare i storbråk. Europas största satsning inom hjärnforskning har haft en dålig start. Nyligen avsattes den högsta chefen för projektet, som är mycket kritisk till dagens hjärnforskare.”Hjärnforskningen befinner sig i medeltiden på nästan alla plan”, säger Henry Markram. (netdoctor.se 23.3.2015).)

- Alarmerende nok har store farmasøytiske firmaer etter kostbare fiaskoer valgt å trekke seg ut av forskning på nye hjernemedisiner. Så et naturlig spørsmål er: Kan vi gjøre hjerneforskningen bedre?

Hinderet i kampen mot hjernesykdom
Professor i fysikk, NMBU og UiO, Gaute Einevoll  - Ole Andreas Andreassen, Leder av NORMENT og professor i medisin, UiO, Ole Andreas Andreassen
nrk.no 20.7.2015
En gang vil kanskje beskjeden om at en sønn har blitt diagnostisert med schizofreni ikke være mer dramatisk enn at han har fått lungebetennelse.

For 186 år siden lå vår store matematiker Niels Henrik Abel for døden med tuberkulose i Froland, bare 27 år gammel. Han forbannet datidens legevitenskap for å ha så lite å stille opp med mot sykdommen.

I dag dør vi ikke lenger av tuberkulose i Norge, men overfor vanlige hjernesykdommer som demens eller schizofreni står vi fortsatt rådville. Demens og psykiatriske lidelser er blant vår tids store svøper.
Til tross for enorm forskningsinnsats på universiteter, sykehus og i farmasøytisk industri de siste tiårene vet vi fortsatt ikke hva sykdommene skyldes. Og vi synes langt unna helbredende kurer.

Trekker seg ut av forskningen
Alarmerende nok har store farmasøytiske firmaer etter kostbare fiaskoer valgt å trekke seg ut av forskning på nye hjernemedisiner. Så et naturlig spørsmål er: Kan vi gjøre hjerneforskningen bedre?

For å øke sjansen for å finne effektive kurer må dagens hjerneforskning lære noe fra forskningsmetoder på andre fagfelt. Vi bør for eksempel benytte oss av det effektive samspillet mellom eksperimenter og matematisk modellering som har gitt oss datamaskiner og mobiltelefoner.

 Alarmerende nok har store farmasøytiske firmaer etter kostbare fiaskoer valgt å trekke seg ut av forskning på nye hjernemedisiner.

I dag har de fleste av oss smarttelefoner og datamaskiner, og elektronikkrevolusjonen representerer kanskje den mest imponerende utviklingen av kunnskap og teknologi det siste hundreåret. Hvordan fikk vi det til? (… )

(Anm: Legemiddelindustrien (Big Pharma) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: USAs mest beundrede lovbryter. (America's Most Admired Lawbreaker ) I løpet av 20 år utviklet Johnson & Johnson et kraftig legemiddel, promoterte det ulovlig overfor barn og eldre, skjulte bivirkninger og tjente milliarder av dollar. Dette er innsidehistorien. (Over the course of 20 years, Johnson & Johnson created a powerful drug, promoted it illegally to children and the elderly, covered up the side effects and made billions of dollars. This is the inside story.) (huffingtonpost.com 8.10.2015).)

(Anm: Tjenestemenn anklaget også firmaene for at de i markedsføringen av legemidler til barn hadde unnlatt å opplyse om at Risperdal (risperidone) kan føre til hormonelle ubalanser som kan føre til brystvevutvikling og infertilitet (barnløshet) hos gutter og jenter. I markedsføringen av legemidlet for behandling av eldre mennesker med demens hadde firmaet opprettet et salgsteam for omsorg for eldre, til tross for at data fra en studie finansiert av Janssen som viste at risperidon doblet risikoen for dødsfall blant eldre mennesker, ifølge statlige tjenestemenn. BMJ 2015;351:h7018 (Published 31 December 2015).)

(Anm: - Således ble bruk av antipsykotika knyttet til en doblet risiko for lungebetennelse hos pasienter med AD (Alzheimers sykdom), og til og med en høyere relativ risikoøkning (3,43 ganger) blant dem uten AD. (…) Resultatene indikerer at bruk antipsykotika er knyttet til en høyere risiko for lungebetennelse uavhengig av alder, anvendt studiedesign, behandlingsvarighet, valg av legemidler eller samtidige sykdommer. (dgnews.docguide.com 30.8.2016).)

(Anm: Among antidementia drugs, memantine is associated with the highest risk of pneumonia. A recent study from the University of Eastern Finland shows that among users of antidementia drugs, persons using memantine have the highest risk of pneumonia. The use of rivastigmine patches is associated with an increased risk as well. (medicalnewstoday.com 24.11.2016).)

(Anm: Publikum ønsker tøffere straffetiltak mot uansvarlig atferd i næringslivet. (- Resultatene viste en sterk offentlig bekymring for skjevhet i rettssystemet) (theconversation.com 25.7.2016).)

(Anm: Superrike skattesnytarar. (…) Denne verksemda vil ikkje ta slutt før dei som legg til rette for hemmeleghald og skatteunndraging – bankar, advokatar og rådgjevarar – opplever ein reell risiko for å bli straffa for å utføre slike tenester.) (dn.no 3.7.2017).)

(Anm: EU-kommissionen visste om VW-fusket. (- Misstankarna inom kommissionen väcktes till liv när dess experter insåg att luftkvaliteten i städer inte förbättrades som förväntat efter de strängare utsläppskraven för bilar som infördes 2007, enligt Der Spiegel.) (nyteknik.se 15.7.2016).)

(Anm: Volkswagen mistenkt for å ha villedet EUs investeringsbank. Volkswagen er mistenkt for å ha brukt et lån fra Den europeiske investeringsbanken (EIB) til å utvikle teknologi som åpnet for juks med utslippstester. Sjefen for den europeiske investeringsbanken (EIB) Werner Hoyer er skuffet over Volkswagen. (dn.no 2.8.2017).)

(Anm: VW-chef erkänner bedrägeri. En högt uppsatt chef på tyska Volkswagen (VW) i USA, inblandad i avgasskandalen, erkänner bedrägeri, meddelade en talesperson för domstolen i Detroit på tisdagen. (nyteknik.se 26.7.2017).)

(Anm: VW-topp sier seg skyldig – risikerer 169 år i fengsel. Den tidligere VW-toppen i USA, Oliver Schmidt, innrømmer å ha forsøkt å dekke over utslippsjukset. Nå risikerer han mange år bak murene. (tv2.no 28.7.2017).)

(Anm: Tidligere Volkswagen-ingeniør dømt til fengsel. En tidligere ingeniør i Volkswagen får 40 måneders fengsel etter Volkswagen-skandalen. (vg.no 25.8.2017).)

(Anm: Dieselskandalen truer tysk økonomi. Den tyske dieselskandalen utgjør en risiko for landets økonomi, opplyser Tysklands finansdepartement i en rapport mandag. Dieselskandalen oppsto for nesten to år siden, da det ble kjent at Volkswagen jukset med utslippstallene. Her monterer tyske arbeidere dieselmotorer på en Volkswagen-fabrikk i Chemnitz i Tyskland. (dn.no 21.8.2017).)

(Anm: -1200 vil dø av utslipp fra Volkswagens «juksebiler». Amerikanske forskere har undersøkt konsekvensene av utslippsjuks. (…) Det er forskere ved universitetet MIT i USA som har sett nærmere på konsekvensene av Volkswagens utslippsjuks. (dagbladet.no 3.3.2017).)

(Anm: Dieseljuks. Forskere har funnet den skjulte koden i juksebilene til Volkswagen. Gikk langt for å hindre at det var mulig å teste det virkelige utslippet. (…) Nå har de funnet svaret, gjemt i programvaren til bilene, melder University of California San Diego. (…) Resultatene er publisert i en rapport (PDF), som blir lagt frem frem under IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy i San Francisco denne uken. Under vanlig bruk, slipper bilene ut inntil 40 ganger mer NOx enn tillatt. Utslippsavsløring: Skrur av eksosrensingen allerede ved 17 grader (tu.no 23.5.2017).)

(Anm: Research. The Volkswagen Emissions Scandal Could Shorten Thousands of Lives, Study Says (time.com 3.3.2017).)

(Anm: VW-sjef pågrepet i USA En høytstående sjef i Volkswagen i USA har i kjølvannet av dieselskandalen blitt pågrepet av FBI, mistenkt for bedrageri, ifølge The New York Times. Oliver Schmidt ble ifølge den amerikanske avisa pågrepet lørdag. (nrk.no 9.1.2017).)

(Anm: Volkswagen må betale 36 milliarder kroner etter utslippsjukset. (aftenposten.no 11.1.2017).)

(Anm: Volkswagen trolig spart for milliarder i USA. En dommer i USA har avvist et søksmål mot Volkswagen, noe som kan spare den tyske bilprodusenten for milliarder av dollar i utbetalinger. Avgjørelsen kan avskrekke en rekke amerikanske stater fra å saksøke Volkswagen etter utslippsskandalen som har fulgt bilprodusenten i nesten to år. Den føderale dommeren Charles Breyer avviste søksmålet fra delstaten Wyoming med henvisning til at den aktuelle forurensningsloven må reguleres sentralt og ikke av de amerikanske delstatene. (dn.no 1.9.2017).)

(Anm: Tysk avis: VW-sjefen godkjente dekkoperasjon. Martin Winterkorn, avgått konsernsjef i Volkswagen, godkjente en plan om å holde tilbake informasjon fra amerikanske myndigheter, skriver Bild. (e24.no 26.9.2016).)

(Anm: VW må betale 2,8 milliarder dollar i bot for dieseljuks. Beløpet tilsvarer over 24 milliarder kroner. (dagbladet.no 21.4.2017).)

(Anm: Nobelprisvinner trekker seg fra Panama-gransking. (…) Begrunnelsen er at granskingen vanskeliggjøres av hemmelighold og manglende åpenhet.) (…) Pieth sier det blant annet finnes beviser for hvitvasking av penger fra barneprostitusjon i Panama-dokumentene. (dn.no 6.8.2016).)

(Anm: Margaret McCartney: Valgfri offentliggjøring av utbetalinger er meningsløst. (Margaret McCartney: Optional disclosure of payments is pointless.) (- Og åpenhet anskueliggjør problemene: bør de som mottar tusenvis av pund fra industrien som "påtenkte ledere" sitte i paneler for utarbeidelse av nasjonale retningslinjer eller hjelpe til med å stake ut regjeringens politikk?) BMJ 2016;354:i3692 (Published 01 July 2016).)

(Anm: For mange retningslinjer for behandlinger er skrevet av eksperter med finansielle konflikter, viser studien. (statnews.com 22.8.2016).)

(Anm: Naturlig at dette er offentlig. OUS-lege Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius samtykket til offentliggjøring av honorarer. Hun er kritisk til kolleger som ikke har gjort det samme. – Det kan reise spørsmål om det er bindinger som ikke tåler dagens lys. (dagensmedisin.no 12.8.2016).)

(Anm: Resultater publisert i JAMA Internal Medicine antyder at ett enkelt gratis måltid kan øke sannsynligheten for at en lege vil foreskrive et bestemt legemiddel. (Findings published by JAMA Internal Medicine suggest that even a single free meal can boost the likelihood a doctor will prescribe a certain drug) (online.wsj.com 20.6.2016).)

(Anm: FDAs rådgivere på opioider sparket grunnet bånd til industrien, ifølge AP. (FDA's advisers on opioids booted for ties to industry, AP learns. Having been buffeted by controversy over its approval of addictive opioid drugs, the FDA is calling on a panel of experts to help it sort through the thorny issue. But even before the new panel met, it has been tinged by controversy itself, dismissing four advisers because of perceived ties to drugmakers.) (fiercepharma.com 8.7.2016).)

(Anm: Offentliggjøring av verdioverføringer. Legemiddelindustrien offentliggjør i dag alle verdioverføringer til helsepersonell og helseforetak. (lmi.no 30.6.2016).)

(Anm: Leder. Disclosure UK: åpenhet (offentliggjøring) bør ikke lenger være valgfritt BMJ. (Editorials. Disclosure UK: transparency should no longer be an optional extra) BMJ 2016;354:i3730 (Published 06 July 2016).)

(Anm: Disclosure UKs nettsted gir en "illusjon av åpenhet", sier Goldacre (Disclosure UKs nettsted gir en "illusjon av åpenhet", sier Goldacre) (Disclosure UK website gives “illusion of transparency,” says Goldacre) BMJ 2016;354:i3760BMJ 2016; 354 (Published 06 July 2016).)

(Anm: Reporting of financial and non-financial conflicts of interest by authors of systematic reviews: a methodological survey. (…) Conclusions Although close to half of the published systematic reviews report that authors (typically many) have conflicts of interest, more than half report that they do not. Authors reported individual conflicts of interest more frequently than institutional and non-financial conflicts of interest. BMJ Open 2016;6:e011997.)

(Anm: - Legene som deklarerte de høyeste inntektene fra legemiddelfirmaer i Storbritannias nye database uttaler at åpenhet om utbetalingene bør være obligatorisk. (The doctors who declared the most earnings from drug companies in the United Kingdom’s new database have said that being transparent about payments should be mandatory.) BMJ 2016;354:i3716 (Published 04 July 2016).)

(Anm: Leger som mottar de største utbetalingene fra legemiddelfirmaer deklarerer dem ikke på nytt nettsted. (Doctors getting biggest payments from drug companies don’t declare them on new website. BMJ 2016;354:i3679 (Published 01 July 2016).)

(Anm: Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study. BMJ 2016;354:i4189 (Published 18 August 2016).)

(Anm: Medisinsk utstyr (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Legemiddelprodusenter og medisinske utstyrsprodusenter betalte i fjor 6,5 milliarder dollar til leger og undervisningssykehus. (Drug and device makers paid $6.5 billion to docs and teaching hospitals last year.) (statnews.com 30.6.2016).)

- Søvn: Hjernens husholderske?

Sleep: The Brain's Housekeeper? (Søvn: Hjernens husholderske?)
Science 2013;342(6156):301 (18 October 2013: )
Forskere har lenge spekulert på om en av funksjonene for søvn er å gjenopprette og reparere hjernen, men om dette er et "kjerneformål " ved søvn er fortsatt kontroversielt. Nå gir en artikkel publisert i Science denne uken på side 373 direkte eksperimentelle bevis på at musehjernen renser seg selv under søvn, utvider kanaler mellom nerveceller som tillater en strøm av cerebrospinalvæske. Væsken spyler ut detritus som amyloidproteiner, som akkumuleres som plakett ved Alzheimers, dobbelt så raskt når mus sover enn når de er våkne. (Scientists have long speculated that one of the functions of sleep is to restore and repair the brain, but whether this is a "core" purpose of sleep remains controversial. Now, a paper published in Science this week on page 373 provides direct experimental evidence that the mouse brain cleans itself during sleep, by expanding channels between neurons that allow an influx of cerebrospinal fluid. The fluid flushes out detritus such as amyloid proteins, which accumulate as plaques in Alzheimer's disease, twice as fast when mice are sleeping as when they are awake.)

(Anm: Slik blir det lettere å stå opp om morgenen. (…) Her er ti tips for at det skal bli lettere å stå opp. (…) – Du bør stå opp til en fast tid hver dag, uansett hvor mye du har sovet. (nrk.no 6.10.2015).)

(Anm: How the brain controls sleep. Brain structure generates pockets of sleep within the brain. Sleep is usually considered an all-or-nothing state: The brain is either entirely awake or entirely asleep. However, MIT neuroscientists have discovered a brain circuit that can trigger small regions of the brain to fall asleep or become less alert, while the rest of the brain remains awake. (medicalnewstoday.com 14.10.2015).)

(Anm: Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain. Science 2013;342(6156):373-377 (18 October 2013).)

(Anm: Less Sleep Associated with Brain Imaging Findings of Alzheimer Disease in ElderlyJ AMA Neurology 2013 (October 21).)

(Anm: Mild cognitive impairment quadruples risk of dementia. (medicalnewstoday.com 8.8.2014).)

(Anm: Nordmenn piner seg selv med støt under fotballkamp. STØTBALL: Fotball er i seg selv en krevende idrett. Og den blir aldeles ikke lettere av at man får støt mens man løper rundt på banen. (…) Nervesystemet vårt er et eneste stort nettverk av elektriske impulser som får oss til f.eks. å tenke og bevege oss. Når nervesystemet blir utsatt for utenforstående elektriske impulser, får det musklene til å trekker seg sammen. Derfor faller de norske fotballspillerne innimellom om på banen.  (…) Les mer om hvordan hjernen vår faktisk summer av en indre strøm: (…) (illvit.no 25.09.2015).)

- Bliver mennesket dummere?

Bliver mennesket dummere?
jyllands-posten.dk 17.1.2015
Vi er blevet klogere og klogere igennem det 20. århundrede, men nu er der tegn på, at intelligenskvotienten er faldende i lande som f.eks. Danmark, Storbritannien og Australien.

I Danmark bliver alle danske mænd automatisk indkaldt til Forsvarets Dag det år, hvor de fylder 18 år. Det er kun nogle få tusinde, som ender med at aftjene deres værnepligt, men alle skal igennem en egnethedsprøve, og det omfatter en intelligenstest; indtil for nylig har det været den samme test, forsvaret har brugt siden 1950’erne.

»Vi har altså med en test at gøre, som man har anvendt på mellem 25.000 og 30.000 unge mænd hvert år,« siger Thomas Teasdale, der er ps... (...)

- Kroppens indre klokke linket til plutselig hjertedød avslørt i molekylær mekanisme

Scientists uncover potential to control the body's internal clock
medicalnewstoday.com 28.12.2014
Dysfunction of the body's internal clock is associated with sleep and anxiety disorders. But in a new study, researchers say they may have found a way to control the internal clock by targeting a protein that regulates it, opening the door to new treatments for such disorders.

The research team, including Thomas Burris, PhD, chair of pharmacological and physiological science at St. Louis University in Missouri, publish their findings in the journal Nature Communications. (…)

Body Clock Link To Sudden Cardiac Death Revealed In Molecular Mechanism
medicalnewstoday.com 23.2.2012
A study led by Case Western Reserve University in the US has revealed the first molecular evidence of a link between the circadian rhythm or the body clock and sudden cardiac death. The researchers, who did their investigations in mice, hope their discovery will lead to new diagnostic tools and therapies to prevent or treat vulnerability to sudden cardiac death in humans. They reported their findings online in the journal Nature on Wednesday.

Previous studies had suggested a link between sudden cardiac death and circadian rhythm, in both acquired and hereditary forms of heart disease, but none had yet, until this discovery, revealed the underlying molecular explanation. (...)

(Anm: Correcting your body clock (medicalnewstoday.com 3.8.2014).)

(Anm: Body clock controls waking up and going to sleep with simple mechanism. After more than a decade, one researcher and his colleagues have finally uncovered the mechanism behind how an animal's biological clock wakes it up and puts it to sleep. The researchers believe that because the mechanism was identified in mice, it is also likely to exist in humans. The findings of the study, published in Cell, could eventually lead to new drug targets for treating disorders related to body clock problems, such as jet lag. (medicalnewstoday.com 17.8.2015).)

(Anm: Finding the body clock's molecular reset button (medicalnewstoday.com 29.4.2015).)

(Anm: Body clock sensitive to color of light (medicalnewstoday.com 20.4.2015).)

(Anm: Body clock protects cells from metabolism-generated oxygen radical damage during division (medicalnewstoday.com 8.1.2015).)

(Anm: Assess patient’s body clock before treating circadian rhythm sleep disorders (clinicalpsychiatrynews.com 26.8.2014).)

(Anm: Why the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) should be measured before treatment of patients with circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2014;(18):333–339 (August 2014).)

(Anm: Type 2 diabetes: Study explains link to sleep hormone melatonin. Researchers have discovered that increasing levels of the sleep hormone melatonin reduces the ability of insulin-producing cells to release insulin. Also, they found the effect is stronger in people who carry a particular gene variant that is linked to higher risk for type 2 diabetes. The study, led by Lund University in Sweden, is published in the journal Cell Metabolism. (medicalnewstoday.com 17.5.2016).)

(Anm: Key insights into how the internal body clock is tuned (medicalnewstoday.com 21.8.2014).)

- Hvis vi kan gjenopprette normal søvn, kan vi gjøre noe med halvdelen av problemet (- Mange demenssykdommer kommer av søvnforstyrrelser)

Jet lag controlled by a single gene
medicalnewstoday.com 17.8.2014
The discovery of the role of this gene, called Lhx1, provides scientists with a potential therapeutic target to help night-shift workers or jet lagged travelers adjust to time differences more quickly. The results, published in eLife, can point to treatment strategies for sleep problems caused by a variety of disorders.

"Det er mulig at alvorlighetsgraden for mange demenssykdommer kommer av søvnforstyrrelser," sier Satchidananda Panda, en førsteamanuensis ved Salk som ledet forskerteamet. "Hvis vi kan gjenopprette normal søvn, kan vi gjøre noe med halvdelen av problemet." ("It's possible that the severity of many dementias comes from sleep disturbances," says Satchidananda Panda, a Salk associate professor who led the research team. "If we can restore normal sleep, we can address half of the problem.")

Every cell in the body has a "clock" - an abundance of proteins that dip or rise rhythmically over approximately 24 hours. The master clock responsible for establishing these cyclic circadian rhythms and keeping all the body's cells in sync is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a small, densely packed region of about 20,000 neurons housed in the brain's hypothalamus.

More so than in other areas of the brain, the SCN's neurons are in close and constant communication with one another. This close interaction, combined with exposure to light and darkness through vision circuits, keeps this master clock in sync and allows people to stay on essentially the same schedule every day. The tight coupling of these cells also helps make them collectively resistant to change. Exposure to light resets less than half of the SCN cells, resulting in long periods of jet lag. (…)

(Anm: Søvn (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Søvnmangel og sovepiller kan ødelegge for læring. (vg.no 11.2.2017.)

(Anm: Shift Work in Midlife Increases Risk of Dementia. The risk of dementia appears to increase with longer duration of shift work. BOSTON—Midlife shift work is associated with an increased risk of incident dementia in later life, according to research presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies. The association is stronger with longer duration of shift work, said Kathleen Bokenberger, a doctoral student in the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. Neurology Reviews. 2017 August;25(8):8-9.)

(Anm: Dårlig søvn kan føre til depression. En række nye studier indikerer, at søvnmangel gør os deprimerede, forklarer forsker. Historisk set er søvnmangel altid blevet anset som en konsekvens af andre lidelser såsom depression. Men ny forskning tyder på, at det faktisk er helt omvendt. At det er for lidt og for dårlig søvn, der er skyld i depression. Det skriver en britisk forsker på Videnskab.dk. (jyllands-posten.dk 30.10.2016).)

(Anm: Link mellom søvn og kognitiv svekkelse hos eldre. (Link between sleep and cognitive impairment in the elderly) Søvnighet på dagtid er svært vanlig hos eldre med en forekomst på opptil 50 prosent. Som forårsakes av pusteforstyrrelser under søvn (SDB), en forstyrrelse av normal pusting under søvn, hvilket fører til stadig tilbakevendende oppvåkninger og påfølgende overdreven søvnighet på dagtid. (medicalnewstoday.com 2.2.2017).)

- Kronisk inflammasjon påskynder aldringen

Kronisk inflammasjon påskynder aldringen
Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2013; 133:2253 (12.11.2013)
Studier med mus tyder på at aldring påvirkes fra hypothalamus og at proinflammatoriske cytokiner akselererer aldringen.

Aldring skyldes funksjonell svikt i mange organsystemer. Trolig koordineres endringene fra hjernen. Nå er det vist at transkripsjonsfaktoren NF-κB aktiveres i mediobasale hypothalamus hos aldrende mus (1). I transgene mus hvor NF-κB-aktiveringen var økt eller minsket, henholdsvis økte eller bremset aldringen. Aldring ble vurdert på bakgrunn av muskelstyrke, histologiske forandringer og kognitive ferdigheter. Antall mikroglia i hypothalamus økte med alderen, og med aktivert NF-κB-faktor skilte de ut mer enn normalt av tumornekrosefaktor, som er et viktig betennelsescytokin. Inaktivering av NF-κB-systemet økte produksjonen av gonadotropinfrigjørende hormon (GnRH) i hypothalamusnevroner. Injeksjoner av GnRH forsinket aldringen og økte nydanningen av nerveceller i hypothalamus og hippocampus.

– Her ser vi enda flere uheldige følger av kronisk inflammasjon og at dette også gjelder andre deler av hjernen enn hypothalamus, sier Jon Storm-Mathisen, professor emeritus ved Institutt for medisinske basalfag, Universitetet i Oslo. – Man har lenge hatt mistanke om at kronisk inflammasjon akselererer aldringen og bidrar til Alzheimers sykdom og Parkinsons sykdom, sier han.

– Under aldring blir mikroglia lettere aktivert ved harde påkjenninger som infeksjon, kirurgi, traumer og psykisk stress, og det dannes inflammasjonscytokiner, bl.a. interleukin-1 og TNF-α. Disse nedsetter den normale produksjonen av hjernederivert nevrotrofisk faktor (brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF), noe som også fører til kognitiv svikt. Faktisk kan moderat fysisk aktivitet motvirke sensibiliseringen av mikroglia og reversere inflammasjonsindusert svikt i hippocampusavhengig hukommelse (2), sier Storm-Mathisen. (...)

(Anm: Some areas of the brain 'may not slow down with aging' (medicalnewstoday.com 8.8.2014).)

(Anm: Mice on wheels show scientists how exercise benefits their brains. (…) In a study to be published in the journal eLife online June 2, researchers report measuring the natural buildup of certain chemicals in the brain during the rodents' exercise, substances that kick-start production of a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor, or BDNF. Since the protein's discovery in the 1980s, BDNF has been labeled as "Miracle-Gro" for the brain because of its role in enhancing memory and the growth of nerve cells. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.6.2016).)

(Anm: For lite sol er like farlig som røyking. (…) Men hvorfor er sollys så viktig? Noe av forklaringen skyldes et stoff i blodet kalt BDNF (brain derived neurothropic factor) som økes av sol og solariestråling. (…) BDNF er i kategorien nevrotrofiner, det vil si proteiner med bestemte enzymfunksjoner som virker på nerveceller. (…) Viktig for hukommelsen. Mengden BDNF i blodet varierer både med tiden på døgnet og årstiden. Dette henger sammen med at lysforholdene varierer. Derfor er ansamlingen høyest om våren og sommeren. (aftenposten.no 13.6.2016).)

(Anm: Kronisk inflammasjon øker risikoen for brystkreft. (…) Fulgte kvinnene i 15 år. Forskerne har målt høysensitiv-CRP, en markør på lavgradig inflammasjon i kroppen, hos 8.130 friske kvinner som deltok i befolkningsstudien Tromsøundersøkelsen i perioden 1994 til 2008. Kvinnene ble fulgt opp i nesten 15 år etter at de ble inkludert. 192 av dem fikk brystkreft, og disse ble fulgt opp videre i ca sju år. – Vi så at kvinner etter overgangsalderen med høy CRP-verdi har større risiko for å utvikle brystkreft enn de med lav CRP, sier førsteforfatter Hanne Frydenberg, lege og stipendiat ved Oslo Universitetssykehus. (dagensmedisin.no 19.1.2016).)

- Nye blodceller bekjemper hjernebetennelse

New blood cells fight brain inflammation
medicalxpress.com 16.2.2014
Hyperactivity of our immune system can cause a state of chronic inflammation. If chronic, the inflammation will affect our body and result in disease. In the devastating disease multiple sclerosis, hyperactivity of immune cells called T-cells induce chronic inflammation and degeneration of the brain. Researchers at BRIC, the University of Copenhagen, have identified a new type of regulatory blood cells that can combat such hyperactive T-cells in blood from patients with multiple sclerosis. By stimulating the regulatory blood cells, the researchers significantly decreased the level of brain inflammation and disease in a biological model. (...)

(Anm: FoxA1 directs the lineage and immunosuppressive properties of a novel regulatory T cell population in EAE and MS Nature Medicine 2014 (Published online 16 February 2014).)

(Anm: Immune cell discovered that plays neuroprotective role in the brain (medicalnewstoday.com 24.7.2014).)

(Anm: Targeting immune response rather than flu virus offers potential for new drugs (medicalnewstoday.com 25.7.2014).)

(Anm: Drugs stimulate body's own stem cells to replace the brain cells lost in multiple sclerosis (medicalnewstoday.com 22.4.2015).)

- Å rekativere den den aldrende hjerne

Re-energizing the aging brain
medicalnewstoday.com 17.3.2016
The human brain has a prodigious demand for energy -- 20 to 30% of the body's energy budget. In the course of normal aging, in people with neurodegenerative diseases or mental disorders, or in periods of physiological stress, the supply of sugars to the brain may be reduced. This leads to a reduction in the brain's energy reserves, which in turn can lead to cognitive decline and loss of memory.

But new research on mice shows that the brain's energy reserves can be increased with a daily dose of pyruvate, a small energy-rich molecule that sits at the hub of most of the energy pathways inside the cell. These results need to be replicated in human subjects, but could ultimately lead to clinical applications.

"In our new study, we show that long-term dietary supplementation with pyruvate increases the energy reserves in the brain, at least in mice, in the form of the molecules glycogen, creatine and lactate," says lead author Heikki Tanila, Professor of Molecular Neurobiology at the A. I. Virtanen Institute of the University of Eastern Finland.

What's more, dietary supplementation with pyruvate didn't only increase the brain's energy stores: it also changed the behavior of the mice in positive ways, show the researchers.

"The mice became more energetic and increased their explorative activity. It appears that these behavioral changes are directly due to the effect of pyruvate on brain function, since we didn't find that these mice had developed greater muscle force or endurance," says Tanila. (…)

(Anm: PYRUVATE (webmd).)

(Anm: Pyruvat dehydrogenase mangel (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency) (rarelink.no).)

(Anm: Stress management may enhance cardiac rehab, improve recovery. Heart patients may benefit from cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) programs even more when stress management is added, according to new research in the American Heart Association's journal Circulation. (medicalnewstoday.com 21.3.2016).)

(Anm: Children in intensive care recover faster with little to no nutrition. Critically ill children are artificially fed soon after their arrival in intensive care. This common practice is based on the assumption that it will help them recover more quickly. An international study coordinated at KU Leuven, Belgium, has now disproven this theory. The study shows that receiving little to no nutrition during the first week in intensive care makes children recover faster. (medicalnewstoday.com 16.3.2016).)

(Anm: Sultediett skal motvirke aldring - det virker på dyr og prøves ut på mennesker. Faste skal kunne motvirke aldersrelaterte sykdommer som hjerte/kar, diabetes og demens. Men virker det faktisk? I høst lanseres det første diettproduktet som etterligner faste. (…) Blant dem som nå forsøker å tjene penger på funnene, er det amerikanske selskapet L-Nutra. I høst lanserer bedriften dietten Prolon. (aftenposten.no 20.11.2015).)

(Anm: UiB-forskning: ME-syke har defekt i stoffskiftet. Forskere ved Universitetet i Bergen er ett skritt nærmere forklaring på ME-gåten. (…) Cellene våre benytter normalt karbohydrater, fett og protein (aminosyrer) som energikilder. Dette forbrennes i mitokondriene, som kalles cellenes kraftverk. Når vi trener hardt, får ikke mitokondriene i musklene nok oksygen og det dannes melkesyre. Et spesielt enzym spiller en viktig rolle for cellenes evne til å forbrenne karbohydrater. Akkurat dette enzymet, som heter pyruvat dehydrogenase (PDH), er hemmet i ME-pasienter, noe som kan forklare både energimangel og økt melkesyreproduksjon. Når PDH-enzymet ikke fungerer optimalt, går kroppen løs på andre energikilder i stedet for sukker. Nivået av aminosyrer i cellene blir derfor lavere. Cellene blir også dårligere til å justere forbrenningen ut fra energibehov. (bt.no 1.1.2017).)

(Anm: L-Nutra, Inc. A California corporation (l-nutra.com).)

- Effekten av psykostimulerende legemidler på blod-hjerne barrierens funksjon og nevroinflammasjon

The effects of psychostimulant drugs on blood brain barrier function and neuroinflammation (Effekten av psykostimulerende legemidler på blod-hjerne barrierens funksjon og nevroinflammasjon)
Front. Pharmacol. 2012;3:121 (Published online: 29 June 2012)
Blod-hjerne barrieren (BBB) er et svært dynamisk grensesnitt mellom det sentrale nervesystemet (CNS) og det perifere. BBB består av en rekke komponenter og er en del av den større nevro(glio)vaskulære enhet. Gjeldende litteratur tyder på at psykostimulerende midler som misbrukes endrer funksjonen til BBB som trolig bidrar til nevrotoksisiteten knyttet til disse substansene. I både prekliniske og kliniske studier produserer psykostimulerende midler, inklusive metamfetamin, MDMA, kokain og nikotin, BBB-dysfunksjon gjennom endringer i ”tight junction”-proteiners uttrykk og struktur, økt glial-aktivering, økt enzym-aktivering relatert til BBB cytoskjelett remodellering, og induksjon av nevroinflammasjon. Disse uheldige endringer fører til økt permeabilitet av BBB og påfølgende sårbarhet for hjernen for perifere giftstoffer. Faktisk har misbruk av disse psykostimulerende, særlig metamfetamin og kokain vist seg å øke invasjonen av perifere bakterier og virus inn i hjernen. Mye arbeid på dette feltet har fokusert på komorbiditet (samtidige sykdommer (samsykelighet)) ved misbruk av psykostimulerende midler og humant immunsviktvirus (HIV) infeksjon. Idet psykostimulerende midler endrer BBBs permeabilitet, er det sannsynlig at BBB-dysfunksjon resulterer i økt penetrering av HIV-viruset inn i hjernen og dermed øke risikoen og alvorlighetsgraden for nevro-AIDS. Denne gjennomgangen vil gi en oversikt over de konkrete endringer i komponenter innenfor BBB knyttet til misbruk av psykostimulerende midler samt implikasjonene av disse endringene ved forverret nevropatologi knyttet til sentralstimulerende midler og hiv komorbiditet. (...) (The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a highly dynamic interface between the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery. The BBB is comprised of a number of components and is part of the larger neuro(glio)vascular unit. Current literature suggests that psychostimulant drugs of abuse alter the function of the BBB which likely contributes to the neurotoxicities associated with these drugs. In both preclinical and clinical studies, psychostimulants including methamphetamine, MDMA, cocaine, and nicotine, produce BBB dysfunction through alterations in tight junction protein expression and conformation, increased glial activation, increased enzyme activation related to BBB cytoskeleton remodeling, and induction of neuroinflammatory pathways. These detrimental changes lead to increased permeability of the BBB and subsequent vulnerability of the brain to peripheral toxins. In fact, abuse of these psychostimulants, notably methamphetamine and cocaine, has been shown to increase the invasion of peripheral bacteria and viruses into the brain. Much work in this field has focused on the co-morbidity of psychostimulant abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As psychostimulants alter BBB permeability, it is likely that this BBB dysfunction results in increased penetration of the HIV virus into the brain thus increasing the risk of and severity of neuro AIDS. This review will provide an overview of the specific changes in components within the BBB associated with psychostimulant abuse as well as the implications of these changes in exacerbating the neuropathology associated with psychostimulant drugs and HIV co-morbidity.)

(Anm: blod-hjernebarrieren; en tynn hinne eller membran mellom blodårene i hjernen og hjernevevet, hindrer mange stoffer i å komme fra blodet og inn i hjernen. Kilde: Store norske leksikon).)

(Anm: A journey into the brain: insight into how bacterial pathogens cross blood–brain barriers. The blood–brain barrier, which is one of the tightest barriers in the body, protects the brain from insults, such as infections. Indeed, only a few of the numerous blood-borne bacteria can cross the blood–brain barrier to cause meningitis. In this Review, we focus on invasive extracellular pathogens, such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli, to review the obstacles that bacteria have to overcome in order to invade the meninges from the bloodstream, and the specific skills they have developed to bypass the blood–brain barrier. The medical importance of understanding how these barriers can be circumvented is underlined by the fact that we need to improve drug delivery into the brain. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2017 (Published online 16 January 2017).)

(Anm: Serum-borne bioactivity caused by pulmonary multiwalled carbon nanotubes induces neuroinflammation via blood–brain barrier impairment. Significance. Inhaled particulates, such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes, can induce neuroinflammatory outcomes. The present study shows that acute neuroinflammation is dependent on the impairment of blood-brain barrier function. Pharmacologic restoration of blood-brain barrier integrity prevented the neuroinflammatory responses to pulmonary multiwalled carbon nanotube exposure. Circulating factors, including possibly thrombospondin-1, recapitulate inflammatory responses in cultured cerebrovascular endothelial cells, suggesting a mechanism for indirect systemic effects of inhaled nanoparticles.   PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) 2017;114(10):2705–2710.)

(Anm: psykostimulerende; oppkvikkende eller aktiverende på psykiske funksjoner, brukes vanligvis som betegnelse for effekter av visse legemidler og kjemiske substanser (stoff). Kilde: Store norske leksikon).)

(Anm: nevrotoksisk; Forårsake skade eller toksisitet av sentrale eller perifere nervesystemet (wikbio.com.no).)

(Anm: Disruption of brain-blood barrier might influence progression of Alzheimer's (medicalnewstoday.com 30.9.2015).)

(Anm: Brain's immune cells key to maintaining blood-brain barrier. New research shows that the cells responsible for protecting the brain from infection and inflammation are also responsible for repairing the system of defenses that separates the brain from the rest of the body. These findings have significant clinical implications because certain cardiovascular drugs could possibly impede the brain's ability to repair itself after a stroke or other injury. (medicalnewstoday.com 12.1.2016).)

- Hjernens immunceller kan ha fremtredende roller ved nevrodegenerative, psykiatriske sykdommer.

(Anm: Hjernens immunceller kan ha fremtredende roller ved nevrodegenerative, psykiatriske sykdommer. Brain's immune cells may play roles in neurodegenerative, psychiatric illnesses. Scientists have, for the first time, characterized the molecular markers that make the brain's front lines of immune defense--cells called microglia--unique. In the process, they discovered further evidence that microglia may play roles in a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric illnesses, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases as well as schizophrenia, autism and depression. (news-medical.net 31.1.6.2017).)

(Anm: Three Alzheimer's genetic risk factors linked to immune cell dysfunction. People with a variant copy of the TREM2 gene have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, but researchers are only beginning to understand why. (medicalnewstoday.com 21.7.2016).)

(Anm: Kokainbruk og slagrisiko (nhi.no 18.2.2014).)

(Anm: Dyrestudie finner at sønner til kokainbrukende fedre har markant svekket hukommelse. Animal study finds sons of cocaine-using fathers have profound memory impairments. Fathers who use cocaine at the time of conceiving a child may be putting their sons at risk of learning disabilities and memory loss. The findings of the animal study were published online in Molecular Psychiatry by a team of researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The researchers say the findings reveal that drug abuse by fathers - separate from the well-established effects of cocaine use in mothers - may negatively impact cognitive development in their male offspring. (medicalnewstoday.com 27.2.2017).)

(Anm: Alzheimers sykdom: Kan en lekk blod-hjerne barrieren (BBB) være involvert? (Alzheimer's disease: Could a leaky blood-brain barrier be involved? (…) "Blood-brain barrier leakage means that the brain has lost its protective means, the stability of brain cells is disrupted and the environment in which nerve cells interact becomes ill-conditioned. These mechanisms could eventually lead to dysfunction in the brain." The blood-brain barrier (BBB) separates the brain from circulating blood to keep brain tissue healthy. It is a collection of specialized cells and cellular components that line the walls of blood vessels in the brain and the rest of the central nervous system. The BBB controls the delivery of important nutrients, blocks substances that can harm the brain, and removes waste from the brain.) (medicalnewstoday.com 31.5.2016).)

(Anm: Leaky blood-brain barrier linked to Alzheimer's disease. Researchers using contrast-enhanced MRI have identified leakages in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of people with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a new study published online in the journal Radiology. The results suggest that increased BBB permeability may represent a key mechanism in the early stages of the disease.  (medicalxpress.com 31.5.2016).)

(Anm: Cocaine, amphetamine users more likely to take their own lives (medicalnewstoday.com 23.12.2014).)

(Anm: Cocaine addiction leads to build-up of iron in brain. Cocaine addiction may affect how the body processes iron, leading to a build-up of the mineral in the brain, according to new research from the University of Cambridge. The study, published in Translational Psychiatry, raises hopes that there may be a biomarker - a biological measure of addiction - that could be used as a target for future treatments.  (medicalnewstoday.com 23.2.2017).)

(Anm: Amphetamine use may 'speed up' heart aging. Amphetamine abuse is increasing internationally. While common sides effects of the drug include increased heart rate, headache, stomach pain, and mood changes, little is known about the drug's effect on the heart. Now, new research published in Heart Asia reports that using amphetamines recreationally may accelerate aging of the heart. (medicinenet.com 11.2.2017).)

(Anm: Simultaneous cocaine, alcohol use linked to suicide risk (medicalnewstoday.com 11.4.2016).)

(Anm: Psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption among older adults in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008–2011. Objectives The use and combined use of psychotropic drugs and alcohol among older adults is a growing public health concern and should be constantly monitored. Relevant studies are scarce in Germany. Using data of the most recent national health survey, we analyse prevalence and correlates of psychotropic drug and alcohol use among this population. (…) Conclusions Despite the high risk of synergetic effects of psychotropic drugs and alcohol, a substantial part of older psychotropic drug users consume alcohol riskily and daily. Health professionals should talk about the additional health risks of alcohol consumption when prescribing psychotropic drugs to older adults. BMJ Open 2016;6:e012182.)

(Anm: Rat study reveals long-term effects of adolescent amphetamine abuse on the brain. A study of rats given regular, high doses of amphetamine finds that those exposed to the drug at an age corresponding to human adolescence experience long-term changes in brain function that persist into adulthood. The study, reported in the journal Neuroscience, found that amphetamine leads to changes in dopamine signaling. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in memory, attention, learning and feelings of pleasure. (medicalnewstoday.com 31.3.2016).)

(Anm: Tandsjukdom efter implantat. Nästan var sjätte person som fått tandimplantat drabbas av en allvarlig inflammation i angränsande vävnader, peri-implantit. Det visar en studie vid Sahlgrenska akademin i Göteborg. Studien omfattar 4 716 personer som fick tandimplantat 2003-2004. Nio år efteråt hade 14,5 procent drabbats av peri-implantit, som liknar tandlossning men har ett snabbare och aggressivare förlopp, skriver Dagens Nyheter. De som drabbas behöver ytterligare behandling, vilket kan bli ekonomiskt kännbart. Över 30 000 patienter i Sverige fick förra året nya tänder som skruvas fast i käkbenet. (dagensmedisin.no 28.10.2015).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva er ifølge ny studie knyttet til mislykkede tannimplantater. (Antidepressants linked to tooth implant failure, new study finds.) (- Forskning viser at bruk av antidepressiva firedobler risikoen for implantat svikt. For hvert år dobler antidepressiva risikoen for svikt.) (medicalnewstoday.com 10.3.2016).)

(Anm: Antidepressiva ökar risken för benbrott hos äldre. (…) Den förhöjda risken för höftfraktur gällde alla de vanliga antidepressiva läkemedlen, SSRI-preparat, mirtazapin och SNRI-preparat (selektiva serotonin- och noradrenalinåterupptagshämmare. Sambandet gällde även då det kontrollerats för andra faktorer som ålder, annan medicinering som ökar fallrisken, benskörhet, socioekonomisk status, kroniska sjukdomar och psykiatriska diagnoser.) (lakemedelsvarlden.se 12.1.2017).)

(Anm: Heart disease risk higher with latent tooth infection. If you missed your last dental checkup, a new study might encourage you to book that appointment right away; researchers have identified a higher risk of heart disease for individuals who have hidden tooth infections. (…) Last year, for example, a study published in Infection and Immunity suggested that the bacterium involved in gum disease may also raise the risk of heart disease. Now, researchers from the University of Helsinki in Finland have uncovered a link between dental root tip infection, known as apical periodontitis, and greater risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) - an umbrella term for conditions that involve blocked blood flow to the coronary arteries. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.8.2016).)

(Anm: Munhälsan bättre än på 80-talet – men tandlossning ökar igjen. De två största tandsjukdomarna karies och parodontit (tandlossning) minskade fram till 2008. Därefter ökade antalet individer med parodontit och den positiva utvecklingen för karies stannade av. – Även om munhälsan har förbättras under denna 30-årsperiod ser vi en försämring mellan 2008 och 2013 då det gäller främst tandlossning, säger Kristina Edman vid Uppsala universitet har undersökt munhälsans utveckling över en trettioårsperiod. (forskning.se 3.5.2016).)

(Anm: Stimulant Medications Linked to Bone Mass Reductions in Children, Adolescents. BOSTON -- April 6, 2016 -- Use of stimulant medications in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adolescence is associated with significant reductions in bone mass, according to a study presented here at the 98th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society (ENDO). (…) “We suggest that stimulant medications, which release and block reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, may affect bone mass,” said the researchers. (dgnews.docguide.com 6.4.2016).)

(Anm: Anbefalte kokain mot onani, menssmerter, blodmangel og nerveforstyrrelser. Kokainen gikk fra å være legenes vidundermiddel til å bli storbysynden dødsengel. (dagbladet.no 19.2.2016).)

- Når hjernen vil stoppe deg. (- Denne delen av hjernen kalles amygdala.)

(Anm: Når hjernen vil stoppe deg. Miriam Bjørnsrud (24) ønsket å ofre alt for VM- og OL-medaljer. Noen sekunder skulle legge drømmene i knus. (…) På veggene henger sykkeltrøyer i alle slags størrelser, fra juniorgullet i NM til sammenlagtseieren i Norgescupen. (…) Hjernens «alarmsentral». Hva skjer når du blir ordentlig redd? Anders Jacobsen har fortalt om hvordan det stygge fallet i Planica gjorde ham hakket mer usikker enn en toppidrettsutøver kan være for å prestere optimalt. Det var en medvirkende årsak til at han ga seg som 30-åring noen år senere. (…) Jo verre opplevelsen er, og jo oftere du opplever den, jo høyere ringer alarmen. Denne delen av hjernen kalles amygdala. (nrk.no 16.9.2017).)

- Endringer i hjerneregioner kan forklare hvorfor noen foretrekker orden og sikkerhet.

(Anm: Changes in brain regions may explain why some prefer order and certainty. Why do some people prefer stable, predictable lives while others prefer frequent changes? Why do some people make rational decisions and others, impulsive and reckless ones? UCLA behavioral neuroscientists have identified changes in two brain regions that may hold answers to these questions. The research - reported by Alicia Izquierdo, UCLA associate professor of psychology and a member of UCLA's Brain Research Institute, and her psychology graduate student, Alexandra Stolyarova - is published today in the open-access online science journal eLife. (…) Rats without a functional orbitofrontal cortex, however, did not learn at all, and instead treated each experience as a "reset" button, the researchers report. It is as if these rats did not have a record of the full range of possible outcomes. The important role for the orbitofrontal cortex surprised Izquierdo, who said there was more evidence that the basolateral amygdala would be important in conditions of uncertainty, and not as much for the orbitofrontal cortex. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.7.2017).)

(Anm: New insights on how cocaine changes the brain. (…) The researchers used tracer molecules to follow electrical activity in the brain in rats exposed to cocaine. (…) Over time, increasing activation of a key part of the extended amygdala--the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis produces a long-lasting increase in signal transmission onto neurons that produce dopamine so that the rats became desensitized to the cocaine. Since this change happens within the amygdala, it may explain some of the long-term effects on behavior and motivation that occur after prolonged cocaine use. (medicalnewstoday.com 26.11.2015).)

(Anm: Cocaine users present alterations in the function and structures of the brain (medicalnewstoday.com 9.2.2016).)

(Anm: KRIMINOLOGI Test kan påvise kokainbruk gjennom fingeravtrykk Hva hvis kokainbruk kunne påvises og ikke krevde urin-, spytt- eller blodprøver? En ny metode gjør det mulig å finne ut om noen har tatt kokain, og ikke bare tatt i det. Testen gjøres via fingertuppene med en spray som reagerer på ørsmå spor av stoffene bensoylekgonin og methylekgonin i fingeravtrykk. (aftenposten.no 19.5.2015).)

(Anm: Your brain on drugs: Functional differences in brain communication in cocaine users. (…) The brain function of people addicted to cocaine is different from that of people who are not addicted and often linked to highly impulsive behavior, according to a new scientific study. (…) People who are addicted to cocaine are often highly impulsive and are prone to acting quickly, without regard to negative consequences. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.5.2015).)

(Anm: Functional brain organization of newborns altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. A new study by UNC researchers, based on MRI brain scans of 152 infants, found disruptions in functional connectivity within part of the amygdala-prefrontal network - a pathway thought to play an important role in arousal regulation. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.4.2015).)

- UCI, Italienske forskere begrenser akselerert cellulær aldring (senescens) forårsaket av bruk av metamfetamin

UCI, Italian scientists limit accelerated cellular aging caused by methamphetamine use (UCI, Italienske forskere begrenser akselerert cellulær aldring forårsaket av bruk av metamfetamin)
medicalnewstoday.com 14.2.2015
Grasp of underlying molecular mechanisms could improve addiction recovery efforts

The ravaged faces of methamphetamine addicts tell a terrible tale - abusing the drug dramatically accelerates aging. Now scientists from UC Irvine and the Italian Institute of Technology have discovered how this occurs at the cellular level and identified methods to limit the process.

With funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to probe the effects of methamphetamine on the "lipidome" (the complete lipid profile of representative organs and tissues) in rats that self-administer the drug, UCI's Daniele Piomelli and his IIT colleagues found that its use caused abnormalities in cellular fat metabolism, triggering extreme inflammation marked by a considerable rise in the formation of ceramides, pro-inflammatory molecules that can foster cell aging and death.

Study results appear in the open-access online journal PLOS ONE.

Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that profoundly damages the brain and other body organs. Postmortem examinations of human tissues have linked use of the drug to diseases associated with aging, such as coronary atherosclerosis and pulmonary fibrosis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these findings have remained unknown.

The Piomelli team learned that this cellular cascade involves the recruitment of nuclear factor kappa beta, a protein that under healthy conditions helps control DNA encoding of proteins. But as the cell is flooded with methamphetamine-induced signaling, nuclear factor kappa beta triggers excessive signaling in pathways that engender dramatic increases in ceramide activity.

"We found this signaling process to be key for advanced cellular aging, which is at the heart of the accelerated aging influenced by methamphetamine abuse," said Piomelli, the Louise Turner Arnold Chair in the Neurosciences. (…)

(Anm: Methamphetamine Accelerates Cellular Senescence through Stimulation of De Novo Ceramide Biosynthesis. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0116961 (February 11, 2015)

- Forskning på cellulær senescens kan føre til nye måter å behandle aldersrelaterte lidelser på.

(Anm: Forskning på cellulær senescens kan føre til nye måter å behandle aldersrelaterte lidelser på. Research into cellular senescence may lead to new ways of treating age-related disorders. (…) In basic research conducted on human cell cultures and on mice, Dr. Krizhanovsky and his team asked, "what, exactly, ties senescent cells to aging?" (medicalnewstoday.com 18.5.2017).)

(Anm: Signaling from dysfunctional mitochondria induces a distinct type of senescence. (Signalering fra dysfunksjonelle mitokondrier induserer en distinkt type tiltagende alderdom.) Finding provides alternative explanation for the free-radical theory of aging and suggests new role for mitochondria in affecting physiology. (medicalnewstoday.com 11.12.2015).)

- Antidepressiva øker risiko for åreforkalkning (arteriosklerose), erektil dysfunksjon, hjertesykdom og hjerneslag. (- Et vanlig foreskrevet antidepressiva forårsaket opp til en seksdobling i aterosklerotisk plakk i koronararteriene hos ikke-menneskelige primater, ifølge en studie utført av forskere ved Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.)

(Anm: Vanlig antidepressiva gir økt koronar aterosklerose (åreforkalkning) i dyremodell. (Common antidepressant increased coronary atherosclerosis in animal model). Et vanlig foreskrevet antidepressiva forårsaket opp til en seksdobling i aterosklerotisk plakk i koronararteriene hos ikke-menneskelige primater, ifølge en studie utført av forskere ved Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. Koronar aterosklerose er den primære årsaken til hjerteinfarkt. (A commonly prescribed antidepressant caused up to a six-fold increase in atherosclerosis plaque in the coronary arteries of non-human primates, according to a study by researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. Coronary artery atherosclerosis is the primary cause of heart attacks.) Studien er publisert i dagens elektroniske utgaven av tidsskriftet Psychosomatic Medicine. (...) Apene som fikk SSRI utviklet tre ganger så mye aterosklerose i sine koronararterier i forhold til aper gitt placebo. Hos de deprimerte dyr var mengden enda høyere - nesten seks ganger høyere hos SSRI-behandlede dyr enn hos de som fikk placebo. (sciencedaily.com 6.4.2015).)

(Anm: Effects of long-term sertraline (Zoloft) treatment and depression on coronary artery atherosclerosis in premenopausal female primates. (...) Vi bestemte effekten av SSRI på kranspuls åreforkalkning (aterosklerose) (CAA) i en etablert, ikke-human primatmodell som ble brukt til å avklare sammenhengen mellom depresjon og CAA. (...) KONKLUSJONER: Deprimerte dyr utviklet mer CAA, og langvarig behandling med sertralin resulterte i mer omfattende CAA. (We determined the effects of an SSRI on coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA) in an established nonhuman primate model used to clarify the association between depression and CAA. (…) CONCLUSIONS: Depressed animals developed more CAA, and long-term treatment with sertraline resulted in more extensive CAA.) Psychosom Med. 2015 Apr;77(3):267-78.)

(Anm: Arteriosklerose, patologisk anatomisk betegnelse på tilstander med fortykket arterievegg med tap av elastisitet. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

- Tette arterier kan skyldes bakterier, ikke diett. Fettmolekylene i plakk som tetter våre arterier og øker risikoen for hjerteinfarkt og hjerneslag, kan komme fra bakterier som lever i vår munn og tarm, ikke bare fra det vi spiser.

(Anm: Tette arterier kan skyldes bakterier, ikke diett. Fettmolekylene i plakk som tetter våre arterier og øker risikoen for hjerteinfarkt og hjerneslag, kan komme fra bakterier som lever i vår munn og tarm, ikke bare fra det vi spiser. Dette var hovedresultatet i en studie ledet av University of Connecticut i Storrs som nylig ble publisert i Journal of Lipid Research. (Clogged arteries may be down to bacteria, not diet. The fat molecules in the plaques that clog up our arteries and raise risk of heart attack and stroke may come from bacteria that live in our mouths and guts, not just from what we eat. This was the main result of a study led by the University of Connecticut in Storrs that was published recently in the Journal of Lipid Research. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.11.2017).)

(Anm: [Medicin]  - Ateromer dannet af aflejring af fedt og kolesterol kan føre til åreforkalkning (Atheromas formed by deposits of fat and colesterol may lead to arteriosclerosis) (ordbogen.com).)

(Anm: Tannleger og tannhelse (munnhulen er kroppens speil). (mintankesmie.no/).)

(Anm: Antibiotika (tarmbakterier, probiotika, mikrobiota etc.) (Dysbiose; dysbiosis (also called dysbacteriosis (dysbakteriose)). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Signaler fra tarmens mikrobiotika til fjerntliggende organer mht. fysiologi og sykdom. (Signals from the gut microbiota to distant organs in physiology and disease.) (Nat Med. 2016 Oct 6;22(10):1079-1089.)

(Anm: - Hadde medisinerne på et tidligere tidspunkt hatt et evolusjonært perspektiv på sin medisinering, ville vi ikke vært i den kritiske situasjon vi er kommet i med hensyn til resistens. (aftenposten.no 22.8.2016).)

- Forskning på cellulær senescens kan føre til nye måter å behandle aldersrelaterte lidelser på

Research into cellular senescence may lead to new ways of treating age-related disorders
medicalnewstoday.com 25.5.2017
One of the things that happens to our bodies as we age is that certain cells start to accumulate. So-called senescent cells – cells that "retire" and stop dividing but refuse to die – are always present, and they even serve some important functions, such as in wound repair. But in aging organs, these cells don't get cleared away as they should, and they can clutter up the place. Dr. Valery Krizhanovsky of the Weizmann Institute of Science's Department of Molecular Cell Biology is revealing just how these cells are tied to disorders of aging and why they refuse to go away. His work is not only opening new windows onto the aging process, but is pointing to new directions in treatments for many of these disorders and diseases.

Research into cellular senescence has taken off in recent years, due to findings that show that clearing these cells from various parts of the body can reverse certain aspects of aging and disease processes. Pharmaceutical industries have taken note, as well, of research that could lead to the development of drugs that might target senescent cells in specific organs or tissues.

In basic research conducted on human cell cultures and on mice, Dr. Krizhanovsky and his team asked, "what, exactly, ties senescent cells to aging?" Are they, for example, a primary cause of age-related disease, or a side effect? And why don't these cells die, despite being damaged, making the "clean-up crews" of the immune system clear them away?

The researchers hypothesized that the answer to the second question might lie in a family of cellular proteins that regulate a type of cell suicide known as apoptosis. They identified two proteins in this family that prevent apoptosis and which were overproduced in the senescent cells. When they injected mice that had an extra supply of senescent cells with molecules that inhibit these two proteins, the cells underwent apoptosis and were then eliminated, and there were signs of improvement in the tissue.

"In small amounts, these cells can prevent tumors from growing, help wounds clot, and start the healing process," says Dr. Krizhanovsky. "But as they amass, they trigger inflammation and even cancer." (…)

(Anm: Methamphetamine Accelerates Cellular Senescence through Stimulation of De Novo Ceramide Biosynthesis. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0116961 (February 11, 2015)

(Anm: Antidepressiva (inkl. SSRI-preparater) og antipsykotika har skadelige effekter på mitokondrier (Mol Cell Biochem 1999;199:103-9).)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon ligger bak kognitive defekter som et resultat av nevral stamcelleutarmning og nedsatt neurogenese. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies cognitive defects as a result of neural stem cell depletion and impaired neurogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jun 8.)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) indusert av sertraline (Zoloft), et antidepressiva (Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sertraline, an antidepressant agent) Toxicol Sci. 2012 Jun;127(2):582-91. Epub 2012 Mar 2.)

(Anm: Kan Lupus øke risikoen for demens? Could lupus raise dementia risk? People living with lupus may be at significantly greater risk of developing dementia than those without the autoimmune disease, a new study suggests. (…) Study co-author Daniela Amital, of the Sackler Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University in Israel, and colleagues recently reported their results in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.11.2017).)

(Anm: Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser. (Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.) (…) Dette resultatet forklarer de kliniske og deres respektive histopatologiske effekter av tramadol, for eksempel anfall og røde nevroner (markør for apoptose). (The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss.) (Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Dec;31(12):1325-33).)

(Anm: Signaling from dysfunctional mitochondria induces a distinct type of senescence. (Signalering fra dysfunksjonelle mitokondrier induserer en distinkt type tiltagende alderdom.) Finding provides alternative explanation for the free-radical theory of aging and suggests new role for mitochondria in affecting physiology. (medicalnewstoday.com 11.12.2015).)

(Anm: Methamphetamine: Facts, Effects and Health Risks. Methamphetamine is a highly addictive and illegal psychostimulant drug that is used for its powerful euphoric effects which are similar to those of cocaine. (medicalnewstoday.com 22.4.2016).)

(Anm: Surprising finding provides more support for Alzheimer's being an autoimmune disease. Brain levels of the lipid ceramide are high in Alzheimer's disease, and now scientists have found increased levels of an antibody to the lipid in their disease model. (medicalnewstoday.com 10.3.2015).)

- Hvorfor trening kan være vårt beste våpen mot Alzheimers

Why exercise might be our best weapon against Alzheimer's (Hvorfor trening kan være vårt beste våpen mot Alzheimers)
telegraph.co.uk 22.5.2017
(…) But as I read the studies on lifestyle countermeasures – and there are many – it became clear to me that there is still cause for hope. Though much of the evidence is preliminary and inconclusive, and sometimes merely anecdotal, considerations for stress, diet, exercise, cognitive training and even sleep are gaining scientific ground. 

For many, the top seed in the race for lifestyle interventions is exercise. Even moderate exercise can markedly lower blood pressure and improve cardiovascular health. And it is these resulting rewards that are thought to directly affect Alzheimer’s risk. (…)

Having high blood pressure in middle age, for instance, puts one at higher risk of Alzheimer’s. Conversely, if one’s blood pressure is too low, especially over the age of 75, the chance of Alzheimer’s still increases. Why? That’s unclear. Most evidence points towards a link between blood pressure and inflammation, but exactly how this feeds into the whirlwind of plaques, tangles and brain calamity remains an enigma.

What is conclusive, in lab mice at least, is that exercise on a treadmill can reduce the build-up of plaques and tangles. This modest miracle is thought to happen by activating an intriguing cellular phenomenon called autophagy (Greek for ‘eating of self’), a specialised kind of cellular housekeeping that clears out damaged or unwanted goods and introduces new ones after recycling the old, all as part of an adaptive and protective process to help neurons better cope with stress and extend their lifespan. 

So it’s thought  that stimulating autophagy through exercise may halt the progression of brain cell death in Alzheimer’s.

Having high blood pressure in middle age, for instance, puts one at higher risk of Alzheimer’s. Conversely, if one’s blood pressure is too low, especially over the age of 75, the chance of Alzheimer’s still increases. Why? That’s unclear. Most evidence points towards a link between blood pressure and inflammation, but exactly how this feeds into the whirlwind of plaques, tangles and brain calamity remains an enigma.

What is conclusive, in lab mice at least, is that exercise on a treadmill can reduce the build-up of plaques and tangles. This modest miracle is thought to happen by activating an intriguing cellular phenomenon called autophagy (Greek for ‘eating of self’), a specialised kind of cellular housekeeping that clears out damaged or unwanted goods and introduces new ones after recycling the old, all as part of an adaptive and protective process to help neurons better cope with stress and extend their lifespan. 

So it’s thought  that stimulating autophagy through exercise may halt the progression of brain cell death in Alzheimer’s.

uch a wonder is, sad to say, perhaps decades away. So in the meantime we must resolve not only to exercise but also to learn what kind of exercise, and how often, is required to keep the mind fit.

The most thorough investigation of the subject so far – a systematic review entitled ‘The effect of exercise interventions on cognitive outcome in Alzheimer’s disease’ by researchers at the University of Sussex, England, in 2014 – found several methods demonstrating positive effects on cognition in Alzheimer’s patients.

They ranged from 30 minutes of walking (four times a week for 24 weeks), to one hour of cycling (three times a week for 15 weeks), to 30 minutes of vigorous calisthenics (every day for 12 weeks). For those who have reached an age where even walking is a chore, gentle movements, such as those practised in the Chinese martial art Tai chi, were also deemed worthwhile.

The fact that both high- and low-intensity exercise appears to help speaks volumes. Larger studies are still needed to unequivocally prove a link with Alzheimer’s, and this certainly doesn’t mean that someone can avoid the malady simply by working out. This brand of science – epidemiology – dispenses truths about millions, not individuals. Indeed, my grandfather’s quotidian hike lasted two hours. But still, a little exercise is probably worth it. (…)

- Overraskende funn gir mer støtte for at Alzheimers sykdom kan være en autoimmun sykdom

Surprising finding provides more support for Alzheimer's being an autoimmune disease
medicalnewstoday.com 10.3.2015
Brain levels of the lipid ceramide are high in Alzheimer's disease, and now scientists have found increased levels of an antibody to the lipid in their disease model.

While some members of this lipid family are a plus in skin cream, inside the brain, ceramide appears to increase beta amyloid production and help the iconic plaque kill brain cells in Alzheimer's, said Dr. Erhard Bieberich, neuroscientist at the Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents University.

Bieberich's lab and others have identified elevated ceramide levels as a risk factor for Alzheimer's and have shown that amyloid triggers excess production of the lipid, although precisely how and why remain a mystery. That synergy had the scientists expecting that generating antibodies against ceramide would hamper plaque formation. Studies published last summer in Neurobiology of Aging showed that a drug that inhibited ceramide formation did just that.

Instead they found that the excessive ceramide had already worked its way into the bloodstream, generating antibodies that supported disease progression, particularly in female mice.

The surprising science, published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, appears to support the theory that Alzheimer's is an autoimmune disease, which tends to be more common in women and is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against a patient's tissue, said Bieberich, corresponding author.

It also has them thinking that measuring blood levels of the lipid or some of its byproducts could be an early test for Alzheimer's since ceramide levels were elevated well before mice showed signs of substantial plaque formation. (…)

(Anm: Ceramid (ceramide) N-acylsfingosin, lipid (fettstoff) som er en del av flere glykolipider, bl.a. sfingolipider, cerebrosider og gangliosider som finnes i cellemembraner, særlig i hjerne- og nervevev. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules. A ceramide is composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid. Ceramides are found in high concentrations within the cell membrane of cells. They are one of the component lipids that make up sphingomyelin, one of the major lipids in the lipid bilayer. Contrary to previous assumptions that ceramides and other sphingolipids found in cell membrane were purely structural elements, ceramide can participate in a variety of cellular signaling: examples include regulating differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death (PCD) of cells. (en.wikipedia.org).)

- Kokainbrukere "nyter ikke sosial interaksjon og mangler empati"

Cocaine users 'do not enjoy social interaction and lack empathy' (Kokainbrukere "nyter ikke sosial interaksjon og mangler empati")
medicalnewstoday.com 21.1.2014
New research from the University of Zurich in Switzerland suggests that people who regularly use cocaine struggle to feel empathy for others and are less likely to enjoy social interactions, compared with individuals who do not use the drug.

The research team says their findings, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggest that treatment for cocaine addicts should include social skill training.

Cocaine is an addictive illegal stimulant that is extracted from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca - a coca plant native to South America.

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) estimated that there were around 1.9 million current (past-month) cocaine users in the US in 2008.

Users of the drug can experience short-term energy boosts, euphoria and talkativeness. But cocaine can produce some serious health issues, including brain damage and an increased heart rate and blood pressure, which can cause heart attack and stroke.

Previous studies have also found that regular cocaine users demonstrate poor memory, lack of concentration and have attention deficits.
But for this most recent study, the team wanted to see whether regular cocaine use may also impact a person's social skills. (...)

- For kvinner som tar visse typer smertestillende midler, kan et hjerteinfarkt ligge på lur i deres medisinskap

For women taking certain kinds of pain relievers, a heart attack could be waiting in their medicine cabinets
medicalnewstoday.com 14.7.2014
A University of Florida study has found that the regular use of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, increases the risk of stroke, heart attack and death in postmenopausal women. The study was published this week in the journal Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes.

The researchers found that regular use of the NSAID naproxen, the active ingredient in medications such as Aleve, is associated with a 10 percent increased risk of heart attack, stroke and death in postmenopausal women, said UF cardiologist Anthony Bavry, M.D., the study's lead author. Regular use was defined as at least twice per week for the previous two weeks.

"That is counter to the medical community's perception of NSAIDs, in which most people believe naproxen to be safer," Bavry said. "Our study showed naproxen was not safer - it was actually harmful." (…)

(Anm: NSAID Use Is Associated with Elevated Risk for Bleeding in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Antithrombotic Therapy Ann Intern Med 2014 Nov 18; 161:690.)

(Anm: Värktabletter kopplas till hjärtproblem. Det finns ett samband mellan en högre risk för hjärtsvikt och medicinering med värktabletter som Voltaren, Ipren och Magnecyl, enligt en ny stor studie. Studien som publicerats i British Medical Journal visar att personer, som inom de senaste 14 dagarna tagit så kallade NSAID-läkemedel, har en 19 procent högre risk för att tas in på sjukhus för hjärtsvikt, jämfört med personer som tagit tabletterna längre tillbaka i tiden. (dagensmedicin.se 30.9.2016).)

(Anm: Mange NSAID knyttet til hjertefeil. Many NSAIDs Associated With HF. 'A clear risk to some... and tighter regulation is justified'. (…) For the individual drugs, odds ratios ranged from 1.16 (95% CI 1.07-1.27) for naproxen to 1.83 (95% CI 1.66-2.02) for ketorolac, and were significant for the following: Diclofenac – Ibuprofen – Indomethacin – Ketorolac – Naproxen – Nimesulide – Piroxicam – Etoricoxib - Rofecoxib (medpagetoday.com 29.9.2016).)

(Anm: Kardiovaskulære risici ved behandling med nonsteroide antiinflammatoriske lægemidler (NSAID). KONKLUSION NSAID-behandling er associeret med en lang række kardiale komplikationer i form af destabilisering af blodtryksbehandling, hjertesvigt, myokardieinfarkt, atrieflimren, venøs tromboemboli, blødning ved kombinationsbehandling med antitrombotika og pludselig hjertedød. Selv korttidsbehandling synes at være associeret med en øget risiko, og særligt diclofenac har en uheldig risikoprofil. Dertil kommer, at der er en dosisrelateret øgning i de kardiovaskulære risici forbundet med NSAID-behandling, hvorimod den terapeutiske og smertestillende effekt ikke øges tilsvarende. NSAID-behandling frarådes derfor til patienter med hjerte-kar-sygdom, og anvendelse af diclofenac frarådes generelt. Ugeskr Læger 2016;178:V08160612.)

(Anm: Using NSAIDs during a cold may increase heart attack risk. Taking ibuprofen or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to help relieve cold or flu symptoms may seem harmless, but new research suggests otherwise. It could increase the risk of heart attack. Study co-author Dr. Cheng-Chung Fang, of the National Taiwan University Hospital, and colleagues recently reported their findings in The Journal of Infectious Diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.2.2017).)

(Anm: NSAIDs offer little benefit for spinal pain, review finds. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen offer little more clinical benefit to patients with spinal pain than a placebo, a systematic review and meta-analysis has found. The review of 35 randomised placebo controlled trials involving 6065 people, published in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases,1 found that NSAIDs did provide some relief from pain and disability but found little evidence that they were more effective than placebo. Researchers found that, in every six patients treated with an NSAID, only one would benefit. BMJ 2017;356:j605 (Published 06 February 2017).)

(Anm: Demente rammes i højere grad af hjerte-kar-sygdom. Hjerteforeningen følger ministerens arbejde med handlingsplan om demens, der er essentiel for hjertepatienter også. Demens og hjerte-kar-sygdomme har fælles risikofaktorer, siger forskningschef. (hjerteforeningen.dk 3.10.2016).)

(Anm: NSAID-preparat farligt efter hjärtinfarkt. Antiinflammatoriska läkemedel av NSAID-typen är farligt ihop med blodförtunnare efter hjärtinfarkt. (lakemedelsvarlden.se 25.2.2015).)

(Anm: Vanlige smertestillende «øker risiko for hjertesvikt". (Common painkillers 'increase heart failure risk' (…) The British Medical Journal study looked at 10 million people, aged 77 on average, who took the drugs. (…) 'Use with caution' The British Heart Foundation (BHF) said patients should be on the lowest dose possible of NSAIDs for the shortest possible time.) (bbc.com 29.9.2016).)

(Anm: Vanlige smertestillende knyttet til svak økning i risiko for hjerteinfarkt. Common Painkillers Tied to Slight Rise in Heart Attack Risk. TUESDAY, May 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Commonly used painkillers such as Motrin, Advil and Aleve might increase your risk for heart attack, even in the first week of use, a new study suggests. Overall, these drugs and others known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase the risk of a heart attack by 20 to 50 percent, compared with not using them, researchers found. (medicinenet.com 9.5.2017).)

(Anm: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of heart failure in four European countries: nested case-control study. (…) Conclusions The risk of hospital admission for heart failure associated with current use of NSAIDs appears to vary between individual NSAIDs, and this effect is dose dependent. This risk is associated with the use of a large number of individual NSAIDs reported by this study, which could help to inform both clinicians and health regulators. BMJ 2016;354:i4857 (Published 28 September 2016).)

(Anm: Gigtmedicin skal bruges med omtanke til hjertepatienter. (…) Læger, der udskriver gigtmedicin af typen NSAID (non-steroide anti-inflammatoriske lægemidler), bør være særligt opmærksomme på, at denne type medicin giver en øget risiko for hjertesygdomme hos patienter. Det drejer sig specifikt om produkterne Diclofenac, Ibuprofen og Naproxen. I produktresumeerne for de nævnte produkter, står det udførligt beskrevet, at disse midler er kontraindicerede ved svær hjerteinsufficiens. (laegemiddelstyrelsen.dk 17.3.2016).)

(Anm: Potential Hazards of Adding Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs to Antithrombotic Therapy After Myocardial Infarction. Time for More Than a Gut Check. JAMA. 2015;313(8):801-802. (February 24).)

- Tarmbakterier kurerer autisme hos mus (- Sammenheng mellom autisme og tarmproblemer)

Tarmbakterier kurerer autisme hos mus
forskning.no 21.3.6.2014
Da musene ble matet med en spesiell tarmbakterie, forsvant de autistiske trekkene. – I fremtiden vil vi kanskje kunne forebygge mange sykdommer på den måten, sier dansk forsker.

En helt vanlig tarmbakterie gjorde autistiske mus nesten helt frie for symptomer. Den kunnskapen kan åpne opp for nye behandlingsmuligheter, sier dansk professor.

Er atferd og helse styrt av mikroskopiske bakterier som lever i magene våre? Det kan kanskje være litt vanskelig å forestille seg, men en stor amerikansk studie tyder på at det er slik.

En gruppe mikrobiologer fra California Institute of Technology (Caltech) i USA har vist hvordan en helt vanlig tarmbakterie, Bacteroides fragilis, kan gjøre autistiske mus stort sett symptomfrie.

Les også: Autister hadde andre bakterier

– Det er virkelig spennende at en behandling med tarmbakterier gir en varig endring av atferden, sier postdoktor Elaine Hsiao, som er hovedforfatteren til studien.

Livsviktige tarmbakterier

En av implikasjonene av det nye funnet er at vi må tenke nytt om hvem og hva vi er, sier Hsiao.

– Vi eksisterer ikke uten tarmbakteriene våre – vi har ti ganger så mange av dem som vi har vanlige celler. De påvirker hvem vi er og hva vi gjør, sier hun.

Studien vekker begeistring.

– Dette arbeidet er utrolig inspirerende, for det forteller noe om de molekylære mekanismene som regulerer atferden i musene. Vi bør undersøke om lignende mekanismer kan gjøre seg gjeldende i mennesker, sier professor Oluf Borbye Pedersen fra Københavns Universitet.

Les også: Hormoner kan hjelpe barn med autisme

Han har ikke vært en del av den amerikanske studien, men deltar selv i et forskningsprosjekt som undersøker om endringer i tarmbakterier kan være en av årsakene til schizofreni.

Sammenheng mellom autisme og tarmproblemer
Personer med autisme ser ut til å ha et problem med tarmene. Selv om det ikke finnes presise tall, er det velkjent blant leger at autister ofte har kronisk tarmbetennelse.

En studie fra de amerikanske helsemyndighetene, CDC, støtter den observasjonen: I 2012 kunne de dokumentere at autistiske barn hadde dobbelt så høy risiko for betennelse i tarmene, i forhold til andre barn. (...)

(Anm: Microbiota Modulate Behavioral and Physiological Abnormalities Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2014;155(7):1451–1463 (19 December 2013).)

(Anm: Fine particulate air pollution associated with increased risk of childhood autism (medicalnewstoday.com 22.5.2015).)

(Anm: Scientists discover how a gene mutation causes autism (medicalnewstoday.com 7.8.2015).)

(Anm: MRI studies point to brain connectivity changes in autism spectrum disorders (medicalnewstoday.com 15.7.2015).)

(Anm: Link between autism genes and higher intelligence, study suggests (medicalnewstoday.com 11.3.2015).)

(Anm: Åldersskillnad mellan föräldrarna ökar risk för autism hos barnet.  (…) Ju större åldersskillnaden är, desto större är risken att barnet får autism. Studien, som publiceras i den ansedda vetenskapliga tidskriften Molecular Psychiatry, är den hittills största inom området och inkluderar data från fem länder. (ki.se 9.6.2015).)

(Anm: Pathbreaking study by Israeli and American neuroscientists reveals autism's 'noisy' secret (…) "In this study we show that heightened sensitivity to sensory noise - the random signals inserted into the visual tasks traditionally used by scientists to test sensory integration levels in autism - may provide an alternative explanation for impaired performance. When this noise is removed from the equation, the integration of visual motion stimuli in ASD is equal to, or maybe even superior to that of the control group. (medicalnewstoday.com 26.5.2015).)

(Anm: Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Its Relationship with mTOR Signaling and Oxidative Damage in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2015;15(5):373-389.)

(Anm: Is there such a thing as 'pure' autism? (…) Their results did not identify any genome-wide significant associations in the overall sample or in the phenotypic subgroups. This means that the extreme clinical variability observed among patients with autism spectrum disorder does not closely reflect common genetic variation. (medicalnewstoday.com 23.4.2015).)

(Anm: Autism and prodigy share a common genetic link (…)These shared genetic markers occur on chromosome 1, according to the researchers from The Ohio State University and Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus. (medicalnewstoday.com 26.4.2015).)

(Anm: Katteparasitt kan gi schizofreni og tvangslidelser. Forskere har funnet en sammenheng mellom katteparasitten Toxoplasma gondii og utviklingen av forskjellige psykiske lidelser hos mennesker. (…) En parasitt fra katteavføring, T. gondii, kan sette fast seg i menneskehjernen og føre til schizofreni, manisk depressiv sinnslidelse, avhengighet og tvangstanker. (nrk.no 29.6.2015).)

(Anm: No, Your Cat Isn't a Threat to Your Mental Health. (…) But mental health worries aside, pregnant women should still be cautious about exposure to cat litter boxes, another researcher warned. "There is good evidence that T. gondii exposure during pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects and other health problems in children," said study senior author Dr. James Kirkbride. (medicinenet.com 21.2.2017).)

(Anm: Angstbehandling spres til utlandet. Her er nederlandske psykologer i Bergen for å lære om behandlingen som kan kurere tvangstanker på fire dager. Nå spres behandlingsopplegget til andre sykdommer og utover Norges grenser. (dagensmedisin.no 21.12.2016).)

(Anm: There are no ‘schizophrenia genes’: here’s why. (…) But are these claims warranted? Close inspection of the relevant studies suggests not. (theconversation.com 11.4.2016).)

- Bevis for at mange små barn med autisme har magesymptomer

Evidence many young children with autism show gut symptoms
medicalnewstoday.com 26.3.2015
Mothers of infants aged up to 3 years who have autism are more likely to report the children have gastrointestinal symptoms of constipation, diarrhea and food allergy or intolerance, finds a study collecting 10 years of prospective data.

The forward-looking study - that is, one designed in advance to test associations, as opposed to a retrospective study that would look back over data for links - is published online by JAMA Psychiatry. (…)

- Gammelt legemiddel brukt mot sovesyke reverserer autisme-lignende symptomer hos mus

Old drug used for sleeping sickness reverses autism-like symptoms in mice (Gammelt legemiddel brukes mot sovesyke reverserer autisme-lignende symptomer hos mus)
medicalnewstoday.com 19.6.2014
In a further test of a novel theory that suggests autism is the consequence of abnormal cell communication, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that an almost century-old drug approved for treating sleeping sickness also restores normal cellular signaling in a mouse model of autism, reversing symptoms of the neurological disorder in animals that were the human biological age equivalent of 30 years old.

The findings, published in the online issue of Translational Psychiatry, follow up on similar research published last year by senior author Robert K. Naviaux, MD, PhD, professor of medicine, pediatrics and pathology, and colleagues. (…)

Cells threatened or damaged by microbes, such as viruses or bacteria, or by physical forces or by chemicals, such as pollutants, react defensively, a part of the normal immune response, Naviaux said. Their membranes stiffen. Internal metabolic processes are altered, most notably mitochondria - the cells' critical "power plants." And communications between cells are dramatically reduced. This is the "cell danger response," said Naviaux, and if it persists, the result can be lasting, diverse impairment. If it occurs during childhood, for example, neurodevelopment is delayed.

"Cells behave like countries at war," said Naviaux. "When a threat begins, they harden their borders. They don't trust their neighbors. But without constant communication with the outside, cells begin to function differently. In the case of neurons, it might be by making fewer or too many connections. One way to look at this related to autism is this: When cells stop talking to each other, children stop talking." (...)

(Anm: Autism and Rare Childhood Speech Disorder Often Coincide. (…) The researchers determined that about a quarter of children studied -- 23.3% -- had both autism and apraxia at the initial diagnosis, and the same amount had neither condition. Outcomes for both autism and apraxia can be improved with early intervention, so the findings point to the importance of ongoing apraxia assessment for some children with autism, and vice versa. (dgnews.docguide.com 27.5.2015).)

(Anm: Apraksi er svikt i utføringen av viljestyrte, målrettede handlinger som ikke skyldes lammelser, tap av følesans eller forandringer i bevegelsesapparatet. (no.wikipedia.org).)

- Bakterier reverserer autismelignende atferd hos mus

Bacterium Reverses Autismlike Behavior in Mice (Bakterier reverserer autismeligenende atferd hos mus)
scientificamerican.com 5.12.2013
Findings support idea that the gut's microbiome has a role

Doses of a human gut microbe helped to reverse behavioral problems in mice with autism-like symptoms, researchers report today in Cell. The treatment also reduced gastrointestinal problems in the animals that were similar to those that often accompany autism in humans.

The work builds on previous research by Paul Patterson, a neurobiologist at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena. In 2012, he and his team created mice with autism-like symptoms by injecting a chemical that mimics viral infection into pregnant mice; those animals then bore offspring that were less sociable and more anxious than wild-type animals. The autistic mice also had 'leaky guts', in which the walls of the intestine break down and allow substances to leak through. Several studies have found that humans with autism are also more likely to have gastrointestinal disorders, suggesting that the two problems may be linked.

To investigate what role the gut might play in the animals’ symptoms, Patterson and his colleagues at Caltech took a census of the bacteria living in the guts of the mice. They found that mice with symptoms of autism had lower levels of a bacterium called Bacteroides fragilis that is normally present in the mouse gut. When the researchers fed B. fragilis to these mice, the animals began behaving more normally and their gastrointestinal symptoms improved.

Chemical imbalance
Next, the researchers tried to determine how the bacteria 'talk' to the brain by examining the blood of autistic and wild-type mice for chemicals that indicate how cells are working in the body. They found that the blood of mice with autism symptoms had levels of a chemical called 4-ethylphenylsulphate (4EPS) that were 46 times higher than that of the control group. This substance is structurally similar to a chemical called para-cresol that is elevated in people with autism.

When the researchers injected 4EPS into wild-type mice, they started behaving like the untreated autistic mice — obsessively repeating some behaviors and squeaking differently when greeting other mice. Study co-author Elaine Hsiao, a neuroscientist at Caltech, says that although it is still unclear whether 4EPS is made by B. fragilis, it does seem to be made by gut bacteria.

“It’s incredible that putting this one bacteria back can reverse all these widespread changes,” says John Cryan, a pharmacologist at University College Cork in Ireland. Although many anecdotal reports and small studies have suggested that ‘probiotic’ bacteria, such as those found in yoghurt, and antibiotics can help with the symptoms of autism, Cryan says more research needs to be done. Because there are a number of types of autism in humans, it will be important to look at how different symptoms might be affected by different microbes. Another question is whether the microbiomes of the mice — whose symptoms result from maternal infection — differ from those of mice that are genetically predisposed to autism-like symptoms, Cryan adds.

“I think there is now sufficient proof of concept where people can start to look at probiotic bacteria to improve brain function in humans,” says gastroenterologist Stephen Collins of McMaster University in Ontario, Canada. The next step, he says, will be to determine more precisely how different bacteria use the immune, metabolic and nervous systems to influence the brain.

This article is reproduced with permission from the magazine Nature. The article was first published on December 5, 2013. (...)

(Anm: Microbiota Modulate Behavioral and Physiological Abnormalities Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders 2014;155(7):1451–1463 (19 December 2013).)

(Anm: Baby's first stool can alert doctors to future cognitive issues, new CWRU study finds (medicalnewstoday.com 14.7.2015).)

- Forskere løses en genetisk kobling med autistiske atferd - og finner en måte å omgjøre den

Researchers unravel a genetic link with autistic behaviors -- and find a way to undo it
medicalnewstoday.com 29.5.2015
Proteins that regulate actin filaments -- essential for neuronal communications -- are potential therapeutic targets for autism, UB researchers report

Scientists at the University at Buffalo have identified the mechanisms behind a genetic mutation that produces certain autistic behaviors in mice, as well as therapeutic strategies to restore normal behaviors.

The research describes the cellular and molecular basis behind some autistic behaviors; it also suggests potential biomarkers and pharmaceutical targets. (…)

- Søvnkvalitet påvirker kognitive prestasjoner hos autistiske og nevrotypiske barn

Sleep quality influences the cognitive performance of autistic and neurotypical (Søvnkvalitet påvirker kognitive prestasjoner av autistiske og nevrotypiske barn)
medicalnewstoday.com 30.5.2015
Én natt med dårlig søvn fører til betydelig redusert ytelse på intelligenstester hos barn med autisme spektrum lidelse (ASD) og også hos nevrotypiske barn (uten ASD). Dette er konklusjonen til forskere ved Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, tilknyttet Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal og Université de Montréal. (One night of poor sleep significantly decreases performance on intelligence tests in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and also in neurotypical children (without ASD). This is the conclusion made by researchers at the Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, affiliated with the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal and Université de Montréal.)

I en artikkel publisert i Journal of Psykofysiologi fremgår at forskerne observerte EEG-målinger hos 13 autistiske barn og 13 nevrotypiske barn (barn med en gjennomsnittsalder på 10 år uten reduserte intellektuelle evner eller søvproblemer, som ikke var på medisiner) og fant at forstyrrelser i beskyttende hjernebølger under søvn er forbundet med lavere resultater på verbale IQ-tester. (…) (For a paper published in the International Journal of Psychophysiology, the researchers observed the EEG measures of 13 autistic children and 13 neurotypical children (children with a mean age of 10 years old without an intellectual deficiency or sleep problem and who were not on medication) and found that disruptions in protective brain waves during sleep are associated with lower results on verbal IQ tests.)

(Anm: Neurotypical or NT, an abbreviation of neurologically typical, is a neologism originating in the autistic community as a label for people who are not on the autism spectrum.[1] However, the term eventually became used for anyone who does not have atypical neurology. In other words, this refers to anyone who does not have developmental disabilities such as autism, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, or ADHD. (...)

- Forskere har oppdaget at det er en sammenheng mellom folk som eier katter og utviklingen av alvorlige mentale lidelser som schizofreni.

Forskere: Katten din kan gjøre deg gal
vg.no 3.4.2012
FYTTI KATTA: Katteparasitten toxoplasma kan føre til alvorlige bivirkninger, visr forskning.

(VG Nett) For de aller fleste er bivirkningene helt udramatiske, men for noen kan det gå riktig galt.

Toxoplasma gondii er parasitten gravide frykter fordi den kan forårsake hjerneskade eller død hos fosteret. Nå viser forskning at parasitten også kan være skadelig for andre.

Parasitten Toxoplasma gondii sprer seg blant annet gjennom katteavføring. En av tre mennesker på verdensbasis kan være bærer av parasitten. Heldigvis er symptomene udramatiske for de fleste av oss.

Men den tsjekkiske professoren Jaroslav Flegr og flere av hans kolleger mener i fullt alvor at toxoplasma kan føre til 300000-400000 trafikkulykker i året på verdensbasis. Parasitten er også overrepresentert blant schizofrene.

Flegr har lenge forfektet disse teoriene, og har blitt tatt med større alvor de siste årene, skriver det amerikanske nyhetsmagasinet Atlantic.

Blant annet finnes det flere studier som viser en sammenheng med schizofreni og toxoplasma. (...)

(Anm: Forskere: Sammenheng mellom kattehold og schizofreni. Forskere har oppdaget at det er en sammenheng mellom folk som eier katter og utviklingen av alvorlige mentale lidelser som schizofreni. (hegnar.no 16.6.2015).)

(Anm: Bloodstream Infections: The peak of the iceberg. Virulence. 2016 Apr 2;7(3):248-51. Epub 2016 Feb 18.)

(Anm: Bloodstream infection pathogens becoming more resilient. A recently published special issue of Virulence, "Bloodstream Infections", focuses on the resilience of bloodstream infections (BSI) and is endorsed by the European Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.5.2016).)

(Anm: Bloodstream Infections: The peak of the iceberg. Virulence. 2016 Apr 2;7(3):248-51. Epub 2016 Feb 18.)

(Anm: Bloodstream infection pathogens becoming more resilient. A recently published special issue of Virulence, "Bloodstream Infections", focuses on the resilience of bloodstream infections (BSI) and is endorsed by the European Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.5.2016).)

(Anm: There's A Link Between Cat Ownership And Schizophrenia. (…) "Cat ownership in childhood has now been reported in three studies to be significantly more common in families in which the child is later diagnosed with schizophrenia or another serious mental illness," wrote the researchers behind a new study published in the journal Schizophrenia Research. (huffingtonpost.com 11.6.2015).)

(Anm: Editorial. Increasing support for association between immune system and severe mental illness - need to find the underlying mechanisms. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2016 (First published: 23 November 2016).)

(Anm: Infeksjoner, antibiotika knyttet til maniske episoder hos personer med alvorlige psykiske lidelser. (Infections, antibiotic use linked to manic episodes in people with serious mental illness. (…) Their findings, published in Bipolar Disorders, add to evidence that the body's immune system, the so-called gut brain axis, and the particular bacterial microbiome each person has play an integral part in the ebb and flow of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.) (medicalnewstoday.com 21.7.2016).)

(Anm: Infections and exposure to anti-infective agents and the risk of severe mental disorders: a nationwide study. (…) CONCLUSION: Infections treated with anti-infective agents and particularly infections requiring hospitalizations were associated with increased risks of schizophrenia and affective disorders, which may be mediated by effects of infections/inflammation on the brain, alterations of the microbiome, genetics, or other environmental factors. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2017 Feb;135(2):97-105.)

(Anm: Brain volume change in first-episode psychosis: an effect of antipsychotic medication independent of BMI change. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2016 (First published: 23 November 2016).)

(Anm: Schizophrenia, bipolar tied to yeast infection. A current or previous infection with Candida albicans appears to be more common in some people with mental illness than people without the condition. This is according to a study that found this to be the case in a group of men with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and a group of women with these disorders who had memory problems. (…) The Johns Hopkins researchers are part of a group that is investigating whether pathogens - such as fungi, bacteria, or viruses - trigger or contribute to certain mental illnesses. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.5.2016).)

(Anm: Is childhood cat ownership a risk factor for schizophrenia later in life? Schizophrenia Research. 2015 (Published Online: April 18, 2015).)

- Musklene dine kan huske. (- Mer trening gjør hjernen større og «yngre».)

Musklene dine kan huske
aftenposten 2.2.2014
Muskelceller kalles også -fibre, og er kroppens største celler. De er en av de få celletypene i kroppen som har flere cellekjerner. Disse trenger de for å betjene det enorme cellevolumet. Cellekjernene ser ut til å være optimalt fordelt i fiberen med tanke på å minske transportavstander, men hvordan de plasseres slik er ukjent.

Det viser seg at muskler som er trent eller utsatt for steroider, bevarer en latent styrke i mange tiår.

Viten Kristian Gundersen, Universitetet i Oslo og Jo C. Bruusgaard, Universitetet i Oslo og Atlantis Medical College

Sciencenews.com kåret forskningen på muskelhukommelse som en av de 25 fremste vitenskapsnyhetene i 2013. I denne artikkelen skriver forskerne selv om forskningsprosessen og de oppsiktsvekkende funnene de har gjort.

Kulde herder kroppen, kokkefingre tåler å brenne seg, eller man har skikkelige arbeidsnever fordi man rodde så mye som barn. Det er mange populære forestillinger om at kroppen kan herdes, tilpasse seg eller endog «lære»: Dette er ideer om en slags kroppshukommelse. Slike forestillinger er nok ikke alltid riktige, og har ofte blitt regnet som pseudovitenskapelige.

En særlig inngrodd forestilling er begrepet «muskelhukommelse». Søker vi på ”muscle memory” AND ”body building” på nettet gir det over 70 000 treff, og demonstrerer at myten om at muskler kan huske står sterkt i treningsstudioer verden over. Det er heller ikke uvanlig å høre gamle kraftkarer mimre over hvor godt trente de var i gymnasietiden og at de har flytt på denne «grunnformen» uten å ha trent så mye siden.

Den vitenskapelige tolkningen av slike fenomener har hittil vært at det skyldes motorisk læring i nervesystemet, altså at det for eksempel dreier seg om en innarbeidet løfteteknikk. Denne forklaringen har likevel ikke vært tilfredsstillende, for skal du løfte tungt er det ikke nok med teknikk, du må ha store, sterke muskler. Vi har nylig observert fenomener som kan tyde på at det faktisk er en form for cellulær hukommelse i muskelcellene selv. Kanskje er det ikke bare hjernen som kan huske? (...)

(Anm: Existence of exercise-induced muscle memory challenged (medicalnewstoday.com 23.9.2016).)

(Anm: Mer trening gjør hjernen større og «yngre». (…) Ifølge to nye studier, begge publisert i det medisinske tidsskriftet Neurology, har forskere ved universitetet i Boston og Graz funnet sammenheng mellom hvor mye man trener og størrelsen på hjernen. Også hjernens «alder» påvirkes av trening. (…) Ifølge studien som ser på hjernens størrelse, først omtalt i The Time Magazine i februar, testet forskerne den fysiske formen til 1583 friske personer. (dn.no 14.3.2016).)

(Anm: Träning är en färskvara, men kan den ge kvarvarande effekter, ett "muskelminne" som kan påverka framtida träning? En ny svensk studie ger inget entydigt svar, men visar hur träning påverkar aktiviteten i tusentals gener. (…) Genom att träna bara ett ben kunde forskarna säkerställa att genförändringarna verkligen berodde på träningen. (nyteknik.se 23.9.2016).)

- Ny stamcell funnen i hjärnan

Ny stamcell funnen i hjärnan
cisionwire.se 18.4.2012
Forskare vid Lunds universitet har hittat en ny stamcell i den vuxna hjärnan. Resultaten visar att dessa celler kan föröka sig och bilda flera olika celltyper. Viktigast av allt, de kan bilda nya hjärnceller. Nu hoppas forskarna kunna dra nytta av fyndet för att utveckla metoder som kan reparera sjukdomar och skador i hjärnan.

Den nyupptäckta cellen sitter kring små blodkärl i hjärnan. En liknande celltyp har tidigare identifierats i flera andra organ där ger den upphov till återuppbyggnad av muskler, ben, brosk och fettväv. Genom att analysera hjärnvävnad från biopsier och hjärnsnitt har forskarna nu för första gången påträffat stamcellen hjärnan. Vilken specifik funktion cellen har i hjärnan är ännu oklart men dess rörliga egenskaper tyder på stor potential.

- Våra fynd har efterhand visar att cellernas kapacitet är mycket större än vi först trodde. Dessa celler är väldigt mångsidiga. Mest intressant är att de har förmågan att bilda nervceller, men de kan även utvecklas till andra celltyper. Våra resultat bidrar nu med ökad förståelse för hur hjärncellernas plasticitet fungerar och öppnar upp nya möjligheter att utnyttja precis dessa egenskaper, säger Gesine Paul-Visse, en av studiens författare.

I andra organ har det funnits tydliga tecken på att just dessa celler medverkar till reparation och sårläkning. Forskarna tror att de botande egenskaperna kan gälla även för hjärnan. Nästa steg blir att försöka kontrollera och förstärka stamcellernas självläkande egenskaper med målsättningen att utföra riktade terapier mot ett specifikt område i hjärnan.

- Vi hoppas att vårt fynd kan leda till en ny och bättre förståelse av hjärnans egna reparationsmekanismer. I förlängningen är målsättningen att förstärka dessa mekanismer och ta fram nya behandlingar som kan reparera den sjuka hjärnan, säger Gesine Paul-Visse.

Resultaten i rapporten, som publiceras i tidskriften PLoS ONE, är av intresse för brett spektra inom hjärnforskningen. Framtida möjliga terapeutiska måltavlor sträcker sig från neurodegenerativa folksjukdomar till stroke. (...)

(Anm: The Adult Human Brain Harbors Multipotent Perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells. PLoS ONE 2012;7(4): e35577 (April 16).)

- Hvordan reagerer stamceller under stress og skader?

How do stem cells react under stress or injury?
support1.superarraybioscience.com(11.6.2014)
Two recent articles in Nature address this question.

Rodgers et al. showed that "... transition of quiescent stem cells from G0 phase into GAlert phase functions as an alerting signal that positions stem cells to respond rapidly under conditions of injury and stress, priming them for cell cycle entry." mTORC1 controls this phase transition (2014, Nature, May 25, Epub ahead of print).

van Galen et al. write, "The blood system is sustained by a pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are long-lived due to their capacity for self-renewal," and report that "the unfolded protein response (UPR) governs integrity of the HSC pool during stress" (2014, Nature, April 28, Epub ahead of print). (...)

- Melkesyre kan trigge nye hjerneceller

Laktat har signalfunksjon i hjernen
Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2013 (Publisert først på nett 10. september 2013)
Laktat (melkesyre) er ikke bare en energikilde for hjerneceller, det er også et signalstoff. Norske forskere har funnet en laktatreseptor i hjernevev hos mus.

Hjernen kan bruke laktat som energikilde. Nå har forskere ved Universitetet i Oslo for første gang påvist reseptorer for laktat i hjernevev, noe som viser at laktat også har en signalfunksjon i hjernen (1).

Melkesyrereseptoren kalles GPR81 eller HCA1 (hydroksykarboksylsyrereseptor 1) og hører til klassen av G-proteinkoplede reseptorer. GPR81 virker ved å hemme produksjonen av syklisk adenosinmonofosfat (cAMP), som styrer en lang rekke prosesser i cellene. Forfatterne foreslår at laktat er en volumtransmitter, som virker over større avstander enn transmitteren ved en nervekontakt, og gir informasjon om cellenes aktivitet og energibehov. Gjennom reseptoren kan laktat også virke tilbake på cellen den kommer fra som en autokrin regulator. (...)

(Anm: Animal study shows how exercise may energize brain cell function (medicalnewstoday.com 20.11.2015).)

(Anm: Brainstem 'stop neurons' make us halt when we walk. A population of 'stop cells' in the brainstem is essential for the ability of mice to stop their locomotion, according to a new study by scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. In an article published in the journal Cell, they report a brainstem pathway specifically dedicated to enforce locomotor arrest; its selective activation stops locomotion, while its silencing favors it. The study thus identifies a novel descending modality essential for gating the episodic nature of locomotor behavior. (medicalnewstoday.com 20.11.2015)

Mælkesyre kan trigge nye hjerneceller
videnskab.18.6.2013
Hverken motionister eller aktive idrætsfolk elsker mælkesyre. Men nye forsøg viser, at stoffet er så vigtigt, at det kan være med til at danne nye nerveceller i hjernen.

Træning frigør den gode form for mælkesyre, hvor et nyt studie nu har vist, at netop mælkesyren er med til at danne nye nerveceller.

Når lår og lægmuskler syrer til under træning, har du måske tænkt, at mælkesyre kun ødelægger træningen og er et affaldsstof, som skal væk så hurtigt som muligt.
Det finurlige er imidlertid, at mælkesyre ikke kun er negativt for vores krop, snarere tværtimod.

»For at hjernen skal fungere optimalt, har den brug for mælkesyre,« siger professor Linda H. Bergersen til forskning.no.

Vi har en smule mælkesyre i blodet hele tiden, men når vi træner, udskilles der mere.

»Der er al grund til at være i fysisk aktivit i mindst 30 minutter hver dag.«

»Mælkesyre kan faktisk være et signal for dannelse af nye nerveceller og nervekontakter i hjernen,« fortsætter Linda H. Bergersen. (...)

(Anm: Fysisk trening (aktivitet / løping / jogging). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Animal study shows how exercise may energize brain cell function (medicalnewstoday.com 20.11.2015).)

- Antidepressiva linket til hjerterisiko: tvillingstudie

Antidepressants linked to heart risk: twins study (Antidepressiva linket til hjerterisiko: tvillingstudie)
reuters.com 2.4.2011
(Reuters) - Middle-age men who use antidepressants are more likely to have a narrowing of blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes, than those who do not use the medications, according to a study presented on Saturday.

A study of twins found evidence of atherosclerosis, as measured by the interior thickness of the carotid artery, regardless of the type of antidepressant taken.

Antidepressant use was found to cause a 37 micron increase in carotid artery thickness, or roughly 5 percent, according to the study of more than 500 male twins with a mean age of 55 which was presented at the American Cardiology scientific meeting in New Orleans.

In 59 sets of twins in which one brother was taking an antidepressant and the other was not, the brother taking the medication had on average a 41 micron thicker inner lining of the artery, the research found.

As each year of life has been associated with a 10 micron increase in carotid artery thickening, the brother taking the antidepressant had arteries that were essentially four years older than those of his non-medicated twin. (...)

Previous studies have linked depression to a heightened risk of heart disease, but the condition was not deemed a significant predictor of artery thickening in the study.

"Because we didn't see an association between depression itself and a thickening of the carotid artery, it strengthens the argument that it is more likely the antidepressants than the actual depression that could be behind the association," said Dr. Amit Shah, cardiology fellow at Emory University in Atlanta, who presented the data. (...)

(Anm: Arteriosklerose, patologisk anatomisk betegnelse på tilstander med fortykket arterievegg med tap av elastisitet. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: The role of mitochondrial DNA damage in the development of atherosclerosis. Mitochondria are the cellular powerhouses, fuelling metabolic processes through their generation of ATP. However we now recognise that these organelles also have pivotal roles in producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and in regulating cell death, inflammation and metabolism. Mitochondrial dysfunction therefore leads to oxidative stress, cell death, metabolic dysfunction and inflammation, which can all promote atherosclerosis. Recent evidence indicates that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is present and promotes atherosclerosis through mitochondrial dysfunction. We will review the mechanisms that link mtDNA damage with atherosclerotic disease, and identify mitochondrial processes that may have therapeutic benefit. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Jun 16. pii: S0891-5849(16)30299-4. [Epub ahead of print].)

- Treningsindusert generering av nye nerveceller formidlet av serotonin

Exercise-Induced Generation Of New Neurons Mediated By Serotonin (Treningsindusert generering av nye nerveceller formidlet av serotonin)
medicalnewstoday.com 15.5.2013
Mice that exercise in running wheels exhibit increased neurogenesis in the brain. Crucial to this process is serotonin signaling. These are the findings of a study by researchers at the Max Delbruck Center Berlin-Buch. Surprisingly, mice lacking brain serotonin due to a genetic mutation exhibited normal baseline neurogenesis. However, in these serotonin-deficient mice, activity-induced proliferation was impaired, and wheel running did not induce increased generation of new neurons.

Serotonin facilitates precursor cell maturation The researchers demonstrated that mice with the ability to produce serotonin are likely to release more of this hormone during exercise, which in turn increases cell proliferation of precursor cells in the hippocampus. Furthermore, serotonin seems to facilitate the transition of stem to progenitor cells that become neurons in the adult mouse brain. (...)

(Anm: Melkesyre kan trigge nye hjerneceller (nrk.no 7.6.2013).)

- Ny motorväg för stamceller identifierad i den mänskliga hjärnan

Ny motorväg för stamceller identifierad i den mänskliga hjärnan
sahlgrenska.gu.se 16.2.2007
Ett unikt forskningssamarbete har lett till upptäckten av en ny anatomisk struktur för transport av stamceller i människans hjärna. Den nyupptäckta strukturen tros ha betydelse vid skada eller sjukdom i hjärnan. (...)

Human brain can make new cells, study finds (Studie viser at menneskelig hjerne kan produsere nye celler)
By Maggie Fox, Health and Science Editor
reuters.com 16.2.2007
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - New evidence shows that the human brain can manufacture fresh brain cells, researchers said on Thursday in a study that may lead to better ways to treat brain damage and disease.

Scientists had known that other animals, such as rats and mice, make new brain cells throughout their lives and there had been indirect evidence that humans being can, too.

Using magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, scans and electron microscope images of tissue donated from the brains of people who died, Maurice Curtis of the University of Auckland in New Zealand and Peter Eriksson of Sahlgrenska Academy in Goteborg, Sweden, and colleagues found the elusive cells.

Just as in mice and rats, these cells are born in one part of the brain and then migrate to the olfactory bulb, where smells are processed. They mature into neurons on the way.

In animals, they said, brain damage prompts the birth of new cells. "Our study provides the foundation for this possibility in the adult human brain," they wrote in their report, published in the journal Science.

Humans have far more developed brains, so searching for these cells has been harder than it was in rodents.

In mice and rats it has been clear these cells are born in the forebrain and then migrate to the smell center. There, they can help the animals learn and adapt to new smells.

Smell is less important for humans, but it is still important for sensing dangers from smoke, for instance, or rotten food.

And studies show that the loss of smell may be an early sign of brain-destroying illnesses such as Parkinson's, the researchers said -- a hint that these cells may be important.

"This study is exciting because it reveals a group of brain cells in the adult human brain that are continuously regenerating," said Dr. Mark Baxter of Britain's Oxford University.

"Animal studies have pointed to the existence of such groups of cells, but it has been difficult to determine whether they exist in the human brain as well," Baxter, who was not involved in the research, said in a statement.

"This opens another direction by which we may discover ways to repair human brains that are damaged from injury or diseases, and underscores the importance of animal research in guiding biomedical research in humans," Baxter said.

Another expert, Sebastian Brandner, head of the Division of Neuropathology at the Institute of Neurology at University College London, agreed.

"These findings are important for several reasons: Understanding stem cell biology is essential to study brain repair in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and it is even possible that stem cells are the source of some brain tumors," Brandner said in a statement. (...)

(Anm: Science. Published Online February 15, 2007.)

- Nya nervceller direkt i hjärnan

Nya nervceller direkt i hjärnan
sr.se 27.3.2013
Neurologer i Lund har lyckats bilda nya nervceller i hjärnan på möss. Förhoppningen är att det ska kunna leda till behandling av sjukdomar som drabbar hjärnan t ex parkinson.

Det som forskarna gjort är att omvandla ett slags stödceller i hjärnan till nervceller genom att injicera särskilda gener i stödcellerna. De här generna gör att cellerna omvandlas direkt utan att först tillbakabildas till stamceller.

Än så länge är det här behandlingar som pågår i djurförsök och det dröjer många år innan det testas på människor. (...)

- 1400 nye hjerneceller i døgnet

1400 nye hjerneceller i døgnet
Jon Storm-Mathisen, professor
aftenposten.no 12.7.2013
I A-magasinet nr. 26 sto det om nydannelse av nerveceller i hjernen hos voksne mennesker.

Som så ofte ellers når dette fenomenet presenteres i mediene, gir illustrasjonen og teksten også denne gangen inntrykk av at nye nerveceller dannes i hele hjernen. Slik er det ikke. Det er kun en bestemt sort celler, såkalte kornceller i hippocampus (pluss noen til), som nydannes. Dette er veletablert i dyremodeller, og artikkelen det refereres til i tidsskriftet Cell, viser at det også gjelder hos mennesker, i så stor grad at fenomenet trolig har lignende betydning hos oss som hos rotter og mus. De nye nervecellene er viktige for normal hukommelse, og det ser ut til at de nye og gamle korncellene «samarbeider» og tar seg av ulike aspekter av oppfatning og minne. En tolkning sier at de nye korncellene trengs for å skjelne mellom lignende erfaringer, mens de gamle er nødvendige for å knytte sammen minner som ligner hverandre. (...)

- Voksen hjerne kan vokse raskt

Voksen hjerne kan vokse raskt
nrk.no 8.4.2011
Hjernen din kan bli større når du lærer på samme måte som barn. Ny grå materie ble dannet etter bare to timer med språklæring hos forsøkspersoner.

Hos spedbarn vokser og utvikler hjernen seg raskt. Nervecellene i hjernen blir både flere, mer spesialiserte og danner flere koblinger med hverandre.

Den voksende hjernen er plastisk, den har evnen til å endre seg under påvirkning av forholdene som omgir den.

Til nå har forskerne trodd at hjernen hos voksne ikke endrer seg noe særlig, og har mistet sin plastisitet. (...)

- Har glemt å forske på halve hjernen

Har glemt å forske på halve hjernen
nrk.no 10.9.2013
Hjerneforskningen har neglisjert cellene som utgjør mesteparten av hjernen, mener hjerneforsker

Gliacellene utgjør mesteparten av hjernen, men er mye mindre forstått enn nevronene. På bildet ses astrocytter, som er en type gliaceller.

Du skal ikke være veldig nysgjerrig på hjernen for å ha hørt om nevroner, disse lange nervecellene som bruker elektriske impulser til å lage minner, beslutninger og bevissthet. Men hva vet du om glia?

Selv om flesteparten av hjernecellene faktisk er ulike typer av slike gliaceller, vet vi forbausende lite om hva de driver med, argumenterer professor i nevrovitenskap R. Douglas Fields i ukas utgave av Nature.

Nevrovitenskapen har mer eller mindre neglisjert gliacellene siden de ble oppdaget og avfeid som bindevev en gang på attenhundretallet, skriver professoren.
Selv om noen grupper har jobbet med glia, er dette arbeidet ubetydelig i forhold til kjempefokuset på de berømte nevronene. (...)

(Anm: Neuroscience: Map the other brain Nature 2013 (04 September 2013).)

- Hvordan hjerner kommer seg etter fysisk skade

How Brains Bounce Back from Physical Damage (Hvordan hjerner kommer seg etter fysisk skade)
sciencedaily.com 20.5.2011
After a traumatic injury, neurons that govern memory can regenerate

For most of the past century the scientific consensus held that the adult human brain did not produce any new neurons. Researchers overturned that theory in the 1990s, but what role new neurons played in the adult human brain remained a mystery. Recent work now sug­gests that one role may be to help the brain recover from traumatic brain injury.

Cory Blaiss, then at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and her colleagues genetically engineered mice such that the researchers could selectively turn neurogenesis on or off in a brain region called the hippocampus, a ribbon of tissue located under the neocortex that is important for learning and memory. (...)

The finding may lead to much needed therapeutic techniques. Deficits in learning and memory are nearly universal after a traumatic brain injury. The ability to stimulate more robust neurogenesis could lead to faster healing times or perhaps even more complete recovery of cognitive functions, a potentially life-changing prospect for the millions of people who suffer from traumatic brain injury every year. (...)

(Anm: Alzheimer’s Plaques Found in Middle-Aged People With Brain Injuries. (dgnews.docguide.com 3.2.2016).)

(Anm: Sleep problems may last up to 18 months after TBI. Sleep problems may persist for up to 18 months after a traumatic brain injury, suggests a new study published in the journal Neurology. Additionally, the study suggests that many people who experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI) may not be aware that they are experiencing sleep problems. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), every year, around 1.7 million people in the United States experience a TBI - defined as a sudden blow or jolt to the head that interferes with brain functioning. (medicalnewstoday.com 28.4.2016).)

(Anm: Traumatic brain injury induces mental impairments using mechanisms linked with Alzheimer's. A new study from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston fills an important gap in understanding the link between traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Previously, UTMB researchers found a toxic form of tau protein that increases after a traumatic brain injury that may contribute to development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a condition experienced by many professional athletes and military personnel. What remained a mystery was if this protein could cause dementia symptoms. To test this hunch, the group isolated this protein from animals that had experienced a TBI and then injected it into another group of animals to see if they would develop impairments. The animals developed the same type of mental impairments caused by Alzheimer's disease and these new findings can be found in the Journal of Neurotrauma. (medicalxpress.co 12.1.2016).)

- En usynlig hjerneskade defineres som en kognitiv svikt

- Jeg hørte det knase da hodet traff isen
aftenposten.no 25.12.2012
- Jeg hørte det knase da hodet traff isen

Stine Skjelberg levde med hjerneskader i flere år uten å vite om det.

Flere tusen nordmenn går rundt med hjerneskader de ikke kjenner til. Mange får aldri noen behandling for følgevirkningene av dette.

- Jeg hørte det knase, og var sikker på at det var tennene som gikk. Det viste seg å være noe helt annet.

Slik begynner historien til Stine Skjelberg. Hun og familien spilte bandy på en islagt bane i Bærum i 2005. Plutselig faller hun og slår hodet i isen.

De neste årene skal bli preget av endeløse nedturer. Først kommer hodepinen, samt smerte i nakke og rygg. Hun blir overfølsom for lys og lyd. Plaget av kvalme, og får til slutt problemer med å være sammen med andre mennesker.

- Jeg måtte være mye i ro. Trengte at det var stille. Samtaler med andre var ekstremt konsentrasjonskrevende. Mye søvn ble en nødvendighet.

Mange rammes av usynlige skader
Hvert år blir nesten 9.000 nordmenn innlagt på sykehus med hodeskader. Samtidig rammes 15.000 personer i landet av hjerneslag.

- Alle disse får en såkalt usynlig hjerneskade. For noen forsvinner problemene etter kort tid, for andre forblir skaden permanent, sier Andreas Schillinger som er overlege ved seksjonen for hjerneskader på Sunnaas sykehus.

En usynlig hjerneskade defineres som en kognitiv svikt. Mange som rammes av dette opplever små og store vansker med å takle hverdagen.

- Til Sunnaas kommer det mange pasienter som har slitt med usynlige følgevirkninger av hjerneslag og ulykker. Såkalte kognitive følgevirkninger etter en hjerneskade er veldig vanlig, og rammer mange. De kan ha dårligere simultankapasitet og konsentrasjon enn før, og opplever problemer med å huske ting i hverdagen. Økt trettbarhet er også et kjent problem, sier psykolog Jan Egil Nordvik.

Nordvik mener at sykehus og fastleger friskmelder pasienter fordi det ikke oppdages hva som er galt. Han mener at det er for lite fokus rettet mot de usynlige skadene.

- Noen blir diagnostisert med depresjon og henvist til antidepressiva. Dette hjelper lite hvis årsaken til symptomene er en annen. Ofte tar det lang tid før pasientene får hjelpen de trenger. Mange i helsevesenet har ikke tilstrekkelig kunnskap om følgevirkningene av hodeskader, sier psykolog Jan Egil Nordvik.

- Legene kjenner ikke til behandlingstilbudet
Norsk forening for allmennmedisin innrømmer at det kan være en utfordring å diagnostisere pasienter med usynlige hjerneskader.
Behandlingen endret livet mitt, sier Stine Skjelberg.

- Det kan være vanskelig for en fastlege å finne årsaken til pasientens plager. Allmennmedisinen er et bredt fagfelt, vårt spesiale er det generelle, sier Marit Hermansen som er leder i Norsk forening for almennmedisin.

Det anslås at antallet hjerneslag vil kunne øke med 50 prosent de neste 20 årene fordi det blir flere eldre. Ved Sunnaas mener man at langt flere personer med skjulte hjerneskader kunne blitt fanget opp dersom det var et tettere samarbeid mellom Sunnaas sykehus og fastlegene.

- Det er et generelt problem å få pasientenes fastleger til å delta i samarbeidsmøter, dermed vet ikke legene hvilke behandlingstilbud som faktisk finnes, sier seksjonsoverlege Frank Becker ved Sunnaas sykehus.

Lederen i Norsk forening for almennmedisin kjenner seg ikke igjen i kritikken, og mener at fastlegene deltar i samarbeidsmøter i økende grad.

- Fastlegene ønsker å kunne delta i nødvendige samarbeidsmøter, og spesielt der hvor problemstillingen er kompleks. Men det er mange som vil samarbeide med oss, og det er nødvendig at fastlegene får beskjed i god tid og at det er en tydelig agenda for møtene.

- Endret livet mitt
Et tilfeldig møte med en bekjent i nabolaget ble redningen for Stine Skjelberg. Hun ble tipset om tilbudet som fantes på Sunnaas. Og etter flere år med behandling som ikke virket, fikk hun endelig den hjelpen hun trengte.

- Endelig fikk jeg en bekreftelse. Det var ikke lenger tvil om hva som var galt med meg. Det var ingen depresjon, men en hjerneskade som ingen hadde klart å konkretisere. Endelig kunne jeg få en behandling ut fra en diagnose.

Ved å ta i bruk konkrete verktøy og jobbe helhetlig mot problemet har Skjelberg fått en ny hverdag.

- Jeg tør ikke tenke på hvor jeg hadde vært uten denne behandlingen. Sunnaas ble redningen for meg, og har endret livet mitt, sier Skjelberg.
Møt Stine Skjelberg i videoen øverst på siden, og se hvordan hun fikk livet tilbake igjen. (...)

(Anm: Bare én av ti nordmenn som rammes av hjerneslag får behandling i tide (tv2.no 16.2.2014).)

(Anm: – Får du hjerneslag har du dårlig tid. Dersom du rammes av hjerneslag risikerer du å miste to millioner hjerneceller hvert minutt. Får du ikke behandling innen 4,5 timer, er risikoen for invaliditet og uførhet stor. (…) Slagambulanse med CT. (nrk.no 8.2.2016).)

(Anm: Ja til ny akuttmetode: Flere slagpasienter kan få tilbud om å «fiske ut» blodpropp av hjernen. To år etter mange andre land gis det nå klarsignal til å videreføre ny og effektiv behandlingsmetode for slagpasienter. I fjor fikk bare 150 pasienter inngrepet - som opptil tusen kan ha nytte av hvert år. (aftenposten.no 2.5.2017).)

(Anm: - Plutselig oppstått dobbeltsyn (- Visuelle komplikasjoner er vanlig etter hjerneslag) Sudden onset double vision BMJ 2014;348:g3286 (19 May 2014).)

(Anm: En av tre blev dement efter återkommande stroke. (…) Den nya analysen, som publiceras i dag, torsdag, på tidskriften Lancet Neurologys hemsida, baseras på 22 sjukhusstudier och åtta populationsstudier. Undersökningarna är utförda mellan 1950 och 2009. (dagensmedicin.se 24.9.2009).)

- Hjerneproblemer kan vare måneder etter opphold på intensivmottak

Brain problems can linger months after ICU stay (Hjerneproblemer kan vare måneder etter opphold på intensivmottak)
reuters.com 4.10.2013
(Reuters Health) - Critically-ill people who end up spending days in an intensive care unit (ICU) often develop thinking and memory problems, according to a new study.

Even when people recover from their physical illness, those problems can persist for more than a year after their hospital stay, researchers said.

They found ICU patients who were delirious - severely confused and unable to focus - were especially likely to go on to have thinking and memory problems.

"The longer you are delirious, the more likely you are to have long-term cognitive impairment that looks like Alzheimer's disease or traumatic brain injury," Dr. Wes Ely of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee, told Reuters Health.

"For a long time, we thought delirium was just something that happened because people were in the ICU and that, as soon as they got out of the ICU, they would be okay," Dr. Karin Neufeld, a psychiatrist at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, told Reuters Health.

Now, she said, doctors are realizing being delirious could be a sign that a patient is more severely ill.

"We need to redouble our efforts to reduce the number of days people are delirious and prevent it if we can," said Neufeld, who was unconnected with the research.

Doctors have known for years that certain patients are prone to some degree of thinking problems after hospital procedures.

For example, one study from last year found almost half of heart surgery patients developed delirium and their minds often remained dulled for a year.
What is new about this study is that cognitive problems were seen among patients with a wide range of illnesses, Neufeld said. However, she added, the people were alike in one way: they were all very sick.

Ely and his team studied 821 people who ended up in the ICU because of respiratory failure or shock.

Those patients were originally hospitalized for infections or lung or stomach problems. None were hospitalized for brain-related issues such as strokes.
Nearly three-quarters of the patients became delirious during their ICU stay, typically for a few days at a time.

Three months after leaving the hospital, 40 percent of them had thinking problems comparable to someone with moderate traumatic brain injury, the researchers found. And 26 percent had cognitive scores as low as someone with mild Alzheimer's disease.

The problems barely faded with time.

At the one-year mark, 34 percent of patients were still functioning on the same level as someone with moderate traumatic brain injury and 24 percent at the level of a person with mild Alzheimer's.

"Your odds are not great in terms of recovery," said Ely. "Some will recover but most won't, and that is scary."

The longer patients had been delirious in the ICU, the worse their thinking problems tended to be months after discharge, the researchers reported in the New England Journal of Medicine.

(Anm: Long-Term Cognitive Impairment after Critical Illness. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:1306-1316 (October 3, 2013).)

(Anm: Delirium is associated with 5-fold increased mortality in acute cardiac patients. (medicalnewstoday.com 16.3.2017).)

(Anm: Infections can affect your IQ. New research shows that infections can impair your cognitive ability measured on an IQ scale. The study is the largest of its kind to date, and it shows a clear correlation between infection levels and impaired cognition. (medicalnewstoday.com 22.5.2015).)

- Selv et mildt slag mot hode kan skade hjernen

Even Mild Hits to Head Might Harm the Brain
ivanhoe.com 13.12.2013
(Ivanhoe Newswire) –Even when there is no concussion, blows to the head during a single season of ice hockey or football could affect the brain’s white matter and cognition, or memory and thinking abilities, according to recent research.

The study led by Thomas W. McAllister, MD, of Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis consisted of 80 concussion-free Division I NCAA Dartmouth College varsity ice hockey and football players who wore helmets that recorded the acceleration-time of the head following impact. Researchers compared them to 79 non-contact sport athletes in activities like track, crew and Nordic skiing. All of the players were assessed before and after the season with learning and memory tests and brain scans.

“We found differences in the white matter of the brain in these college contact sport athletes compared to non-contact sport varsity athletes. The degree of white matter change in the contact sport athletes was greater in those who performed more poorly than expected on tests of memory and learning, suggesting a possible link in some athletes between how hard/often they are hit, white matter changes, and cognition, or memory and thinking abilities,” Dr. McAllister was quoted as saying. (...)

(Anm: Concussion outcome predicted using advanced imaging. Using an advanced imaging technique, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Health System were able to predict which patients who'd recently suffered concussions were likely to fully recover. The study also sheds light on the brain's mechanisms for repairing or compensating for concussion injuries - information that could speed the development of therapies. The study was published online in the American Journal of Neuroradiology.  (medicalnewstoday.com 10.6.2016).)  

(Anm: Blodprov kan avslöja hjärnskakning. (…) Vid en hjärnskakning skadas nervcellerna, vilket leder till att olika nervcellsprotein frisätts i kroppen. (…) Tidigare forskning vid Sahlgrenska akademin i Göteborg har visat att man genom att mäta halten av proteinet tau i blodet kan avgöra hur svår en hjärnskakning är. Nu har forskare hittat en metod för att mäta halterna även av ett annat protein, NF-L, med liknande användningsmöjligheter. – NF-L verkar vara känsligare, så halterna ökar mer och tydligare efter den här typen av skador, säger Kaj Blennow, professor i klinisk neurokemi och en av forskarna bakom studien. (nyteknik.se 13.4.2017).)

(Anm: Researchers Find Link Between Concussions and Alzheimer's Disease. BOSTON -- January 12, 2017 -- Concussions accelerate Alzheimer's disease-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline in people who are at genetic risk for the condition, according to a study published in the journal Brain. (dgnews.docguide.com 12.1.2017).)

(Anm: New study explores biomechanics of head injury in pediatric patients The biomechanics of head injury in youths (5 to 18 years of age) have been poorly understood. A new study reported in the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics set out to determine what biomechanical characteristics predispose youths with concussions to experience transient or persistent postconcussion symptoms. (news-medical.net 28.3.2017).)

(Anm: Concussion leaves mark in brain's white matter 6 months after injury. Concussions are an incredibly common injury, affecting millions of Americans each year. Despite their worrying regularity, the long-term impacts and health ramifications of a concussion are still not entirely understood. (medicalnewstoday.com 8.7.2016).)

(Anm: Concussion can now be diagnosed with 95 percent specificity. A team of researchers from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine has shown that the I-Portal Neuro Otologic Test, which uses the head-mounted goggle that gauged eye movement through video cameras and computers, can successfully diagnose concussion with 95 percent specificity and 89 percent sensitivity. These findings illustrate how use of the I-Portal goggle can better identify oculomotor, vestibular and reaction time (OVRT) differences between those with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and non-affected individuals. (medicalnewstoday.com 6.10.2016).)

(Anm:  Concussion linked to brain changes in people at genetic risk for Alzheimer's. Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is a known risk factor for diseases that gradually destroy the brain - such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Now, a new study links mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, in people at genetic risk for Alzheimer's to accelerated brain deterioration and mental decline associated with the diseaseResearchers, from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) in Massachusetts, and colleagues report their findings - which show promise for detecting the effect of concussion on neurodegeneration - in the journal Brain. (medicalnewstoday.com 13.1.2017).)

(Anm: Rise in lower extremity injuries possible result of new concussion prevention rules. NCAA tackling rule changes that penalize head to head contact, and encourage tackling of the lower extremity have had some proven impacts in collegiate football. However, according to researchers presenting their work at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's (AOSSM) Specialty Day, an unintended consequence of these rule changes may be higher rates of knee, ankle and thigh injuries. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.3.2016).)

(Anm: Complete rest until symptom-free after concussion may not be best for recovery. Rest has long been the cornerstone of concussion treatment. For sports-related head injuries, for example, current guidelines say children should avoid returning to play --and all other physical activity--until all concussion symptoms such as headaches are gone. A research abstract presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) 2016 Meeting, however, suggests those who exercise within a week of injury, regardless of symptoms, have nearly half the rate of concussion symptoms that linger more than a month.  (medicalnewstoday.com 2.5.2016).)

(Anm: Retired football players exhibit similar signs of degenerative brain condition, scans reveal. Using an innovative new imaging technique, researchers from the University of California-Los Angeles have found "strikingly similar" patterns of abnormal protein deposits in the brains of retired football players who experienced concussions during their career. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.4.2015).)

(Anm: Concussion: doctor who took on the might of American football hits the big screen. (…) The new film Concussion tells the story of a naive young Nigerian pathologist who took on the multibillion dollar National Football League (NFL) over its record on protecting players from brain injury. BMJ 2016;352:h6856 (Published 06 January 2016).)

(Anm: Study: Childhood concussions impair brain function. A new study finds that pre-adolescent children who have sustained sports-related concussions have impaired brain function two years following injury. (medicalnewstoday.com 21.12.2015).)

(Anm: Concussion triples or quadruples risk of suicide. Concussion multiplies the long-term risk of suicide in adults, especially if it happens on the weekend, according to research published in the CMAJ. (medicalnewstoday.com 8.2.2016).)

(Anm: Pitt researchers find link exists between white matter and concussion-related depression and anxiety (medicalnewstoday.com 6.1.2015).)

(Anm: After concussion in military personnel: new recommendations for return to activity (medicalnewstoday.com 12.1.2015).)

(Anm: Is prolonged rest the best medicine for concussion? (medicalnewstoday.com 6.1.2015).)

(Anm: Effect of head impacts on diffusivity measures in a cohort of collegiate contact sport athletes Neurology 2013 (Published online before print December 11, 2013).)

(Anm: Which teens are at risk for emotional symptoms after concussion? (medicalnewstoday.com 13.7.2014).)

(Anm: Relationships between personality traits, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and white matter lesion in subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Front. Aging Neurosci 2014 (29 July 2014).)

(Anm: Oregon study of returning concussed athletes reveals recovery reversal  - When are athletes who have suffered concussions ready to return to action? A new University of Oregon study has found that high school athletes who head back on the field with medical clearance within 60 days experience a significant regression in their abilities to simultaneously walk and do simple mental tasks. (medicalnewstoday.com 23.8.2014).)

- Etter en hjernerystelse, vedvarende symptomer "kan være PTSD"

After a concussion, persistent symptoms 'may be PTSD'
medicalnewstoday.com 17.7.2014
After patients experience a concussion, a portion of them suffer long-term symptoms. Though the DSM-IV classes this condition as post-concussion syndrome, some researchers say this classification is controversial because these symptoms are subjective and common to other conditions. Now, a new study suggests these symptoms may be a result of post-traumatic stress disorder instead.

Researchers from the study, led by Emmanuel Lagarde, PhD, of the University of Bordeaux in France, publish their findings in JAMA Psychiatry.

They note that each year, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) - also known as concussion - accounts for over 90% of all TBIs, affecting more than 600 in 100,000 adults. (…)

(Anm: New recommendations link better sleep to improved concussion outcomes (medicalnewstoday.com 2.4.2016).)

(Anm: Noen får langvarige plager etter hjernerystelse. - Kan i verste fall få demens, sier ekspert. Det antas at mellom 50.000 og 100.000 mennesker opplever hjernerystelse hvert år, ifølge Norsk Helseinformatikk. Hjernerystelse (commotio cerebri) er den aller vanligste hodeskaden, og for de fleste er det en ubehagelig, men kortvarig skade. For noen kan imidlertid problemene utvikle seg til langvarige eller kroniske problemer. (kk.no 6.10.2016).)

(Anm: Concussion outcome predicted using advanced imaging. Using an advanced imaging technique, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Health System were able to predict which patients who'd recently suffered concussions were likely to fully recover. The study also sheds light on the brain's mechanisms for repairing or compensating for concussion injuries - information that could speed the development of therapies. The study was published online in the American Journal of Neuroradiology.  (medicalnewstoday.com 10.6.2016).)  

(Anm: Blodprov kan avslöja hjärnskakning. (…) Vid en hjärnskakning skadas nervcellerna, vilket leder till att olika nervcellsprotein frisätts i kroppen. (…) Tidigare forskning vid Sahlgrenska akademin i Göteborg har visat att man genom att mäta halten av proteinet tau i blodet kan avgöra hur svår en hjärnskakning är. Nu har forskare hittat en metod för att mäta halterna även av ett annat protein, NF-L, med liknande användningsmöjligheter. – NF-L verkar vara känsligare, så halterna ökar mer och tydligare efter den här typen av skador, säger Kaj Blennow, professor i klinisk neurokemi och en av forskarna bakom studien. (nyteknik.se 13.4.2017).)

- Hjerneskade 'kan følge selv mild traumatisk hjerneskade"

Brain damage 'can follow even mild traumatic brain injury'
medicalnewstoday.com 17.7.2014
A bang to the head does not have to be severe to cause damage to brain tissue and result in thinking and memory problems. This was the finding of a new study reported in the journal Neurology that compared people with mild and moderate traumatic brain injury to people with no injury.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can occur when the head is hit suddenly and violently, or when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain. TBI can result in symptoms ranging from headaches and nausea to permanent brain damage and death.

Even patients who suffered mild traumatic brain injury showed damage in white matter of the brain, according to researchers.

Senior author Andrew Blamire, professor of magnetic resonance physics at Newcastle University's Institute of Neuroscience, says most research tends to concentrate on people with severe and chronic traumatic brain injury:

"We studied patients who had suffered clinically mild injuries often from common accidents, such as falling from a bicycle, or slow speed car accidents. This finding is especially important, as 90% of all traumatic brain injuries are mild to moderate."  (…)

The brain scans were done using a sensitive type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) called diffusion tensor imaging, which is better at detecting brain cell damage than normal MRI and also helps map connections between brain regions. (…)

(Anm: Relationships between personality traits, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and white matter lesion in subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Front. Aging Neurosci 2014 (29 July 2014).)

(Anm: Pitt researchers find link exists between white matter and concussion-related depression and anxiety (medicalnewstoday.com 6.1.2015).)

(Anm: Brain injury patterns linked to post-concussion depression and anxiety (medicalnewstoday.com 16.6.2015).)

(Anm: Concussion outcome predicted using advanced imaging. Using an advanced imaging technique, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Health System were able to predict which patients who'd recently suffered concussions were likely to fully recover. The study also sheds light on the brain's mechanisms for repairing or compensating for concussion injuries - information that could speed the development of therapies. The study was published online in the American Journal of Neuroradiology.  (medicalnewstoday.com 10.6.2016).)  

(Anm: Blodprov kan avslöja hjärnskakning. (…) Vid en hjärnskakning skadas nervcellerna, vilket leder till att olika nervcellsprotein frisätts i kroppen. (…) Tidigare forskning vid Sahlgrenska akademin i Göteborg har visat att man genom att mäta halten av proteinet tau i blodet kan avgöra hur svår en hjärnskakning är. Nu har forskare hittat en metod för att mäta halterna även av ett annat protein, NF-L, med liknande användningsmöjligheter. – NF-L verkar vara känsligare, så halterna ökar mer och tydligare efter den här typen av skador, säger Kaj Blennow, professor i klinisk neurokemi och en av forskarna bakom studien. (nyteknik.se 13.4.2017).)

- Studie linker hjernerystelse med hjernepatologi ved Alzheimers sykdom

Study links concussion with Alzheimer's disease brain pathology (Studie linker hjernerystelse til hjernepatologi ved Alzheimers sykdom)
medicalnewstoday.com 27.12.4.2013
Alzheimer's disease has become an increasing burden in older patients, which is why research into its causes is a high priority. Now, a new study links concussion history and Alzheimer's, suggesting loss of consciousness could be associated with the build-up of plaques in the brain.

The researchers, including study author Michelle Mielke from the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, published their findings in the journal Neurology. (...)

(Anm: Head trauma and in vivo measures of amyloid and neurodegeneration in a population-based study.Neurology. 2014 Jan 7;82(1):70-6. Epub 2013 Dec 26.)

(Anm: Concussion triples or quadruples risk of suicide. Concussion multiplies the long-term risk of suicide in adults, especially if it happens on the weekend, according to research published in the CMAJ. (medicalnewstoday.com 8.2.2016).)

- Hjerneresymé: Fotball og hjerner, alkohol Rx (legemiddelforskrivning), demens

Brain Briefs: Football and Brains, Alcohol Rx, Dementia
medpagetoday.com 14.5.2014
College-fotballspiller viste en signifikant negativ sammenheng mellom hippocampus volum og antall år de hadde spilt spillet - selv blant de som aldri hadde blitt diagnostisert med hjernerystelser, sier forskerne. (College football players showed a significant negative association between hippocampal volumes and the number of years they had been playing the game -- even among those who had never been diagnosed with concussions, researchers said.)

Also in this edition of Brain Briefs: soaring rates of emergency department visits for traumatic brain injury, a systematic review showing that pharmacotherapies are effective for alcoholism but often neglected, and an important role for vascular factors in Alzheimer's disease.

Football Experience, Hippocampal Volume, and Cognition

This was a study of 25 Division I college football players with a history of concussion, 25 others with no concussion history, and 25 age- and education-matched controls without concussion history or football experience, published in the May 14 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. (…)

(Anm: Relationship of Collegiate Football Experience and Concussion With Hippocampal Volume and Cognitive Outcomes. JAMA. 2014;311(18):1883-1888 (May 14).)

(Anm: Editorials. Brain damage in American Football. BMJ 2015;350:h1381 (Published 24 March 2015).)

(Anm: Retired football players exhibit similar signs of degenerative brain condition, scans reveal. Using an innovative new imaging technique, researchers from the University of California-Los Angeles have found "strikingly similar" patterns of abnormal protein deposits in the brains of retired football players who experienced concussions during their career. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.4.2015).)

(Anm: Tre spillere fra Englands gullag i 1966 lider av alvorlig sykdom. Kan skyldes fotballen. (…) Skriveriene i England går ut på at VM-heltene kan ha fått Alzheimers som følge av mye heading av ballen. Den gangen ble det spilt med tyngre fotballer. - Små skader i hjernen kan resultere i demens, sier lege Michael Grey til avisa The Mirror. Også kona til Ray Wilson - Pat - har gitt uttrykk for at hun frykter det samme. Med til historien hører at Leeds-legenden Jack Charlton lider av hukommelsestap etter et langt fotballiv. (dagbladet.no 9.4.2016).)

- Ny undersøgelse af afdøde NFL-spilleres hjerner: 99 procent af dem led af permanente hovedskader. Nyt studie har undersøgt afdøde NFL-spilleres hjerner.

(Anm: Ny undersøgelse af afdøde NFL-spilleres hjerner: 99 procent af dem led af permanente hovedskader. Nyt studie har undersøgt afdøde NFL-spilleres hjerner. (…) Nu slår et nyt studie fast, at det kontante spil kan have store konsekvenser for dets aktører. I en undersøgelse af 202 afdøde spilleres hjerner - heriblandt 111 fra den bedste række, NFL - er forskere kommet frem til, at 99 procent af NFL-spillerne led af permanente hjerneskader. NFL-ikon har smadret sin hjerne: Jeg kan ikke huske, hvordan jeg kommer hjem. I alt 177 af de 202 tidligere spillere, der har dyrket sportsgrenen på alt fra college til professionelt niveau, var ramt af skaderne. Det skriver CNN. Undersøgelsen er den hidtil mest omfattende af forekomsten CTE-hjernesygdomme, der opstår efter gentagne hjerneskader og hovedtraumer, i sportsgrenen. Sygdommen kan blandt andet føre til depression, selvmordsadfærd, aggressiv adfærd og hukommelsestab. (jyllands-posten.dk 26.7.2017).)

Amerikansk fodbold er godt for kroppen og skidt for hjernen
arbejdsmiljoviden.dk 16.10.2012
De professionelle spillere i den amerikanske NFL – National Football League – lever længere end den gennemsnitlige amerikanske mand. Men de har en betydelig højere risiko for at dø med skader i hjernen eller i nervesystemet. Det er, hvad forskerne fra det amerikanske arbejdsmiljøinstitut NIOSH konkluderer.

Forskningsresultat
Forskerne analyserede sygdomsbilledet hos 3.439 NFL-spillere, som havde dyrket sporten professionelt i mindst fem sæsoner mellem 1959 og 1988.

Sammenlignet med befolkningen havde spillerne en tre gange så høj risiko for at dø med problemer i nervesystemet.

Samtidig var risikoen for at lide af Alzheimer eller ALS (Amyotrofisk Lateral Sklerose eller Lou Gehrigs sygdom) fire gange så stor for NFL-spillerne.

NIOSH-forskerne lavede også detaljerede analyser af, hvilke spillere der var mest udsatte. Uriasposterne er de offensive.

Forskerne gør opmærksom på, at deres undersøgelse har sine begrænsninger. Den siger således ikke noget om en sammenhæng mellem fodboldskader og død af sygdom i nervesystemet, og ej heller om nerveskader, når man dyrker amerikansk fodbold på hobbyplan. (...)

- Hodeskader øker faren for psykisk sykdom

Hodeskader øker faren for psykisk sykdom
nettavisen.no 16.1.2014
Oslo (NTB): Hodetraumer som hjernerystelse og kraniebrudd øker risikoen for enkelte psykiske sykdommer, blant annet schizofreni og bipolar lidelse.

Psykiatrisk Center København har fulgt 1,4 millioner mennesker født mellom 1977 og 2000, skriver forskning.no. Snaut 114.000 av personene undersøkelsen omfatter ble innlagt på sykehus med en hodeskade, og 4 prosent av disse har fått en psykisk diagnose.

- Jeg er litt overrasket over resultatene våre. Jeg hadde forventet at det ville være en sammenheng, men den er sterkere enn jeg hadde regnet med, sier lege Sonja Orlovska, som står bak undersøkelsen.

Forskerne har sett på tre typer hodeskader: hjernerystelse, kraniebrudd og alvorlige hodeskader med blødninger. Etter å ha justert for andre faktorer, har de kommet til at slike skader gir 65 prosent høyere risiko for schizofreni og 59 prosent større fare for å utvikle depresjon. Risikoen for å få en bipolar lidelse øker med 59 prosent.

Den største økningen ble registrert for såkalte organiske psykiske lidelser, sykdommer som skyldes en forutgående psykisk skade. Her var økningen på 439 prosent. (...)

(Anm: Concussion history associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease (sciencedaily.com 26.12.2013).)

(Anm: Which teens are at risk for emotional symptoms after concussion? (medicalnewstoday.com 13.7.2014).)

(Anm: Concussion triples or quadruples risk of suicide. Concussion multiplies the long-term risk of suicide in adults, especially if it happens on the weekend, according to research published in the CMAJ. (medicalnewstoday.com 8.2.2016).)

(Anm: Are medical comorbid conditions of bipolar disorder due to immune dysfunction?
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2015 (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue.)
.)

- Hodeskader kan gi mer enn 400 prosent større risiko for å utvikle noen psykiske sykdommer

Hodeskader kan gjøre deg psykisk syk
nrk.no 16.1.2014
Forskere ble overrasket over å finne en sterk sammenheng mellom hodeskade og risiko for psykisk sykdom.

Hodeskader kan gi mer enn 400 prosent større risiko for å utvikle noen psykiske sykdommer. Det er et langt større tall enn forskerne hadde regnet med.

Forskere har undersøkt sammenhengen mellom hodetraumer – som hjernerystelse, kraniebrudd og alvorlige hodeskader med blødninger – og risikoen for å bli rammet av en psykisk sykdom.

Resultatet er at slike skader kan føre til en økning i risiko på mer enn 400 prosent når det gjelder noen psykiske sykdommer.

– Jeg er litt overrasket over resultatene våre. Jeg hadde forventet at det ville være en sammenheng, men den er sterkere enn jeg hadde regnet med, sier lege Sonja Orlovska, som står bak undersøkelsen. (...)

(Anm: Which teens are at risk for emotional symptoms after concussion? (medicalnewstoday.com 13.7.2014).)

(Anm: Are medical comorbid conditions of bipolar disorder due to immune dysfunction?
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2015 (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue.)
.)

(Anm: Concussion triples or quadruples risk of suicide. Concussion multiplies the long-term risk of suicide in adults, especially if it happens on the weekend, according to research published in the CMAJ. (medicalnewstoday.com 8.2.2016).)

- Slag mot huvudet tycks ge demens

Slag mot huvudet tycks ge demens
sverigesradio.se 7.1.2014
Upprepade hjärnskakningar kan öka risken för att senare i livet utveckla demenssjukdomen alzheimers. Den slutsatsen drar amerikanska forskare som studerat cirka 600 personer, där vissa hade mild demens och andra var helt friska.

Bland annat fick de svara på om de någon gång haft en hjärnskakning som gjort att de förlorat medvetandet.

De som både hade demens och hade haft en hjärnskakning, hade högre halter av så kallade plack i hjärnan - som kan tyda på ett förstadium till alzheimers sjukdom.

Enligt forskarna stärker det här misstankarna om att slag mot huvudet faktiskt kan bidra till att man utvecklar alzheimers, även om sambandet kan vara komplicerat.

(Anm: Head trauma and in vivo measures of amyloid and neurodegeneration in a population-based study. Neurology, 2013; 82 (1): 70 (December 26, 2013).)

- Hjernehvile kan fremme restitusjonen hos unge

Brain rest may speed concussion recovery in teens (Hjernehvile kan fremme restitusjonen hos unge)
medicalnewstoday.com 7.1.2014
While for the last 10 years or so, there has been a general view among doctors and health experts in the US that people who suffer concussion should give their brains a rest while they recover, until now there has not been much firm evidence to back it up.

For instance, in October 2013, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a clinical report that suggested students may need a break from school after concussion. In that report, which was based on expert opinion and a concussion management program at a children's hospital, the AAP called for more research to establish the effects of cognitive rest following concussion and how best to help students recovering from it.

Now a new study from Boston Children's Hospital, published recently in the journal Pediatrics, appears to have done just that. Senior author Dr. William Meehan of the hospital's Division of Sports Medicine explains:

"We believe this is the first study showing the independent, beneficial effect of limiting cognitive activity on recovery from concussion. Previously, the lack of such data has led to varied practice with regards to implementing cognitive rest, making it even controversial." (...)

- Dødelig hjernedrenasje: Fiksing av en lekk hodeskalle--forskningssammendrag

Deadly Brain Drain: Fixing a Leaky Skull -- Research Summary (Dødelig hjernedrenasje: Fiksing av en lekk hodeskalle--forskningssammendrag)
ivanhoe.com 13.5.2013
BAKGRUNN: Når væsken som vanligvis omgir hjernen begynner å dryppe fra nesen, blir det omtalt som en CSF-lekkasje. CSF står for cerebrospinalvæske og er fargeløs, klar og blottet for celler. CSF-lekkasjer oppstå når hjernebarrieren (membram) og bein som skiller hjernen og bihulene på noen måte er blitt forstyrret. Denne typer lekkasjer er ofte forvekslet med sinusinfeksjoner eller allergisymptomer og mange pasienter går ubehandlet. Dessverre, siden barrieren mellom bihulene er kompromittert er disse pasientene utsatt for en høy risiko for infeksjon, særlig hjernehinnebetennelse. (Kilde: http://care.american-rhinologic.org/csf_leaks) (BACKGROUND: When the fluid which normally surrounds the brain begins to drip from the nose, it is referred to as a CSF leak. CSF stands for cerebrospinal fluid and is colorless, clear, and devoid of cells. CSF leaks occur when the brain lining and the bone separating the brain and the sinuses have been disturbed in some way. These kinds of leaks are often mistaken for sinus infections or allergy symptoms and so many patients go untreated. Unfortunately, since the barrier between the sinuses is compromised, these patients are at a high risk of infection, particularly meningitis. (Source: http://care.american-rhinologic.org/csf_leaks) )>

TYPES: While CSF leaks can result from accidental or surgical trauma where an injury causes cracks in the skull base or along the bone separating the brain and the sinuses, two other types of CSF leaks exist.

  • Tumor-Related CSF Rhinorrhea: if an aggressive tumor or cancer invades the skull base, it can begin to erode the bone causing the barriers between the brain and sinuses to breakdown. The tumor then acts as the barrier and once removed, the patient begins to leak CSF.
  • Spontaneous CSF Rhinorrhea: when none of the other causes have occurred, the CSF leak is considered to be spontaneous. There is some evidence suggesting elevated intracranial pressure could be responsible for these leaks, but the exact cause is still unknown. (Source: http://care.american-rhinologic.org/csf_leaks)

SYMPTOMS: It can be difficult to identify a CSF leak, but common signs of a leak include

  • Clear, watery drainage usually from one side of the nose or one ear that increases when the head is tilted forward or strained.
  • Headaches, possibly accompanied by vision changes.
  • Unexplained hearing loss. (Source: www.clevelandclinic.org) (...)

(Anm: CSF Leaks A disruption in the brain lining (a.k.a. dura) and the bone separating the brain and the sinuses will result in the drainage of fluid that normally surrounds the brain into the sinuses. This fluid is known as cerebrospinal fluid or "CSF." Drainage of CSF into the sinuses can result in a multitude of problems, not to mention the often times annoying constancy of nasal dripping. (care.american-rhinologic.org (Revised 6/2011).)

(Anm: Cerebrospinalvæske (no.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: What is Sinusitis (Sinus Infection)? (webmd.com 3.5.2016).)

(Anm: Autoimmune attack underlying kidney failure. Interstitial nephritis, a common cause of kidney failure, has a complex and largely unknown pathogenesis. In a new published paper in The Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, a team of researchers led from Karolinska Institutet shows how interstitial nephritis can develop from an autoimmune attack on the kidney's collecting duct. (medicalnewstoday.com 24.3.2016).)

Viagra could double risk of hearing loss Viagra kan doble risiko for hørseltap
reuters.com 19.5.2010
A new US study suggests men who take Pfizer's Viagra (sildenafil) or similar drugs for erectile dysfunction may double their chances of hearing impairment, bolstering a Food and Drug Administration warning from 2007 about this side effect.

High doses of Viagra have been shown to damage hearing in mice, but until now only a few anecdotal cases had been described in humans. (...)

Even after accounting for other factors linked to hearing loss, hard-of-hearing men still had twice the odds of taking Viagra, said McGwin, whose findings appear in the journal Archives of Otolaryngology--Head & Neck Surgery. (...)

(Anm: Behandling med Viagra förvärrar hjärt-lungsjukdom. Sildenafil bör inte användas som långtidsbehandling av kärlförtränging i lungorna, enligt en ny studie. Substansen sildenafil, som bland annat förekommer i potensläkemedlet Viagra, används främst för behandling av erektionsproblem. För sina kärlvidgande egenskaper används substansen också som off label-behandling vid olika kärlsjukdomar. (…) Nya opublicerade studieresultat, som presenterades vid den pågående hjärtkonferensen ESC i Barcelona i Spanien, visar dock att behandling med sildenafil gav sämre överlevnad och fler sjukhusinläggningar än placebo. (…) De spanska forskarna bakom studien kunde inte identifiera någon subgrupp av patienter som hade nytta av sildenafil. Deras slutsats är därför att man bör undvika att använda sildenafil som långtidsbehandling av pulmonell arteriell hypertension för patienter som genomgått klaffoperation. (lakemedelsvarlden.se 30.8.2017).)

(Anm: Antibiotics increase risk of hearing loss in patients with deadly bacterial infections (medicalnewstoday.com 30.7.2015).)

(Anm: Role of antioxidants in prevention of age-related hearing loss: a review of literature. (…) High-quality clinical trials are needed to investigate if ARHL can be delayed or prevented in humans. However, it seems that targeting several cell-death pathways is better than targeting the only oxidative stress pathway. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017 Apr;274(4):1821-1834. Epub 2016 Nov 17.)

(Anm: The Ibuprofen Risks You Need to Know (…) But if they’re used more frequently, or over long periods of time, they may pose dangers to the heart, kidneys, bone and even hearing. (…) “People need to be more aware of the potential downsides of long-term analgesic use,” says Dr. Gary Curhan at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, who led the hearing loss study. MORE: If You Take Ibuprofen Often, Read This (time.com 20.4.2017).)

(Anm: Antibiotics used to treat cystic fibrosis increases risk of permanent hearing loss. A powerful class of antibiotics provides life-saving relief for people with cystic fibrosis; however, a new study for the first time reveals the levels at which high cumulative dosages over time significantly increases the risk of permanent hearing loss in these patients. (…) The study, published in the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, suggests physicians who treat patients with cystic fibrosis may be able to consider alternative strategies for treating the symptoms of respiratory infections associated with CF, especially if patients are responsive to different classes of antibiotics. (medicalnewstoday.com 27.2.2017).)

Moderate kidney disease linked to hearing loss
reuters.com 1.10.2010
(Reuters Health) - Older adults with moderate kidney disease may require screening for hearing loss, according to the authors of a new study.

In the study, of adults aged 50 years and older, 54 percent of people with moderate kidney disease had some extent of hearing loss, while 30 percent of those with the disease suffered severe hearing loss.

That's higher than in the general population: According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, hearing loss affects 18 percent of U.S. adults aged 45 to 64.

Earlier studies had shown a link between kidney disease and hearing loss in certain rare syndromes. However, the new study, published today in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, expands on that by showing that the link can exist for any older adult with kidney disease. (...)

(Anm: Change in Prevalence of Hearing Loss in US Adolescents. JAMA. 2010;304(7):772-778 (August 18).)

- TBI Increases Odds For Depression, Behavior Impulsivity, PTSD In Patients With Nonepileptic Seizures

TBI Increases Odds For Depression, Behavior Impulsivity, PTSD In Patients With Nonepileptic Seizures
medicalnewstoday.com 10.4.2013
A new study by a Rhode Island Hospital researcher has found that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can significantly increase the odds of having major depression, personality impulsivity and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The paper, by W. Curt LaFrance Jr., M.D., M.P.H., director of neuropsychiatry and behavioral neurology, is published online in advance of print in the journal Epilepsia. (...)

- Hjernetrening bedre enn legemidler til å forebygge kognitiv svikt

Brain Exercises Better than Drugs in Preventing Cognitive Decline (Hjernetrening bedre enn legemidler til å forebygge kognitiv svikt)
healthland.time.com 15.4.2013 (Time)
With an aging population, rates of dementia will only climb, yet doctors have few effective strategies for addressing the worst symptoms.

Mild cognitive impairment, in which older adults show lapses in memory and other mental functions that aren’t serious enough to impair their daily activities, affects about 10% to 20% of those over age 70. Each year, about 10% of these people will progress to develop dementia, a more serious form of impairment that can drastically affect their independence and ability to function. But despite the growing proportion of the population that may be affected by these conditions, an analysis published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal found that there are few effective options for treating the condition.

The researchers reviewed 32 randomized controlled trials, in which patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention such as drugs to control cognitive decline, herbal remedies, physical activity or mental exercises including crossword puzzles; or left to continue living their lives without any changes. By comparing the various methods of treating cognitive decline, the scientists hoped to come up with some ranking of how effective the various interventions were. (...)

- Ekspanderer psykedeliske stoffer/substanser (rusmidler) sinnet ved å redusere hjerneaktivitet?

Do Psychedelics Expand the Mind by Reducing Brain Activity? (Ekspanderer psykedeliske stoffer/substanser (rusmidler) sinnet ved å redusere hjerneaktivitet?)
scientificamerican.com 15.5.2012
New evidence suggests drugs like LSD open the doors of perception by inhibiting parts of the brain

What would you see if you could look inside a hallucinating brain? Despite decades of scientific investigation, we still lack a clear understanding of how hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), mescaline, and psilocybin (the main active ingredient in magic mushrooms) work in the brain. Modern science has demonstrated that hallucinogens activate receptors for serotonin, one of the brain’s key chemical messengers. Specifically, of the 15 different serotonin receptors, the 2A subtype (5-HT2A), seems to be the one that produces profound alterations of thought and perception. It is uncertain, however, why activation of the 5-HT2A receptor by hallucinogens produces psychedelic effects, but many scientists believe that the effects are linked to increases in brain activity. Although it is not known why this activation would lead to profound alterations of consciousness, one speculation is that an increase in the spontaneous firing of certain types of brain cells leads to altered sensory and perceptual processing, uncontrolled memory retrieval, and the projection of mental “noise” into the mind’s eye. (...)

The study in question was conducted by Dr. Robin Carhart-Harris in conjunction with Professor David Nutt, a psychiatrist who was formerly a scientific advisor to the UK government on drugs policy. Drs. Carhart-Harris, Nutt, and colleagues used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the effects of psilocybin on brain activity in 30 experienced hallucinogen users. In this study, intravenous administration of 2 mg of psilocybin induced a moderately intense psychedelic state that was associated with reductions of neuronal activity in brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). (...)

The findings reported by Dr. Carhart-Harris are notable because they run counter to the results of previous imaging studies with hallucinogens. Generally, these imaging studies in humans have confirmed what previous studies in animals had suggested: hallucinogens act by increasing the activity of certain types of cells in multiple brain regions, rather than by decreasing activity as indicated by Dr. Nutt’s fMRI study. For example, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) experiments conducted by Dr. Franz Vollenweider in Zürich demonstrated that administration of psilocybin orally to humans increases metabolic activity in mPFC and ACC, effects that were found to be directly correlated with the intensity of the psychedelic response. Preclinical studies, using a variety of different techniques, have shown that hallucinogens increase network activity in the prefrontal cortex and in other cortical regions by activating excitatory and inhibitory neurons, leading to increased release of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. (...)

(Anm: Funksjonell magnetresonanstomografi (fMRI; Functional magnetic resonance imaging) (no.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Study Challenges Role Of Serotonin In Depression, Opens Possibilities For New Therapies (Studie utfordrer serotonins rolle ved depresjon, åpner muligheter for nye terapier) (medicalnewstoday.com 20.3.2013).)

(Anm: SYNAPTISK AKTIVERING OG INHIBISJON. Det er to hovedtyper synaptiske effekter når en transmittersubstans bindes til en postsynaptisk reseptor. I noen tilfeller aktiveres ionekanaler som fører til en depolarisering av den postsynaptiske cellen. Denne effekten kalles eksitatorisk (aktiverende) og vil, om depolariseringen er tilstrekkelig, føre til utløsning av en impuls i den postsynaptiske cellen. Kilde: Store norske leksikon.)

(Anm: Brain is 10 times more active than previously measured, UCLA researchers find. A new UCLA study could change scientists' understanding of how the brain works - and could lead to new approaches for treating neurological disorders and for developing computers that "think" more like humans. (medicalnewstoday.com 14.3.2017).)

(Anm: Ecstasy (MDMA - 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Revealed: How speed, meth, ecstasy and other party drugs age the heart at an alarming rate. Scientists analysed blood flow in more than 700 recreation drug users. Found the heart and its arteries much fail earlier in amphetamine consumers. It's believed amphetamines interfere with stem cell functioning - the cells involved in tissue repair and renewal. (…) Experts believe it's because the substance interferes with stem cell functioning - the ones involved in tissue repair and renewal. (bbc.com 9.2.2017).)

(Anm: Ecstasy skader hukommelsen. Personer som misbruker Ecstasy kan få svekket hukommelse permanent. (…) - Den generelle konklusjonen kan vi si er at om du stopper misbruket, blir ikke hukommelsen din verre. Men selv om du slutter kan det hende hukommelsen din aldri vil bli bra igjen, påpeker Zakzanis. (nettavisen.no 24.3.2006).)

(Anm: What is lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)? Effects and hazards of LSD (medicalnewstoday.com 29.6.2015).)

(Anm: LSD skulle være med til at lære delfiner engelsk i NASA-finansieret projekt. Forskere forsøgte i 1960'erne at finde en måde at kommunikere med delfiner. (jyllands-posten.dk 13.6.2017).)

(Anm: Study Yields Surprise on LSD's Mechanism of Action. Insight into how the drug gives meaning to meaningless stimuli -- and the roots of psychosis. (…) Lysergic acid diethylamide. LSD. It is the prototypical, if not the original, psychedelic drug. Despite its first being synthesized in 1938, we still are not entirely clear on its mechanism of action. But a well-conducted randomized trial, published Thursday in Current Biology, now makes it clear that a surprising amount of the effects of LSD are mediated through the serotonin 2A receptor in the brain. (medpagetoday.com 26.1.2017).)

(Anm: LSD ‘microdosing’ is trending in Silicon Valley – but can it actually make you more creative? (…) The downsides. (…) It is therefore important that more research is done on the safety and efficacy of microdosing. In the meantime, physical exercise, education, social interaction, mindfulness and good quality sleep have all been shown to improve cognitive performance and overall well-being. (theconversation.com 14.2.2017).)

- Rusmiddelforsker Vigdis Vindenes ved Folkehelseinstituttet advarer mot å idyllisere gunstige fordeler av rusmidler.

Rapport: – LSD forsterker ordforrådet
nrk.no 2.9.2016
Personer som tar LSD kan forbedre sin språklige evne, konkluderer en undersøkelse fra Tyskland. – Gevinsten er ikke stor nok, sier rusmiddelforsker, som advarer mot å tro at fordelene knyttet til narkotiske stoffer er større enn ulempene.

Studien som ble publisert i tidskriftet Language, Cognition and Neuroscience i august har observert hvordan en håndfull personer responderte språklig på bilder de fikk fremvist.

Det viste seg at de uten påvirkning av stoffet var tregere i reaksjonen og ikke foreslo like mange synonymord som de som hadde tatt LSD.

– Dette indikerer at stoffet har evne til å danne aktive og sterke koblinger i hjernen, sier studiens hovedforsker Neiloufar Family til Huffington Post. (…)

– Ingen helsegevinst
Det syntetiske narkotiske stoffet påvirker sentralnervesystemet og kan gi sansebedrag, illusjoner og hallusinasjoner. Politiet har tidligere advart mot LSD, da bruken kan gi langvarige og uheldige helseskader. Det er imidlertid ikke mulig å forutse hvilken virkning LSD kan ha på den enkelte.

Rusmiddelforsker Vigdis Vindenes ved Folkehelseinstituttet advarer mot å idyllisere gunstige fordeler av rusmidler.

– Gevinsten er ikke stor nok. Rusmidler kan medføre avhengighet som gjør at man mister kontrollen på livet sitt, får dårlig helse og i verste fall dør. Det er åpenbart at de uheldige konsekvensene er større enn eventuelle positive virkninger, sier Vindenes.

Samtidig understerker hun at det er viktig å være nøytral i forskningen for å ha best mulighet til å lære hvordan rusmidlene kan virke både negativt og positivt. Rusmidlene kan også gjøre underverker.

– Lave doser amfetamin brukes i behandling av ADHD kan gi gunstige resultater i form av bedre konsentrasjon, redusert motorisk uro og bedre impulskontroll, sier Vindenes. (…)

Understanding Psychopathic and Sadistic Minds
healthland.time.com 14.5.2012 (Time)
The fictional character Hannibal Lecter

Psychopathic serial killers are a source of infinite public fascination. If best-selling novels, hit TV series and popular films are any indication, you’d think real-life Hannibal Lecters were constantly running amok in the U.S. Thankfully, such offenders are far less prevalent in reality than they are in entertainment — but the disproportionate damage done by violent and even nonviolent psychopaths not surprisingly attracts intense scientific interest as well. On May 11, in fact, the New York Times explored whether psychopaths can be diagnosed as young as age 9.

Another way to figure out what makes the psychopath tick is to contrast him — and they are overwhelmingly male — with other abnormal personalities. In a recent study led by Jean Decety, a professor of psychology and psychiatry at the University of Chicago, researchers looked at a personality trait often confused with psychopathy: sexual sadism. (...)

Gene Linked to Increased Risk of PTSD
scientificamerican.com 14.5.2012
Variations in the PKCA gene and reports of emotionally affecting photos among 700 health young volunteers confirm hypotheses about the core role of memory in PTSD

European researchers have identified a gene that is linked to improved memory, but also to increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Dominique de Quervain of the University of Basel in Switzerland and his colleagues recruited around 700 healthy young volunteers, obtaining DNA samples from them to analyze the sequence of their PRKCA gene. This gene is one of many known to be involved in the formation of emotional memories, and encodes an enzyme called protein kinase C-?. The researchers then showed the participants a series of emotionally affecting photographs and shortly afterwards asked them to write down short descriptions of the images.

Participants carrying two copies of one variant within the PRKCA gene, dubbed the A allele, remembered the most details about the pictures. Those carrying two copies of the other variant -- the G allele -- remembered the least, with the performance of those carrying one copy of each variant lying somewhere in the middle. (...)

- Hjernens strukturelle endringer forårsaket av kokain-eksponering hos foster vedvarer i ungdomsårene og påvirker atferd

Brain Structural Alterations Induced by Fetal Exposure to Cocaine Persist Into Adolescence and Affect Behavior (Hjernens strukturelle endringer forårsaket av kokain-eksponering hos foster vedvarer i ungdomsårene og påvirker atferd)
JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(4):348-354 (Published online August 28)
Regional hjernemorfometri og impulsivitet hos ungdom etter gravides eksponering av kokain og tobakk (Regional Brain Morphometry and Impulsivity in Adolescents Following Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine and Tobacco)

Importance: Animal studies have suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) deleteriously influences the developing nervous system, in part attributable to its site of action in blocking the function of monoamine reuptake transporters, increasing synaptic levels of serotonin and dopamine.

Objective: To examine the brain morphologic features and associated impulsive behaviors in adolescents following prenatal exposure to cocaine and/or tobacco.

Design: Magnetic resonance imaging data and behavioral measures were collected from adolescents followed up longitudinally in the Maternal Lifestyle Study. (...)

Main Outcomes and Measures: Subcortical volumetric measures of the thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens; cortical thickness measures of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral medial prefrontal cortex; and impulsivity assessed by Conners' Continuous Performance Test and the Sensation Seeking Scale for Children.

Results: After controlling for covariates, cortical thickness of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was significantly thinner in adolescents following PCE (P = .03), whereas the pallidum volume was smaller in adolescents following prenatal tobacco exposure (P = .03). Impulsivity was correlated with thalamic volume following either PCE (P = .05) or prenatal tobacco exposure (P = .04).

Konklusjoner og relevans: Prenatal kokain eller tobakkseksponering kan ulikt påvirke strukturell hjernenmodning i ungdomsårene og underliggende økt mottakelighet for impulsivitet. Ytterligere studier med et større utvalg er påkrevet. (Conclusions and Relevance: Prenatal cocaine or tobacco exposure can differentially affect structural brain maturation during adolescence and underlie enhanced susceptibility to impulsivity. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.)

- Kokainvaner medfører tidlig aldring av hjernen

Cocaine Habit Ages Brain Prematurely (Kokainvaner medfører tidlig aldring av hjernen)
blogs.scientificamerican.com 24.4.2012
Selv om kokain får folk til å føle seg mer oppmerksom og helt på topp i øyeblikket kan det føre til at brukerne opplever at hjernen fungerer dårligere på lengre sikt. En ny studie viser at viktige deler i hjernen ved kronisk bruk i akselererende grad eldes. Resultatene ble publisert online den 24. april i Molecular Psychiatry. (Although cocaine makes people feel more alert and on top of things in the moment, it can leave users vulnerable to a much slower brain in the long run. A new study shows that chronic use ages key parts of the brain at an accelerated rate. The findings were published online April 24 in Molecular Psychiatry.)

Brukere som regelmessig inntar kokain erfarer ofte kognitiv svikt og hjernesvinn (hjerneatrofi), og nye funn viser hvordan disse brukerne faktisk mister grå hjernemasse mye raskere enn de som ikke bruker midlet. (Regular cocaine users often experience early cognitive decline and brain atrophy, and the new findings show how these users are, indeed, actually losing gray matter in their brain much faster than people who don’t take the drug.)

Karen Ersche ved Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute ved University of Cambridge og medforfatter av den nye studien uttalte at “vi alle mister grå hjernemasse” når vi eldes. Men hun bemerket at “kroniske kokainbrukere mister grå hjernemasse i signifikant raskere grad, hvilket kan være et tegn på for tidlig aldring.” (“As we age we all lose gray matter,” Karen Ersche of the Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute at the University of Cambridge and co-author of the new study, said in a prepared statement. But, she noted, “chronic cocaine users lose grey matter at a significantly faster rate, which could be a sign of premature aging.”)

Ersche og hennes kolleger brukte magnetresonanstomografi (MRI) for å studere hjernene til 60 mennesker i alderen 18 til 50 år, som brukte kokain jevnlig, og 60 friske mennesker i tilsvarende alder og IQ, som ikke var brukere. De fant at i gjennomsnitt hos friske individer som ikke brukte midlet årlig mistet 1,7 milliliter grå masse, mens kokainbrukere årlig mistet nærmere 3,1 milliliter. (Ersche and her colleagues used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the brains of 60 people ages 18 to 50 who used cocaine habitually and 60 healthy people of similar ages and IQs who did not. They found that on average, healthy individuals who didn’t use the drug lost about 1.7 milliliters of grey matter annually, whereas cocaine users were losing closer to 3.1 milliliters each year.)

Kokainbrukere mistet mye mer grå masse i prefrontale og temporale regioner—som hjelper å kontrollere hukommelse, beslutningstaking og oppmerksomhet—enn ikkebrukere gjorde. (Cocaine users lost much more gray matter in the prefrontal and temporal regions—which help control memory, decision-making and attention—than non-users did.)

The find brings a new insight into “why the cognitive deficits typically seen in old age have frequently been observed in middle aged chronic users of cocaine,” Ersche said. Even after the researchers excluded the 16 people from the cocaine group who also had alcohol problems, the trend of accelerated brain mass loss held up.

Of the estimated 21 million cocaine users worldwide, about 1.9 million lived in the U.S. as of 2008. And the largest segment of U.S. users were people ages 18 to 25—some 1.5 percent of whom said they had used cocaine in the past month, according to the National Institutes of Health.

“Unge mennesker som bruker kokain trenger informasjon om langtidsrisiko for tidlig aldring,” sier Ersche. Men hun og hennes kolleger bemerket også at resultatene også bør være oppmerksom på de ekstra kognitive vansker som middelaldrende og eldre voksne substansbrukere i stor grad kan ha i tillegg til avhengighetsproblemer. (...) (“Young people taking cocaine today need to be educated about the long-term risk of aging prematurely,” Ersche said. But she and her colleagues also noted that the results also underscore the extra cognitive needs that middle-aged and older adult drug users seem more likely have in addition to their addiction problems.)

(Anm: Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine) (INN) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.[5] The name comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is a stimulant of the central nervous system, an appetite suppressant, and a topical anesthetic. Specifically, it is a serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI)), which mediates functionality of these neurotransmitters as an exogenous catecholamine transporter ligand. It is addicting because of the way it affects the mesolimbic reward pathway.[6] (en.wikipedia.org).

(Anm: Hjernesvinn eller hjerneatrofi er et vanlig trekk ved mange av sykdommene som rammer hjernen. Atrofi av ethvert vev betyr tap av celler. I hjernevevet betyr atrofi tap av nerveceller (nevroner) og forbindelsene mellom dem (nervetrådene, aksoner). Atrofien kan være generell og utbredt, hvilket betyr at hele hjernen har skrumpet, eller den kan være avgrenset (fokal) og rammer bare et mindre område av hjernen. Ved et generelt hjernesvinn vil således mange hjernefunksjoner svekkes, mens fokalt hjernesvinn medfører tap av funksjoner som kontrolleres fra dette området av hjernen. Generelt hjernesvinn der begge hjernehalvdelene er skrumpet, kan føre til mental svekkelse og forstyrrelser av aktiviteter som styres av vår vilje. (nhi.no).)

(Anm: Gray matter loss and the inflamed brain in the development of psychosis (medicalnewstoday.com 15.1.2015).)

(Anm: Stress hormone link with psychosis. JCU Associate Professor Zoltan Sarnyai said it was the first meta-analysis study to compare the level of cortisol in a waking patient's body with the stage of schizophrenia they are suffering. Dr Sarnyai said it means doctors may be able to eventually identify those who will develop full-blown psychosis from amongst those who present with early stages of the disease. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.6.2016).)

(Anm: Science Explains Why Anxiety Can Be So Hard to Treat. (…) In an animal study published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, a team led by Dr. Joseph Majzoub, chief of endocrinology at Boston Children’s Hospital, found that a set of neurons in the brain’s stress control center, the hypothalamus, play a critical role in masterminding the anxiety response. These neurons control the release cortisol, but they also have connections to other parts of the brain that are involved in behavioral responses to stress, such as an increased heart rate and breath. (time.com 6.9.2016).)

(Anm: Several mental disorders share changes in certain brain regions (…) Gray matter loss was identified in regions associated with executive functioning (medicalnewstoday.com 5.2.2015).)

- Kokain kan endre hjernar på få timar

Kokain kan endre hjernar på få timar
nrk.no 26.8.2013
Mus utsett for kokain-injiseringar fekk nye forgreiningar på hjernecellene.

Endringar hjernen hos mus oppstod berre timar etter første kokain-inntak, viser ny studie.

Forsøk på mus viser at nye strukturar i hjernen kopla til læring og hukommelse byrja å vekse kort etter inntak av kokain. Dette skriv BBC News.

Mens tidlegare forsøk har vist endringar i hjernen hos kokainavhengige mus etter at dei var døde, skal dette vere første gong forskarar har kunne studere hjerneceller hos levande mus før og etter deira første oppleving med kokain. (...)

Studien som er publisert i Nature neuroscience viser at allereie etter ein dose med kokain vart det danna fleire forgreininga på utløparane til nerveceller i hjernen til musene.

Slike forgreiningar bind saman nerveceller og utgjer knutepunkta i hjernens leidningsnett.

Talet på forgreiningar på musenes nerveceller heng saman med kor mykje kvar enkelt mus lærte å føretrekke konteksten rundt kokainopplevinga. (...)

(Anm: Cocaine-induced structural plasticity in frontal cortex correlates with conditioned place preference. Nature Neuroscience 2013 (Published online 25 August 2013).)

- Studie linker kokainbruk til nye hjernestrukturer

Study Links Cocaine Use to New Brain Structures (Studie linker kokainbruk til nye hjernestrukturer)
ivanhoe.com 27.8.2013
(Ivanhoe Newswire) –According to researchers at the Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center at UC San Francisco, mice given cocaine showed rapid growth in new brain structures linked with memory and learning.

Researchers used a microscope that allowed them to see directly into the nerve cells of living mice. Within two hours of giving cocaine to the mice, they found significant increases in the density of dendritic spines (structures that bear synapses required for signaling) in the animals’ frontal cortex. Researchers also found an association between the growth of new dendritic spines and drug-associated learning.

The frontal cortex, which principal investigator Linda Wilbrecht, PhD, a Gallo investigator, called the “steering wheel” of the brain, controls functions like decision-making, long-term planning, and other behaviors involving higher reasoning and discipline. “The findings could advance research in human addiction by helping us identify what is going awry in the frontal cortexes of drug-addicted humans, and by explaining how drug-related cues come to dominate the brain’s decision-making processes,” Wilbrecht was quoted as saying. (...)

(Anm: Cocaine Use Leads to Rapid Growth of New Mouse Brain Structures - Scientists from Gallo Center at UCSF Identify Possible Mechanism for Drug-Seeking Behavior in Humans. (ucsf.edu 26.8.2013).)

- Slik blir din hjerne når du går på substanser

This Is Your Brain on Drugs (Dette er din hjerne på substanser)
scientificamerican.com 15.5.2012
To the great surprise of many, psilocybin, a potent psychedelic, reduces brain activity (...)

Mescaline, together with psilocybin, another natural psychoactive compound produced by “magic” mushrooms, and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD or, simply, acid), a potent synthetic psychedelic drug, became widely popular in the 1960s counterculture. The striking similarities between the reports of LSD users and symptoms of acute psychosis led researchers to postulate that serotonin, a chemical-signaling compound or neurotransmitter released by certain groups of neurons in the brain stem, helped to mediate both types of experiences. Indeed, it is now quite certain that the characteristic subjective and behavioral effects of psychedelics are initiated via stimulation of serotonin 2A receptors (known as 5-HT2A) on cortical neurons.

All these hallucinogens were declared controlled drugs in the late 1960s and early 1970s for a variety of medical, political and cultural reasons. Their use moved underground, and research on their psychological, physiological and neuronal effects all but ceased. With the realization of possible therapeutic benefits of psychedelics to reduce anxiety and chronic pain, however, the societal taboos against scientific research on their neurobiology have somewhat relaxed. A number of well-controlled European studies have carefully explored the action of hallucinogens on the brains of normal volunteers [see “Psychedelic Healing?” by David Jay Brown; Scientific American Mind, December 2007/January 2008]. (...)

Turn On, Tune In and Drop Out
The British scientists injected either a harmless saltwater concoction (a placebo) or two milligrams of psilocybin directly into the veins of 30 volunteers while they were lying inside a magnetic scanner. As expected, the subjects experienced within a minute or two the effects of the drug. During their short “trip,” their brains were scanned with one of two different functional MRI techniques. Both gave consistent but very surprising results.

Brain activity was widely reduced! That is, these mind-altering drugs decreased hemodynamic activity, including blood flow, in selected regions, such as the thalamus, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the ACC and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Activity in these regions dropped by up to 20 percent, relative to before the injection. Even more striking, the deeper the reduction in activity in the ACC and mPFC, the stronger the subject felt the effects of the hallucinogen. Nowhere did activity show an increase. Furthermore, the communication between the PFC and cortical regions in the back of the brain was also disrupted. The surprise is not that reduction of hemodynamic activity in specific sectors of the brain is unheard of. Nor was the activity completely turned off—that would lead within minutes to permanent damage and brain death. (...)

What is intriguing is that the regions that show the strongest reduction in activity are among the most heavily interconnected in the brain. They act like traffic circles or hubs that link disparate regions. Thus, the brain on psilocybin becomes more disconnected, more fragmented, which might explain some of the dissociative aspects of acid trips. Yet why this state should cause the mind-expanding effects that are the prime reason these drugs are treasured is utterly unclear. The study once again highlights how elusive our knowledge of the mind-brain hinge remains. (...)

(Anm: Mescaline. Meskalin (3,4,5-trimetoksyfenetylamin) er et psykedelisk fenetylamin, og er beslektet med stoffer som LSD, psilocybin og 2C-B. Det forekommer naturlig i peyote- og san pedro-kaktusene, og også i en del andre planter i lavere konsentrasjon. (no.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Psilocybin er et psykedelisk tryptamin som finnes naturlig i mange sopper i artene Psilocybe (fleinsopper) og Panaeolus. Disse kalles derfor Psilocybinsopper. (no.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Your brain on drugs: Functional differences in brain communication in cocaine users (medicalnewstoday.com 3.5.2015).)

(Anm: Study Yields Surprise on LSD's Mechanism of Action. Insight into how the drug gives meaning to meaningless stimuli -- and the roots of psychosis. (…) Lysergic acid diethylamide. LSD. It is the prototypical, if not the original, psychedelic drug. Despite its first being synthesized in 1938, we still are not entirely clear on its mechanism of action. But a well-conducted randomized trial, published Thursday in Current Biology, now makes it clear that a surprising amount of the effects of LSD are mediated through the serotonin 2A receptor in the brain. (medpagetoday.com 26.1.2017).)

(Anm: LSD ‘microdosing’ is trending in Silicon Valley – but can it actually make you more creative? (…) The downsides. (…) It is therefore important that more research is done on the safety and efficacy of microdosing. In the meantime, physical exercise, education, social interaction, mindfulness and good quality sleep have all been shown to improve cognitive performance and overall well-being. (theconversation.com 14.2.2017).)

(Anm: The Fabric of Meaning and Subjective Effects in LSD-Induced States Depend on Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation. Current Biology 2017:27:1–7 (February 6, 2017).)

Psilocybin Quiets Brain's Control Centers (Psilocybin roer ned hjernens kontrollsenter)
scientificamerican.com 1.5.2012
Psychedelic drugs may work by dialing down brain activity in control centers

Researchers have long suspected that the altered perception, kaleidoscopic visions and mood changes produced by psych¬edelic drugs reflect a jump in brain activity. Not so, say neuroscientists at Imperial College London and elsewhere. They used functional MRI to peek at the brains of 30 participants experiencing a “trip” induced by intravenously delivered psilocybin, a psychedelic found in magic mushrooms. As they reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA online in January, investigators saw psilocybin-related dips in brain activity, particularly in control centers such as the thalamus, the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, and the medial prefrontal cortex. The more placid these regions appeared in a participant’s brain, the more intense the subject’s self-reported psychedelic experiences. The scientists conclude that psychedelics temporarily flip off cognition-constraining pathways—including some that are overactive during depression. [For more on this study, click here.] (...)

- En enkelt hjernerystelse kan forårsake varig hjerneskade

Single Concussion May Cause Lasting Brain Damage (En enkelt hjernerystelse kan forårsake varig hjerneskade)
sciencedaily.com 12.3.2013
Mar. 12, 2013 — A single concussion may cause lasting structural damage to the brain, according to a new study published online in the journal Radiology.

"This is the first study that shows brain areas undergo measureable volume loss after concussion," said Yvonne W. Lui, M.D., Neuroradiology section chief and assistant professor of radiology at NYU Langone School of Medicine. "In some patients, there are structural changes to the brain after a single concussive episode."

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, each year in the U.S., 1.7 million people sustain traumatic brain injuries, resulting from sudden trauma to the brain. Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), or concussion, accounts for at least 75 percent of all traumatic brain injuries.

Following a concussion, some patients experience a brief loss of consciousness. Other symptoms include headache, dizziness, memory loss, attention deficit, depression and anxiety. Some of these conditions may persist for months or even years.

Studies show that 10 to 20 percent of MTBI patients continue to experience neurological and psychological symptoms more than one year following trauma. Brain atrophy has long been known to occur after moderate and severe head trauma, but less is known about the lasting effects of a single concussion. (...)

(Anm: Skandinaviske retningslinjer for akutt håndtering av voksne pasienter med minimal, lett eller moderat hodeskade. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2013; 133 (26.11.2013).)

(Anm: Concussion triples or quadruples risk of suicide. Concussion multiplies the long-term risk of suicide in adults, especially if it happens on the weekend, according to research published in the CMAJ. (medicalnewstoday.com 8.2.2016).)

- Skandinaviske retningslinjer for akutt håndtering av voksne pasienter med minimal, lett eller moderat hodeskade

Skandinaviske retningslinjer for akutt håndtering av voksne pasienter med minimal, lett eller moderat hodeskade
Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2013; 133
BAKGRUNN Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee (SNC) publiserte i år 2000 evidensbaserte retningslinjer for håndtering av minimale, lette eller moderate hodeskader. En betydelig mengde kunnskap har siden kommet til om hvordan retningslinjene fungerer i praksis og om strålerisiko forbundet med computertomografiske (CT)-undersøkelser. SNC har nylig publisert oppdaterte, skandinaviske retningslinjer. Her presenterer vi retningslinjene på norsk med vekt på de faglige anbefalingene og bakgrunnen for hvorfor det er nødvendig med nye retningslinjer, samt bemerkninger til retningslinjene fra de norske forfatterne.

KUNNSKAPSGRUNNLAG En arbeidsgruppe nedsatt av SNC utarbeidet anbefalinger basert på en grundig evidensbasert gjennomgang. Disse anbefalingene ble revidert via konsensusdiskusjon i SNC og rådføring med relevante kliniske eksperter.

RESULTATER For første gang anbefales blodprøve av hjerneskademarkøren S100B som primærdiagnostikk for pasienter med lette hodeskader med liten risiko. Kun for de av disse pasientene som har patologisk økt S100B anbefales videre CT-undersøkelse. CT-undersøkelse er fortsatt anbefalt for pasienter med moderate hodeskader eller lette hodeskader med middels til høy risiko. Det er også utarbeidet et oppdatert informasjonsskriv til pasienter og pårørende om hodeskader.

FORTOLKNING SNC anbefaler implementering av disse retningslinjene i Norge. (...)

- Kognitiv svekkelse og mild traumatisk hjerneskade

Cognitive deficits and mild traumatic brain injury (Kognitiv svekkelse og mild traumatisk hjerneskade)
Editorial
BMJ 2013;346:f1522 (Published 13 March 2013)
New study identifies risk factors and raises questions about the nature of any implied causal association

Between 7% and 33% of patients who have “mild” traumatic brain injury (sometimes called concussion) develop persistent post-concussion syndrome, which may last weeks to months after injury. More than 15% have a measurable cognitive deficit at one year. There is growing interest in the syndrome of post-traumatic encephalopathy, which may follow a blast injury or repeated sports related concussion. However, despite this growing literature on the cognitive consequences of mild traumatic brain injury, our knowledge of risk factors that predispose people to sustaining such injury is limited. (...)

Cognitive function and other risk factors for mild traumatic brain injury in young men: nationwide cohort study
BMJ 2013;346:f723 ( 13 March 2013)
(...) Objective To investigate cognitive function and other risk factors for mild traumatic brain injury in young men.

Participants 305 885 men conscripted for military service from 1989 to 1994.

Main outcome measure mild traumatic brain injuries in relation to cognitive function and other potential risk factors assessed at conscription and follow-up.

Results Men with one mild traumatic brain injury within two years before (n=1988) or after cognitive testing (n=2214) had about 5.5% lower overall cognitive function scores than did men with no mild traumatic brain injury during follow up (P<0.001 for both). Moreover, men with at least two mild traumatic brain injuries after cognitive testing (n=795) had 15% lower overall cognitive function scores compared with those with no such injury (P<0.001). Independent strong risk factors (P<1×10−10) for at least one mild traumatic brain injury after cognitive testing (n=12 494 events) included low overall cognitive function, a previous mild traumatic brain injury, hospital admission for intoxications, and low education and socioeconomic status. In a sub-cohort of twin pairs in which one twin had a mild traumatic brain injury before cognitive testing (n=63), both twins had lower logical performance and technical performance compared with men in the total cohort with no mild traumatic brain injury (P<0.05 for all).

Conclusion Low cognitive function, intoxications, and factors related to low socioeconomic status were strong independent risk factors for mild traumatic brain injuries in men. The low cognitive function in twin pairs discordant for mild traumatic brain injury suggests a genetic component to the low cognitive function associated with such injuries. The study included only men, so inferences to women should be made with caution. (...)

- Hjärnbilder tyder på långsam återhämtning

Hjärnbilder tyder på långsam återhämtning
dagensmedicin.se 21.11.2013
Fyra månader efter en mild hjärnskakning syntes tecken på avvikelser i en ny studie som publiceras i tidskriften Neurology.

I en amerikansk studie fick 50 personer genomgå olika test för bland annat minne och uppmärksamhet två veckor efter att de hade haft en hjärnskakning. De fick också genomgå hjärnundersökningar och de fick besvara frågeformulär. Studiedeltagarna matchades med en kontrollgrupp.

Fyra månader efter hjärnskakningen genomgick 26 av patienterna och 26 personer i kontrollgruppen samma undersökningar igen. De studiedeltagare som hade haft en hjärnskakning hade efter två veckor mer självrapporterade besvär som huvudvärk och oro. (...)

(Anm: A prospective study of gray matter abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury. Neurology 2013 (Published online before print November 20, 2013).)

(Anm: Several mental disorders share changes in certain brain regions (…) Gray matter loss was identified in regions associated with executive functioning (medicalnewstoday.com 5.2.2015).)

- Hjernen fortsatt skadet etter at symptomer på hjernerystelse blir svakere

Brain Still Injured After Concussion Symptoms Fade (Hjernen fortsatt skadet etter at symptomer på hjernerystelse blir svakere)
sciencedaily.com 20.11.2013
Nov. 20, 2013 — After a mild concussion, special brain scans show evidence of brain abnormalities four months later, when symptoms from the concussion have mostly dissipated, according to research published in the November 20, 2013, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

"These results suggest that there are potentially two different modes of recovery for concussion, with the memory, thinking and behavioral symptoms improving more quickly than the physiological injuries in the brain," said study author Andrew R. Mayer, PhD, of the Mind Research Network and University of New Mexico School of Medicine in Albuquerque.

Mayer further suggests that healing from concussions may be similar to other body ailments such as recovering from a burn. "During recovery, reported symptoms like pain are greatly reduced before the body is finished healing, when the tissue scabs. These finding may have important implications about when it is truly safe to resume physical activities that could produce a second concussion, potentially further injuring an already vulnerable brain."

Mayer noted that standard brain scans such as CT or MRI would not pick up on these subtle changes in the brain. "Unfortunately, this can lead to the common misperception that any persistent symptoms are psychological."

The study compared 50 people who had suffered a mild concussion to 50 healthy people of similar age and education. All the participants had tests of their memory and thinking skills and other symptoms such as anxiety and depression two weeks after the concussion, as well as brain scans. Four months after the concussion, 26 of the patients and 26 controls repeated the tests and scans. (...)

(Anm: A prospective study of gray matter abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury. Neurology 2013 (Published online before print November 20, 2013).)

(Anm: Skandinaviske retningslinjer for akutt håndtering av voksne pasienter med minimal, lett eller moderat hodeskade. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2013; 133 (26.11.2013).)

- Hjernerystelse varer lengre enn antatt

Hjernerystelse varer lengre enn antatt
dagensmedisin.no 21.5.2014
Skader etter alvorlig idrettsrelatert hjernerystelse tar lengre tid å lege enn antatt, ifølge svensk forskning.

Svenske forskere har undersøkt hjernerystelse hos eliteboksere og finner nevrologiske skader etter alvorlig, idrettsrelatert hjernerystelse selv om bokseren ikke lenger har symptomer på hjernerystelse.

Les også: - Proffboksing mye farligere enn før.

- Tidligere har man trodd at hjernerystelser leges i løpet av syv til ti dager. Våre studier viser at det kan ta opptil fire måneder før personer med alvorlig hjernerystelse, for eksempel etter knock-out i boksing, er helt friske, sier lege Sanna Neselius i pressemeldingen fra Sahlgrenska akademin.

Forskeren, som til daglig er forbundslege for det Svenska Boxningsförbundet, har i doktorarbeidet sitt tatt prøver fra ryggmargsvæsken for å kunne viser når hjernerystelsen er helt leget.

Ikke tilstrekkelig
Hun viser til at vurderinger om når en idrettsutøver er frisk nok til å trene og konkurrere, i dag gjøres ut fra fysiske symptomer, nevropsykologiske tester og på hvordan idrettsutøveren selv føler seg.

– Våre studier viser at vi ikke kan stole på disse testene eller på at personen føler seg frisk. Etter hjernerystelse er det vanlig at symptomene forsvinner i løpet av noen dager, men den nevrologiske skaden etter hjernerystelse er fremdeles der, sier Neselius.

Les doktoravhandlingen hennes her. (...)

- Studie finner markører på langvarig hjerneskade i blodet hos boksere og kampsportutøvere. (- Nå er spørsmålet om det kan bety permanent traumatisk hjerneskade med langsiktige konsekvenser.)

(Anm: Study finds markers of long-term brain injury in the blood of boxers and fighters. Boxers and mixed martial arts fighters may have markers of long-term brain injury in their blood, according to a study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's Sports Concussion Conference in Jacksonville, Fla., July 14 to 16, 2017. "This study is part of a larger study to detect not just individual concussions but permanent brain injury overall at its earliest stages and to determine which fighters are at greatest risk of long-term complications," said study author Charles Bernick, MD, of the Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health in Las Vegas and member of the American Academy of Neurology. "Our study looked at data over a five-year period and found elevated levels of two brain injury markers in the blood; now the question is whether they may signify permanent traumatic brain injury with long-term consequences." (news-medical.net 14.7.2017).)

(Anm: Høyreprofil hardt ut mot statsministerens Brækhus-opptreden: - Pinlig, tragisk og flaut! - Motstanderen ble slått til blods etter tre minutter. Så skal vi hylle dette? spør Per Sigurd Sørensen. (aftenposten.no 2.10.2016).)

(Anm: «Er det virkelig sant? Det er i så fall det dummeste jeg har hørt på lenge». Cecilia Brækhus tror ikke det hun hører. (…) – Jeg merket det selv da jeg fikk ny trener og jeg begynte å si høyt at vi jakter på knockouts. Da ble noen ukomfortable. Da tråkket jeg over en grense igjen for hva jenter skal si høyt. (aftenposten.no 22.3.2017).)

- Sammenhengen mellom CTE og idrett. Legene gispet da de så hjernen til den drapsdømte sportsstjernen.

(Anm: Sammenhengen mellom CTE og idrett. Legene gispet da de så hjernen til den drapsdømte sportsstjernen. Da den drapsdømte NFL-stjernen Aaron Hernandez' hjerne ble analysert, ble legene overrasket. De hadde aldri sett liknende skader. (Dagbladet): Den drapsdømte NFL-stjernen Aaron Hernandez ble funnet død i sin egen fengselscelle i april. Hernandez, som skal ha tatt sitt eget liv, ble pågrepet for drapet på Odin Lloyd i 2013 og dømt to år seinere. Den tidligere New England Patriots-spilleren var én av NFLs største profiler, men Hernandez fikk sparken med umiddelbar virkning da han ble arrestert. I september saksøkte familien til Hernandez NFL fordi de mente at ligaen og New England Patriots ikke har gjort nok for å skåne ham fra farene ved hjernerystelser. (…) CTE, eller kronisk traumatisk encefalopati, er en degenerativ hjernesykdom som utvikles som følge av hjernerystelser og andre gjentatte hodeskader. (…) - Aaron Hernandez led av den mest alvorlige graden av CTE som noensinne er registrert hos en person i hans alder, sa forskerne ifølge Washington Post. (…) Fant store hull i hjernen - Forskningen forklarer ikke atferden, påpekte Ann McKee, sjefen for universitetets CTE-senter. - Men basert på den samlede erfaringen vår så kan vi si at individer med CTE av denne alvorligheten har vansker med impulskontroll, avgjørelser, hemning ved impulser av aggresjon, emosjonell uforutsigbarhet, og raseri, forklarer McKee. Hun får støtte av den norske professoren i nevrokirugi, Eirik Helseth: Alle de tingene kan skje når hjernen blir redusert. Evnen til innlæring. De tingene der. Det er en generell svikt i hjernens funksjon. Men er det en god forklaring og skal det unnskylde et alvorlig lovbrudd? Det kan jeg ikke uttale meg om, sier han til Dagbladet. (…) I Norge var Eirik Helseth en sentral person i debatten om Cecilia Brækhus skulle få lov til bokse på norsk jord. (dagbladet.no 11.11.2017).)

(Anm: Cecilia Brækhus slo knockout på tv-kvelden. Nesten én million seere så det avgjørende slaget på TV3. (…) Både statsminister Erna Solberg og kulturminister Linda Hofstad Helleland var på plass for å kaste politisk glans over kampen. De fikk raskt valuta for den politiske mynten da Brælkhus slo knockout på Mathis i andre runde, etter kun tre minutter. (kampanje.no 3.10.2016).)

(Anm: Solberg slår tilbake etter bokse-bråket. Statsministeren jublet for Cecilia Brækhus da hun slo en annen bokser til blods og vant boksekampen. Nå svarer Solberg på kritikken. Tre statsråder var til stede under Norges første boksekamp på 35 år, blant dem Erna Solberg (H). Statsministeren fikk æren av å introduserte kampen og overrekke beltet til boksestjerna Brækhus etter første seier på hjemmebane. Statsministeren har fått kritikk fra flere hold. (aftenposten.no 3.10.2016).)

(Anm: Er ikke en hjerneskade fra eller til så farlig? Helleland og Solberg bør svare. | Nevrokirurg Knut Wester. Knut Wester professor emeritus i nevrokirurgi, Universitetet i Bergen og tidligere varamedlem i «Godkjenningsnemnda» (aftenposten.no 3.10.2016).)

(Anm:«Stevnet var en sammenhengende fornedrelse, der utrente utlendinger var hentet inn for å bli rundjult av norske boksere» (…) Vi tror nok at mange av dem som jublet høyest lørdag, kanskje er litt lei seg når de har fått tenkt seg om. (aftenposten.no 3.10.2016).)

(Anm: En trist kveld. Dette hadde jeg aldri trodd jeg skulle oppleve: At statsministeren, kulturministeren, kommunalministeren og flere stortingsrepresentanter sitter ringside og heier på at en norsk kvinne slår en annen kvinne til blods. (aftenposten.no 4.10.2016).)

(Anm: Mer kritikk mot boksestevnet i Spektrum: – Boksing kan være direkte livstruende. Leder i Norsk nevrologisk forening, Anne Hege Aamodt, lover at de vil fortsette kampen mot proffboksing i Norge. (…) I idretter som motorcross og alpint og andre idretter kan det være fare for hodeskader ved et uhell. Men i boksing handler det om å skade motstanderen bevisst, sier Aamodt. Statsministerens kontor vil ikke svare på kritikken. (tv2.no 3.10.2016).)

(Anm: Eks-ordfører langer ut mot eget parti etter boksekampen:  - Pinlig av Norges regjering. Både statsministeren og kulturministeren jublet etter at den første proffkampen i boksing ble arrangert på norsk jord. Men ikke alle lar seg begeistre for at regjeringen slipper sporten til i landet vårt. (fvn.no 2.10.2016).)

- Dette skjer med hjernen din når du blir slått ned

Dette skjer med hjernen din når du blir slått ned
dn.no 30.1.2015
Proffbokser Arne Ernstsen utsettes for slag hele tiden.

- Livsfarlig, sier nevrokirurg Ingunn Rise Kirkeby og forklarer hvorfor. (…)

- Barn med hodeskader kan være utsatt for depresjon

Kids With Head Injuries May Be Prone to Depression (Barn med hodeskader kan være utsatt for depresjon)
examiner.com 25.10.2013
Riding a bike causes more serious head injuries every year than playing football or baseball.

According to Health Day News on Friday, a new study has found that children who've suffered a concussion or other head injury seem to have a much higher-than-average rate of depression.

Adults with head injuries are known to be at high risk for depression, and yet little research had been done on the topic related to children. In the abstract, "Depression in Children Diagnosed with Brain Injury or Concussion," presented Oct. 25 at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) National Conference and Exhibition in Orlando, researchers sought to identify the prevalence of depression in children with brain injuries, including concussions, in the U.S. (...)

- Folsyre minsker risikoen for autisme hos barn. (- Høyt nivå av folat knyttet til risiko for autisme.)

Folsyre minsker risikoen for autisme hos barn
adressa.no 13.2.2013
Oslo (NTB): Kvinner som tar folsyretilskudd før og tidlig i svangerskapet, får sjeldnere barn med autisme, viser en ny norsk studie. Det er avgjørende at kvinnen tar folsyre tidlig i svangerskapet.

Å starte med folsyretilskudd senere enn åtte uker inn i graviditeten reduserte ikke risikoen for autisme, skriver Aftenposten.

85.176 norske barn er del av studien, som bekrefter gevinsten av å ta folsyretilskudd før og under graviditet. Folsyre kalles folat når det forekommer naturlig i mat.

Kvinner som tok folsyretilskudd før og i begynnelsen av svangerskapet, hadde nesten halvert risiko for å få et barn med autisme, ifølge studien. Det viser resultater fra den norske mor og barn-undersøkelsen (MoBa) og autismestudien (ABC-studien) i regi av Folkehelseinstituttet. Studien blir onsdag publisert i The Journal of The American Medical Association (JAMA).

Forskerne vet hvilke biologiske mekanismer som ligger bak en eventuell beskyttende effekt av folsyre.

– Det som er kjent, er at folsyre er et B-vitamin som er nødvendig for oppbygging av gener, det vil si DNA-molekyler. Oppbygging og reparasjon av DNA kan ikke foregå normalt hvis man ikke har tilstrekkelige nivåer av folsyre i blodet. En mulig forklaring på den beskyttende effekten kan være at det oppstår feil i DNA-oppbyggingen når man har for lite folsyre, sier Pål Surén, lege og doktorgradsstipendiat på Folkehelseinstituttet til Aftenposten. (©NTB)

(Anm: High Folate Tied to Autism Risk. —Excessive folate, B12 linked to higher risk of autism spectrum disorder (dgnews.docguide.com 12.5.2016).)

- Bruk av multivitaminer under graviditet kan beskytte barn mot autisme med intellektuelle funksjonshemminger.

(Anm: Multivitamin use during pregnancy could protect children from autism with intellectual disabilities. Children whose mothers took multivitamins during pregnancy are roughly 30 percent less likely to develop autism with a co-occurring intellectual disability, according to a new Drexel University-led study. (news-medical.net 5.10.2017).)

- Mors folsyreinntak rundt unnfangelse kan redusere barns pesticidrelaterte (middel mot skadedyr/skadeinsekter, desinfeksjonsmiddel) autismerisiko.

(Anm: Maternal folic acid intake round conception may reduce children's pesticide-related autism risk. Researchers at UC Davis and other institutions have shown that mothers who take recommended amounts of folic acid around conception might reduce their children's pesticide-related autism risk. In the study, children whose mothers took 800 or more micrograms of folic acid (the amount in most prenatal vitamins) had a significantly lower risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - even when their mothers were exposed to household or agricultural pesticides associated with increased risk. The study appears today in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. "We found that if the mom was taking folic acid during the window around conception, the risk associated with pesticides seemed to be attenuated," said Rebecca J. Schmidt, assistant professor in the Department of Public Health Sciences and first author on the paper. "Mothers should try to avoid pesticides. But if they live near agriculture, where pesticides can blow in, this might be a way to counter those effects." (news-medical.net 8.9.2017).)

(Anm: Risk of autism with intellectual disability linked with maternal immune dysfunction during pregnancy (medicalnewstoday.com 8.6.2016).)

(Anm: New biochemical method accurately diagnoses autism in children. (…) The team analyzed data from the blood samples of 83 children with autism and 76 neurotypical children - that is, they were not affected by ASD. The data was initially collected as part of the IMAGE study carried out by the Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute. The children were aged between 3 and 10. The scientists set out to measure metabolite concentrations resulting from two metabolic processes: the folate-dependent one-carbon (FOCM) metabolism and transsulfuration (TS) pathways. Both of these substances have previously been shown to become altered in people with an increased risk of ASD.  (medicalnewstoday.com 17.3.2017).)

(Anm: .MoBa nyhetsbrev 2013: Hvordan jobber forskerne med gener i MoBa? Autismestudien vekker oppsikt (fhi.no 2013)

(Anm: Researchers claim to find link between folate during pregnancy and autism. A team of US researchers claim to have found a link between consuming too much folate during pregnancy and autism, but experts have urged caution around the conclusions. (pulse.co.uk 11.5.2016).)

(Anm: Forskere: Melk og kjøtt motvirker autisme. Hjernen: Mutasjoner har trolig skylden i mange tilfeller av autisme hos barn. Men nå har forskere funnet en måte å stagge mutasjonene på. (…) Autismens gåte kan kanskje løses med noe så enkelt som melk og kjøtt. For disse matvarene inneholder aminosyren carnitin, som forskere fra Texas A&M University nå mener kan redusere risikoen for autisme hos fostre. (...) Forskerne anbefaler at kvinner som har en TMLHE-mutasjon, tar et carnitin-tilskudd under graviditeten for å forsøke å redusere risikoen for autisme – særlig for gutte-fostre. (illvit.no 24.4.2016).)

(Anm: One-third of autistic children likely to wander, disappear (medicalnewstoday.com 2.5.2016).)

(Anm: Deficits in Bioenergetics and Impaired Immune Response in Granulocytes From Children With Autism. Pediatrics. 2014 Apr 21. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Findings suggest that genetic, environmental factors have similar influence on risk of autism. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.5.2014).)

(Anm: Nytt bränsle i debatten om folsyrans effekter. En ny stor kinesisk studie visar att tillskott av folsyra minskar risken för stroke med 21 procent hos personer med högt blodtryck. Resultaten kan stödja folsyra­berikning av mjöl i Sverige. (dagensmedicin.se 30.4.2015).)

Folsyra minskar risken för autism
lakemedelsvarlden.se 13.2.2013
Enligt en ny studie tycks folsyra kraftigt minska risken för autism.

Att folsyra minskar risken för ryggmärgsbråck hos blivande barn är känt sedan länge. Nu presenterar norska forskare en studie som tyder på att B-vitaminet också minskar risken för autism.

I studien ingick 85 000 barn födda mellan 2002 och 2008. Under den tiden fick 270 barn diagnosen autismspektrumstörning som är ett samlingsnamn för flera autismtillstånd. För den mest allvarliga diagnosen, autism, såg forskarna till den här studien en riskminskning med 40 procent om den blivande mamman ätit folsyra minst fyra veckor före och åtta veckor efter hon blivit gravid jämfört med om hon inte intagit vitaminet.

I många länder, bland annat USA berikas mjöl med folsyra men inte i Sverige, en fråga som diskuterats under flera år.

Ett skäl till att mjölet inte berikas här är oron för en ökad cancerrisk. En nyligen publicerad studie i Lancet tyder dock inte på någon sådan ökad risk. (...)

(Anm: Antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy: Folic acid could help to prevent autism (medicalnewstoday.com 1.6.2016).)

Author Insights: Maternal Use of Folic Acid May Reduce Risk of Autistic Disorder in Children (Forfatterinnsikt: Mors bruk av folsyre kan redusere risikoen for autisme hos barn)
JAMA 2013 (February 12)
Pål Surén, MD, MPH, of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Oslo, and colleagues found an association between reduced risk of developing autistic disorder in children born to mothers who took folic acid just prior to and after conception.

A child’s risk of developing autistic disorder appears to be reduced when women take folic acid around the time of conception through early pregnancy. The findings appear today in JAMA. (...)

(Anm: Taking too much folic acid while pregnant may put daughters at risk of diabetes and obesity (medicalnewstoday.com 12.2.2015).)

- Tildelt pris for autismeforskning

Tildelt pris for autismeforskning
fhi.no 5.2.2014
Pål Surén, doktorgradsstipendiat på Folkehelseinstituttet, er tildelt prisen for beste forskningsartikkel innen forskning på rusmidler og psykisk helse. Prisen deles ut i regi av Norges Forskningsråd hvert år som en anerkjennelse for et betydningsfullt faglig bidrag.

Prisen ble overrakt av HKH kronprinsesse Mette-Marit og administrerende direktør i Forskningsrådet Arvid Hallén (midt i bildet) under Nasjonal konferanse om psykisk helse og rusmiddelforskning i Trondheim 4. februar.

Pål mottar prisen for artikkelen "Association Between Maternal Use of Folic Acid Supplements and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children" som ble publisert i The Journal of American Medical Assosciation (JAMA) i februar 2013.

Artikkelen omhandler en studie som indikerer at kvinner som tar folsyretilskudd fra fire uker før, til åtte uker etter starten av et svangerskap, kan ha 40 prosent lavere risiko for å føde barn med klassisk autisme.

Studien har tatt utgangspunkt i Den norske mor og barn-undersøkelsen (MoBa) og Autismestudien (ABC-studien). Den inkluderte MoBa-deltakere født fra 2002-2008, og omfattet totalt 85 176 barn. (...)

(Anm: Autism interventions should focus on identifying and harnessing the autistic child's strengths (medicalnewstoday.com 14.8.2014).)

(Anm: Taking too much folic acid while pregnant may put daughters at risk of diabetes and obesity (medicalnewstoday.com 12.2.2015).)

- Bevis knytter oksidativt stress, mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) og betennelser i hjernen til mennesker med autisme

Evidence linking oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation in the brain of individuals with autism (Bevis knytter oksidativt stress, mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) og betennelser i hjernen hos mennesker med autisme)
Front. Physiol. 2014 (22 April 2014)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are defined solely on the basis of behavioral observations. Therefore, ASD has traditionally been framed as a behavioral disorder. However, evidence is accumulating that ASD is characterized by certain physiological abnormalities, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune dysregulation/inflammation. While these abnormalities have been reported in studies that have examined peripheral biomarkers such as blood and urine, more recent studies have also reported these abnormalities in brain tissue derived from individuals diagnosed with ASD as compared to brain tissue derived from control individuals. A majority of these brain tissue studies have been published since 2010. The brain regions found to contain these physiological abnormalities in individuals with ASD are involved in speech and auditory processing, social behavior, memory, and sensory and motor coordination. This manuscript examines the evidence linking oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune dysregulation/inflammation in the brain of ASD individuals, suggesting that ASD has a clear biological basis with features of known medical disorders. This understanding may lead to new testing and treatment strategies in individuals with ASD. (…)

(Anm: Brain study shows inflammation is a marker of autism (medicalnewstoday.com 11.12.2014).)

(Anm: PET Imaging of Mitochondrial Complex I with 18F-BCPP-EF in Brain of Parkinson's Disease Model Monkey. (…) CONCLUSION: 18F-BCPP-EF has potential as a PET probe for the quantitative imaging of MC-1 damage in the living brains of PD model monkeys using PET. J Nucl Med. 2016 Feb 11. pii: jnumed.115.169615. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Exercise increases mitochondrial complex I activity and DRP1 expression in the brains of aged mice. Abstract. Exercise is known to have numerous beneficial effects. Recent studies indicate that exercise improves mitochondrial energetics not only in skeletal muscle but also in other tissues. (…) Our results suggest that exercise training in old mice can improve brain mitochondrial function through effects on electron transport chain function and mitochondrial dynamics without increasing mitochondrial biogenesis. Exp Gerontol. 2017 Jan 17. pii: S0531-5565(16)30505-8. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Exercise prevents cellular aging by boosting mitochondria (medicalnewstoday.com 8.3.2017).)

(Anm: Trening er best for å redusere tilbakefall av brystkreft. Exercise is best for reducing breast cancer recurrence. The research was conducted by Dr. Ellen Warner, of the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Canada, in collaboration with coauthor Dr. Julia Hamer, and the findings were published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ). (medicalnewstoday.com 22.2.2017).)

- Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser. (- Dette resultatet forklarer de kliniske og deres respektive histopatologiske effekter av tramadol, for eksempel anfall og røde nevroner (markør for apoptose).)

Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes. (Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser.)
Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Dec;31(12):1325-33.
Abstract The present study is an unsubstantiated qualitative assessment of the abused drugs-tramadol and clonazepam. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes were influential at therapeutic or at progressively increasing doses. The study comprised of a total of 70 healthy male rats, aged 3 months. According to the drug intake regimen, animals were divided into seven groups: control, tramadol therapeutic, clonazepam therapeutic, combination therapeutic, tramadol abuse, clonazepam abuse, and combination abuse group. At the end of the experiment, brain mitochondrial ETC complexes (I, II, III, and IV) were evaluated. Histopathological examinations were also performed on brain tissues. The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss. Tramadol abuse group and combination abuse group showed significant decrease in the activities of I, III, and IV complexes but not in the activity of complex II. In conclusion, tramadol but not clonazepam has been found to partially inhibit the activities of respiratory chain complexes I, III, and IV but not the activity of complex II and such inhibition occurred only at doses that exceeded the maximum recommended adult human daily therapeutic doses. This result explains the clinical and histopathological effects of tramadol, such as seizures and red neurons (marker for apoptosis), respectively. (…)

(Anm: Mitochondria (mitokondrie) (mitokondriesykdommer) (mitokondrielle sykdommer). (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon ligger bak kognitive defekter som et resultat av nevral stamcelleutarmning og nedsatt neurogenese. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies cognitive defects as a result of neural stem cell depletion and impaired neurogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jun 8.)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) indusert av sertraline (Zoloft), et antidepressiva (Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sertraline, an antidepressant agent) Toxicol Sci. 2012 Jun;127(2):582-91. Epub 2012 Mar 2.)

(Anm: Kan Lupus øke risikoen for demens? Could lupus raise dementia risk? People living with lupus may be at significantly greater risk of developing dementia than those without the autoimmune disease, a new study suggests. (…) Study co-author Daniela Amital, of the Sackler Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University in Israel, and colleagues recently reported their results in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.11.2017).)

(Anm: Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser. (Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.) (…) Dette resultatet forklarer de kliniske og deres respektive histopatologiske effekter av tramadol, for eksempel anfall og røde nevroner (markør for apoptose). (The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss.) (Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Dec;31(12):1325-33).)

(Anm: Pasienter behandlet med antipsykotika (nevroleptika) har signifikant senket platelet complex I aktivitet i mitokondrier i likhet med det som er observert ved idiopatisk Parkinsons sykdom. (...) Antipsykotika (nevroleptika) hemmer kompleks I i elektrontransportkjeden. (Neuroleptic medications inhibit complex I of the electron transport chain. (...) Neuroleptic treated patients have significant depression of platelet complex I activity similar to that seen in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Complex I inhibition may be associated with the extrapyramidal side effects of these drugs.) Ann Neurol. 1993;33:512-7).)

(Anm: Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I exhibits aberrant hyperactivity in diabetes. (…) Highlights • Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I shows hyperactivity in diabetes. • Complex I hyperactivity is associated with increased NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance. • Complex I hyperactivity is associated with increased oxidative stress and cell death. • Complex I hyperactivity is linked with compromised cellular anti-oxidative stress capacity such as decreased sirt3 and NQO1 expressions. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2017 Sep;11:119-129.)

- LÆGEMIDDELSTYRELSEN: Tramadol: Det er vigtigt, at vi får indberetninger om bivirkninger. Læger bør tage kontakt til Lægemiddelstyrelsen, hvis deres kliniske erfaringer viser, at et lægemiddels bivirkningsprofil ikke stemmer overens med produktresumeet.

(Anm: Tramadol: Det er vigtigt, at vi får indberetninger om bivirkninger. Læger bør tage kontakt til Lægemiddelstyrelsen, hvis deres kliniske erfaringer viser, at et lægemiddels bivirkningsprofil ikke stemmer overens med produktresumeet. I disse dage er en aktuelt debat om det smertestillende lægemiddel tramadol, og en række læger har i pressen sagt, at de har klinisk erfaring for, at tramadol har et større afhængighedspotentiale, end der står i produktresumeet. (laegemiddelstyrelsen.dk 13.6.2017).)

(Anm: Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser. (Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.) (…) Dette resultatet forklarer de kliniske og deres respektive histopatologiske effekter av tramadol, for eksempel anfall og røde nevroner (markør for apoptose). (The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss.) (Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Dec;31(12):1325-33).)

(Anm: Tramadol – et problematisk legemiddel ved langtidsbruk. RELIS har gjennomgått sentralnervøse bivirkninger av tramadol med spesielt fokus på toleranseutvikling, avhengighet, misbruk og seponeringsreaksjoner. Tramadol har både opioide og serotonerge egenskaper og bruk utover en uke øker risiko betydelig (relis.no 14.10.2014).)

(Anm: Tramadol, sold under the brandname Ultram among others,[2] is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.[1] First, it works by binding to the μ-opioid receptor.[7] Second, it inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine.[8][9] It is often combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) as this is known to improve the efficacy of tramadol in relieving pain.[3] (…) Serious side effects may include seizures, increased risk of serotonin syndrome, decreased alertness, and drug addiction,[1] although the risk of serotonin syndrome appears to be low.[10] Common side effects include: constipation, itchiness and nausea, among others. A change in dosage may be recommended in those with kidney or liver problems.[1] It is not recommended in those who are at risk of suicide.[1] While not recommended in women who are breastfeeding, those who take it should not stop breastfeeding.[11] (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: Serotonin i hjerne og blod (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Serotonin syndrom (SS), kramper, parkinsonisme osv. (forhøyet kroppstemperatur) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Seroxat (Paxil) (paroxetine; paroksetin) (SSRI) (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Effekter av MPTP på serotonerge nevronale systemer og mitokondrie Complex I aktiviteten i den levende hjernen: En PET-studie på bevisste rhesusaper. (Effects of MPTP on Serotonergic Neuronal Systems and Mitochondrial Complex I Activity in the Living Brain: A PET Study on Conscious Rhesus Monkeys. (Effects of MPTP on Serotonergic Neuronal Systems and Mitochondrial Complex I Activity in the Living Brain: A PET Study on Conscious Rhesus Monkeys.) J Nucl Med. 2017 Mar 9. pii: jnumed.116.189159.)

(Anm: Dysfunction of cellular powerplant shakes B-vitamin metabolism and causes genetic damage. Mitochondria are the cellular powerplant, but their functions in conjunction with B-vitamins are only starting to be revealed. When nutrient status is good, vitamin B9, folate, turns mitochondria to cellular builders. Through folate, mitochondria produce substances to make ingredients for genome replication and repair, cell membrane renewal and synthesis of antioxidants. The mechanism also includes other B-vitamins. (medicalnewstoday.com 7.3.2016).)

(Anm: Dementia in Parkinson's disease is associated with enhanced mitochondrial complex I deficiency. (…) CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PDD have a deficiency in mitochondrial complex I activity and reduced mitochondrial DNA levels in the prefrontal cortex without a change in mitochondrial protein quantity. Therefore, mitochondrial complex I deficiency and reduced mitochondrial DNA in the prefrontal cortex may be a hallmark of dementia in patients with PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.Mov Disord. 2016 Feb 8. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) indusert av sertraline (Zoloft), et antidepressiva (Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sertraline, an antidepressant agent) Toxicol Sci. 2012 Jun;127(2):582-91. Epub 2012 Mar 2.)

(Anm: Kan Lupus øke risikoen for demens? Could lupus raise dementia risk? People living with lupus may be at significantly greater risk of developing dementia than those without the autoimmune disease, a new study suggests. (…) Study co-author Daniela Amital, of the Sackler Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University in Israel, and colleagues recently reported their results in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.11.2017).)

(Anm: Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser. (Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.) (…) Dette resultatet forklarer de kliniske og deres respektive histopatologiske effekter av tramadol, for eksempel anfall og røde nevroner (markør for apoptose). (The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss.) (Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Dec;31(12):1325-33).)

(Anm: Antibiotika kan utløse mitokondriell dysfunksjon som induserer psykiatriske lidelser. (Antibiotics May Trigger Mitochondrial Dysfunction Inducing Psychiatric Disorders. Med Sci Monit. 2017 Jan 7;23:101-106.)

(Anm: PET Imaging of Mitochondrial Complex I with 18F-BCPP-EF in Brain of Parkinson's Disease Model Monkey. (…) CONCLUSION: 18F-BCPP-EF has potential as a PET probe for the quantitative imaging of MC-1 damage in the living brains of PD model monkeys using PET. J Nucl Med. 2016 Feb 11. pii: jnumed.115.169615. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiotoxicity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Sep 18:ajpheart.00554.2015. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Role of altered mitochondria functions in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.Lupus. 2015 Sep 18. pii: 0961203315605370. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Sykdommen som får kroppen til å angripe seg selv. Lupus rammer kvinner ni ganger så ofte som menn. (…) - Tilstanden er vanligst blant kvinner som er i 20- til 40-årene, sier Eide. Menn med lupus kan se ut til å bli oftere angrepet i nyrene enn kvinner med sykdommen, og man kan også oftere se endringer i blodbildet (hemolytisk anemi, lavere antall blodplater eller lavere antall lymfocytter) hos menn. (klikk.no 17.4.2017).)

(Anm: Mitochondrial dysfunction related to cell damage induced by 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid: non dependent-effect of early reactive oxygen species production. Neurotoxicology. 2015 Aug 5. pii: S0161-813X(15)00118-7. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Sertraline use during pregnancy and the risk of major malformations. OBJECTIVE: Given the current debate and growing public concerns on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and birth defects generated by Food and Drug Administration warnings, we aim to quantify the association between first-trimester exposure to sertraline, a first-line treatment, and the risk of congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed women. (…) CONCLUSION: Sertraline use during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of atrial/ventricular defects and craniosynostosis above and beyond the effect of maternal depression. Nonsertraline SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of craniosynostosis and musculoskeletal defects.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun;212(6):795.e1-795.e12. Epub 2015 Jan 28.)

(Anm: The Potential Application of Mitochondrial Medicine in Toxicologic Poisoning. J Med Toxicol. 2015 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Common antidepressant increased coronary atherosclerosis in animal model (Vanlig antidepressiva gir økt koronar aterosklerose (åreforkalkning) i dyremodell) (…) The animals were then randomly assigned to receive a commonly prescribed antidepressant, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) marketed under the brand name Zoloft, or a placebo once a day for 18 months. The antidepressant was given in a dose comparable to that given to patients. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.4.2015).)

(Anm: Role of gut microbiota in the modulation of atherosclerosis-associated immune response. Inflammation and metabolic abnormalities are linked to each other. At present, pathogenic inflammatory response was recognized as a major player in metabolic diseases. In humans, intestinal microflora could significantly influence the development of metabolic diseases including atherosclerosis. Front. Microbiol. 2015 (30 June 2015).)

(Anm: Macrophage Mitochondrial Energy Status Regulates Cholesterol Efflux and is Enhanced by Anti-miR33 in Atherosclerosis. Circ Res. 2015 May 22. pii: CIRCRESAHA.115.305624. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Association of mutations in the mitochondrial genome with the subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in women. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015 Apr 21. pii: S0014-4800(15)00089-1. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Antidepressive medikamenter påvirker kroppens fettproduksjon. (...) På det molekylære planet tok Ræder i bruk cellestudier og moderne genteknologiske metoder for å vise at de store gruppene av psykiatriske medisiner (antipsykotika og antidepressiva, inkludert SSRI-medikamenter) virker på fettomsetningen i kroppen gjennom en transkripsjonsfaktor kalt SREBP (steroid reseptor-element bindende protein). SREBP er meget viktig for å regulere produksjon både av kolesterol og av ulike fett-stoffer i kroppens celler. Kolesterol og andre fett-stoffer er viktig for at nevroner skal utvikle seg og fungere normalt, men har også en rolle i utviklingen av hjerte- og karsykdom. (...) NY DOKTORGRAD (uib.no (23.9.2006).)

(Anm: Sertraline (Zoloft)-indusert systemisk lupus erythematosus (SLE) (Lupus) (Sertraline Induced Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) (The Internet Journal of Internal Medicine 2005;6(1).)

- Dødsrater for Lupus forblir høye i USA.

(Anm: Lupus Death Rates Remain High in U.S. Drop in SLE death rates less than non-lupus mortality. Despite improving trends in mortality, death rates from systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) remain high compared with those in the general population, and disparities persist between subpopulations and geographic regions, according to a report in the Annals of Internal Medicine. (medpagetoday.com 6.11.2017).)

– Studien viser hvordan vanlig trening, stressreduksjon kan føre til bedre helse hos lupus pasienter.

(Anm: Study shows how regular exercise, stress reduction could lead to better health in lupus patients. Study shows how regular exercise, stress reduction could lead to better health in lupus patients (news-medical.net 19.9.2017).)

(Anm: Lupus Patients at Risk for Stroke. Risks high for women, the young, and during the year after diagnosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are more likely to experience ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke than the general population especially in the first year they are diagnosed, according to new research published in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. (medpagetoday.com 23.4.2017).)

(Anm: Lupus: Probiotics could help to reduce kidney inflammation. (…) Researchers have found that adding Lactobacillus to the diets of mice with lupus-induced kidney inflammation - also known as lupus nephritis - led to improvements in kidney function and increased their survival, but only in female mice. (…) Study co-author Xin Luo, from the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology at Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, and colleagues recently reported their results in the journal Microbiome. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.10.2017).)

(Anm: Researchers discover that beneficial bacteria in yogurt may affect severity of lupus (news-medical.net 3.10.2017).)

(Anm: Antifungals and probiotics could play critical role in potential new therapeutic approaches for IBD. (news-medical.net 5.10.2017).)

(Anm: Financial Strain Tied to Depression in Women with SLE. Survey: 40% of those reporting high money pressures developed depression. High financial strain nearly doubles the risk of incident depression in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In an analysis of data from the Lupus Outcomes Study, financial strain was the only significant socioeconomic predictor of incident depression, reported Patricia P. Katz, PhD, from the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues in Arthritis Care & Research. (medpagetoday.com 26.4.2017).)

(Anm: For lupus patients, anti-inflammatory immune cells are maturing Into wrong cell type (medicalnewstoday.com 9.3.2016).)

(Anm: Slideshow: Thyroid Symptoms and Solutions (webmd.com 15.4..2014).)
(Anm: 15 Cancer Symptoms to Know (webmd 28.3.2016).)
(Anm: Slideshow: Causes of Fatigue and Sleepiness and How to Fight Them. (webmd).)
(Anm: Slideshow: A Visual Guide to Fibromyalgia (webmd.com 10.11.2014).)
(Anm: Slideshow: A Visual Guide to Understanding Lupus (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: Gout Pictures Slideshow: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments of Gout (webmd.com 3.2.2016).)
(Anm: Slideshow: What Your Nails Say About Your Health (webmd.com 8.4.2014).)
(Anm: Sinusitis Slideshow: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment (webmd 8.12.2014).)
(Anm: What Your Skin Says About Your Health Slideshow. (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: Type 2 Diabetes Overview (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: What Eye Problems Look Like (webmed).)

(Anm: Fibromyalgi: Fibromyalgi rammer over 100.000 norske kvinner. - En del tror sykdommen bare er tøys. Også blant leger er det en del som flirer av den, forteller professor. (…)   Når leger blir bedt om å rangere hvilke sykdommer det er mest prestisje å jobbe med, så havner alltid fibromyalgi nederst, forteller hun. Professor Egil Andreas Fors ved Institutt for samfunnsmedisin og allmennmedisinsk forskningsenhet ved NTNU er blant Norges fremste eksperter på sykdommen. Han bekrefter holdningene Slydal beskriver. (…) Sykdommen kjennetegnes gjerne ved at man har kroniske muskelsmerter, andre symptomer kan være utmattelse, hodepine, stivhet i kroppen, svimmelhet, kvalme, indre frost, depresjoner, angst og søvnproblemer. (kk.no 8.3.2016).)

(Anm: Lettere at diagnosticere fibromyalgi. På University of Colorado har forskere opdaget en speciel hjernesignatur, der med 93 pct. sikkerhed kan fastslå, hvorvidt en person lider af fibromyalgi eller ej. (pharmadanmark.anp.se 27.10.2016).)

(Anm: Management of interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease. (…) Shrinking lung syndrome. (…) Systemic lupus erythematosus. BMJ 2016;352:h6819 (Published 24 February 2016).)

(Anm: Suicidal Thoughts Seen as Risk in Lupus. —Common among lupus patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations (medpagetoday.com 24.9.2015).)

(Anm: Ofre i legemiddelstudie får "livsvarig sykdomsutvikling (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Cancer-inflammation 'vicious cycle' detailed in new study (medicalnewstoday.com 22.4.2015).)

(Anm: Systems biology analysis of the proteomic alterations induced by MPP+, a Parkinson's disease-related mitochondrial toxin. Front. Cell. Neurosci., 2015 (02 February 2015).)

(Anm: Cell signaling pathway linked to obesity and Type 2 diabetes (medicalnewstoday.com 11.8.2014).)

(Anm: Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue. Exp Physiol. 2014 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: An update on complex I assembly: the assembly of players. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2014 Jul 17. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Mitokondriell dysfunksjon (mitokondriedysfunksjon) indusert av sertraline (Zoloft), et antidepressiva (Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sertraline, an antidepressant agent) Toxicol Sci. 2012 Jun;127(2):582-91. Epub 2012 Mar 2.)

(Anm: Kan Lupus øke risikoen for demens? Could lupus raise dementia risk? People living with lupus may be at significantly greater risk of developing dementia than those without the autoimmune disease, a new study suggests. (…) Study co-author Daniela Amital, of the Sackler Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University in Israel, and colleagues recently reported their results in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.11.2017).)

(Anm: Effekten av tramadol, klonazepam og deres kombinasjoner på hjernens mitokondrielle komplekser. (Effects of tramadol, clonazepam, and their combination on brain mitochondrial complexes.) (…) Dette resultatet forklarer de kliniske og deres respektive histopatologiske effekter av tramadol, for eksempel anfall og røde nevroner (markør for apoptose). (The results showed that groups that received tramadol (therapeutic and abuse) suffered from weight loss.) (Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Dec;31(12):1325-33).)

(Anm: Antibiotika kan utløse mitokondriell dysfunksjon som induserer psykiatriske lidelser. (Antibiotics May Trigger Mitochondrial Dysfunction Inducing Psychiatric Disorders. Med Sci Monit. 2017 Jan 7;23:101-106.)

(Anm: PET Imaging of Mitochondrial Complex I with 18F-BCPP-EF in Brain of Parkinson's Disease Model Monkey. (…) CONCLUSION: 18F-BCPP-EF has potential as a PET probe for the quantitative imaging of MC-1 damage in the living brains of PD model monkeys using PET. J Nucl Med. 2016 Feb 11. pii: jnumed.115.169615. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiotoxicity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Sep 18:ajpheart.00554.2015. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Role of altered mitochondria functions in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.Lupus. 2015 Sep 18. pii: 0961203315605370. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Sykdommen som får kroppen til å angripe seg selv. Lupus rammer kvinner ni ganger så ofte som menn. (…) - Tilstanden er vanligst blant kvinner som er i 20- til 40-årene, sier Eide. Menn med lupus kan se ut til å bli oftere angrepet i nyrene enn kvinner med sykdommen, og man kan også oftere se endringer i blodbildet (hemolytisk anemi, lavere antall blodplater eller lavere antall lymfocytter) hos menn. (klikk.no 17.4.2017).)

(Anm: Mitochondrial dysfunction related to cell damage induced by 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid: non dependent-effect of early reactive oxygen species production. Neurotoxicology. 2015 Aug 5. pii: S0161-813X(15)00118-7. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Sertraline use during pregnancy and the risk of major malformations. OBJECTIVE: Given the current debate and growing public concerns on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and birth defects generated by Food and Drug Administration warnings, we aim to quantify the association between first-trimester exposure to sertraline, a first-line treatment, and the risk of congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed women. (…) CONCLUSION: Sertraline use during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of atrial/ventricular defects and craniosynostosis above and beyond the effect of maternal depression. Nonsertraline SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of craniosynostosis and musculoskeletal defects.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jun;212(6):795.e1-795.e12. Epub 2015 Jan 28.)

(Anm: The Potential Application of Mitochondrial Medicine in Toxicologic Poisoning. J Med Toxicol. 2015 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Common antidepressant increased coronary atherosclerosis in animal model (Vanlig antidepressiva gir økt koronar aterosklerose (åreforkalkning) i dyremodell) (…) The animals were then randomly assigned to receive a commonly prescribed antidepressant, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) marketed under the brand name Zoloft, or a placebo once a day for 18 months. The antidepressant was given in a dose comparable to that given to patients. (medicalnewstoday.com 9.4.2015).)

(Anm: Role of gut microbiota in the modulation of atherosclerosis-associated immune response. Inflammation and metabolic abnormalities are linked to each other. At present, pathogenic inflammatory response was recognized as a major player in metabolic diseases. In humans, intestinal microflora could significantly influence the development of metabolic diseases including atherosclerosis. Front. Microbiol. 2015 (30 June 2015).)

(Anm: Macrophage Mitochondrial Energy Status Regulates Cholesterol Efflux and is Enhanced by Anti-miR33 in Atherosclerosis. Circ Res. 2015 May 22. pii: CIRCRESAHA.115.305624. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Association of mutations in the mitochondrial genome with the subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in women. Exp Mol Pathol. 2015 Apr 21. pii: S0014-4800(15)00089-1. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Antidepressive medikamenter påvirker kroppens fettproduksjon. (...) På det molekylære planet tok Ræder i bruk cellestudier og moderne genteknologiske metoder for å vise at de store gruppene av psykiatriske medisiner (antipsykotika og antidepressiva, inkludert SSRI-medikamenter) virker på fettomsetningen i kroppen gjennom en transkripsjonsfaktor kalt SREBP (steroid reseptor-element bindende protein). SREBP er meget viktig for å regulere produksjon både av kolesterol og av ulike fett-stoffer i kroppens celler. Kolesterol og andre fett-stoffer er viktig for at nevroner skal utvikle seg og fungere normalt, men har også en rolle i utviklingen av hjerte- og karsykdom. (...) NY DOKTORGRAD (uib.no (23.9.2006).)

(Anm: Sertraline (Zoloft)-indusert systemisk lupus erythematosus (SLE) (Lupus) (Sertraline Induced Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) (The Internet Journal of Internal Medicine 2005;6(1).)

- Dødsrater for Lupus forblir høye i USA.

(Anm: Lupus Death Rates Remain High in U.S. Drop in SLE death rates less than non-lupus mortality. Despite improving trends in mortality, death rates from systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) remain high compared with those in the general population, and disparities persist between subpopulations and geographic regions, according to a report in the Annals of Internal Medicine. (medpagetoday.com 6.11.2017).)

– Studien viser hvordan vanlig trening, stressreduksjon kan føre til bedre helse hos lupus pasienter.

(Anm: Study shows how regular exercise, stress reduction could lead to better health in lupus patients. Study shows how regular exercise, stress reduction could lead to better health in lupus patients (news-medical.net 19.9.2017).)

(Anm: Lupus Patients at Risk for Stroke. Risks high for women, the young, and during the year after diagnosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are more likely to experience ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke than the general population especially in the first year they are diagnosed, according to new research published in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. (medpagetoday.com 23.4.2017).)

(Anm: Lupus: Probiotics could help to reduce kidney inflammation. (…) Researchers have found that adding Lactobacillus to the diets of mice with lupus-induced kidney inflammation - also known as lupus nephritis - led to improvements in kidney function and increased their survival, but only in female mice. (…) Study co-author Xin Luo, from the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology at Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, and colleagues recently reported their results in the journal Microbiome. (medicalnewstoday.com 3.10.2017).)

(Anm: Researchers discover that beneficial bacteria in yogurt may affect severity of lupus (news-medical.net 3.10.2017).)

(Anm: Antifungals and probiotics could play critical role in potential new therapeutic approaches for IBD. (news-medical.net 5.10.2017).)

(Anm: Financial Strain Tied to Depression in Women with SLE. Survey: 40% of those reporting high money pressures developed depression. High financial strain nearly doubles the risk of incident depression in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In an analysis of data from the Lupus Outcomes Study, financial strain was the only significant socioeconomic predictor of incident depression, reported Patricia P. Katz, PhD, from the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues in Arthritis Care & Research. (medpagetoday.com 26.4.2017).)

(Anm: For lupus patients, anti-inflammatory immune cells are maturing Into wrong cell type (medicalnewstoday.com 9.3.2016).)

(Anm: Slideshow: Thyroid Symptoms and Solutions (webmd.com 15.4..2014).)
(Anm: 15 Cancer Symptoms to Know (webmd 28.3.2016).)
(Anm: Slideshow: Causes of Fatigue and Sleepiness and How to Fight Them. (webmd).)
(Anm: Slideshow: A Visual Guide to Fibromyalgia (webmd.com 10.11.2014).)
(Anm: Slideshow: A Visual Guide to Understanding Lupus (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: Gout Pictures Slideshow: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments of Gout (webmd.com 3.2.2016).)
(Anm: Slideshow: What Your Nails Say About Your Health (webmd.com 8.4.2014).)
(Anm: Sinusitis Slideshow: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment (webmd 8.12.2014).)
(Anm: What Your Skin Says About Your Health Slideshow. (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: Type 2 Diabetes Overview (webmd.com 2.2.2016).)
(Anm: What Eye Problems Look Like (webmed).)

(Anm: Management of interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease. (…) Shrinking lung syndrome. (…) Systemic lupus erythematosus. BMJ 2016;352:h6819 (Published 24 February 2016).)

(Anm: Suicidal Thoughts Seen as Risk in Lupus. —Common among lupus patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations (medpagetoday.com 24.9.2015).)

(Anm: Ofre i legemiddelstudie får "livsvarig sykdomsutvikling (mintankesmie.no).)

(Anm: Cancer-inflammation 'vicious cycle' detailed in new study (medicalnewstoday.com 22.4.2015).)

- Legemidler (antidepressiva, epilepsilegemidler, luftforurensning, kjemikalier etc. linkes til autisme

Offspring autism risk linked to pesticide exposure during pregnancy (Risiko for autisme linkes til eksponering for plantevernmidler under graviditet)
medicalnewstoday.com 23.6.2014
Past research has indicated that pregnant women exposed to high levels of air pollution have an increased risk of their child developing autism. Now, a new study from the MIND Institute at the University of California-Davis suggests that expectant mothers who live near fields and farms where chemical pesticides are applied are also at increased risk of having a child with autism or other forms of developmental delay.

The research team, led by Janie F. Shelton of the Department of Public Health Sciences at UC-Davis, recently published their findings in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

Autism, also referred to as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a group of disorders characterized by problems with brain development. Individuals with autism tend to have difficulties with social interaction, adopt repetitive behaviors and have problems with verbal and nonverbal communication.

According to a recent report from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of children in the US with autism has increased by 30% in the past 2 years, from 1 in 88 in 2012 to 1 in 68 in 2014. (…)

(Anm: — Derfor går det dårlig med biene (- Sterke markedskrefter har allerede sett seg dypt uenig i konklusjonene) (nrk.no 25.6.2014) .)

Exposure to antidepressants in the womb may influence autism risk (Eksponering for antidepressiva i svangerskapet kan påvirke autismerisiko)
medicalnewstoday.com 5.6.2014
A new study from researchers at Drexel University adds evidence that using common antidepressant medications during pregnancy may contribute to a higher risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children, although this risk is still very small.

Results from past studies of prenatal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and ASD risk have not been consistent. An ongoing challenge in this line of research is trying to tease apart potential effects of the medication on risk from the effects associated with the condition for which the medication was prescribed (most commonly depression). Based on past studies, both SSRIs and genetic factors associated with depression are likely associated with greater risk of ASD.

This new study, published online ahead of print last month in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, suggests that under-reporting of maternal depression, if not properly considered in analyses, may influence results of studies trying to address this question. (…)

Miljö viktig för att förklara autism
dn.se 3.5.2014
Miljömässiga faktorer har lika stor påverkan på risken att utveckla autism som de genetiska. Det visar den hittills största studien på området, som kan vara viktig för att hitta orsakerna till varför vissa drabbas.

Miljömässiga faktorer har lika stor påverkan på risken att utveckla autism som de genetiska. Det visar den hittills största studien på området, som kan vara viktig för att hitta orsakerna till varför vissa drabbas.

– Studien är unik för den är väldigt stor och spänner över många år. Sedan har vi med många fler familjetyper än tidigare, då man bara tittat på tvillingar, säger Sven Sandin, forskare vid Karolinska institutet och studiens huvudförfattare.

De allra flesta tidigare studier har pekat på att genetiska faktorer är de överlägset viktigaste om man ska kunna förklara autism. För några år sedan kom dock en studie som gav miljömässiga faktorer en mycket större roll. Nu får den teorin ännu starkare stöd i den största studien hittills, där svenska, brittiska och amerikanska forskare studerat cirka 2 miljoner barn födda i Sverige mellan 1982 och 2006. (...)

(Anm: Findings suggest that genetic, environmental factors have similar influence on risk of autism. (medicalnewstoday.com 5.5.2014).)

Sent språk kan skyldes mors antidepressiva
dagensmedisin.no 16.4.2014
Barn av mødre som bruker antidepressiva i svangerskapet, kan ha økt risiko for forsinket språkutvikling.
Forsinket språkutvikling ved treårsalder kan ha sammenheng med mors bruk av den vanligste typen antidepressiva (SSRI) i svangerskapet, viser en studie fra Folkehelseinstituttet.

Studien er en av få i verden som har sett på langtidseffekter hos barn etter mors bruk av antidepressiva i svangerskapet, og som har kunnet følge så mange barn over lang tid. Studien inkluderer 50. 000 barn fra Den norske mor og barn-undersøkelsen (MoBa).

Angstsymptomer gir større risiko
- Siden studien er blant de første av sitt slag, er det viktig at resultatene blir etterprøvd av andre forskere før det legges alt for stor vekt på dem, sier Svetlana Skurtveit, seniorforsker og professor på Folkehelseinstituttet og Universitet i Oslo, til FHIs nettsider.

FHI har gjort studien i samarbeid med SERAF ved Universitetet i Oslo og Harvard School of Public Health. Studien er publisert i BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. (...)

(Anm: Prenatal SSRI Use and Offspring With Autism Spectrum Disorder or Developmental Delay. Pediatrics 2014 (Published online April 14, 2014).)

(Anm: Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and language competence at age three: results from a large population-based pregnancy cohort in Norway. BJOG. 2014 Apr 14. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12821. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Altered dopamine signaling a clue to autism (medicalnewstoday.com 4.2.2015).)

Forsinket språkutvikling hos barnet kan ha sammenheng med mors bruk av antidepressiva
fhi.no 15.4.2014
Barn av mødre som brukte den vanligste typen antidepressiva (SSRI) i svangerskapet, kan ha økt risiko for forsinket språkutvikling ved treårsalder sammenlignet med barn av mødre som ikke brukte antidepressiva mens de var gravide. Det viser resultater i en studie fra Den norske mor og barn-undersøkelsen på Folkehelseinstituttet.

Resultatene fra studien viser at gravides bruk av antidepressiva kan ha innvirkning på språkutvikling. Funnene viser også at dersom den gravide hadde symptomer på angst og depresjon, økte risikoen for at barnet fikk forsinket språkutvikling. Forskerne understreker at svært få barn kom i kategorien som tilsvarer alvorlig forsinket språkutvikling.

Dette er en av få studier i verden som har sett på langtidseffekter hos barn etter mors bruk av antidepressiva i svangerskapet, og som har kunnet følge så mange barn over lang tid. (...)

Om studien
Studien inkluderer i overkant av 50 000 barn fra Den norske mor og barn-undersøkelsen (MoBa). Alle foreldre som har deltatt i MoBa har bidratt med viktig informasjon om sin livsstil, sine plager og sykdommer før, under og etter svangerskapet. Dette har gjort det mulig å kontrollere for andre risikofaktorer for forsinket språkutvikling som kunne ha påvirket forskernes resultater. Et eksempel på en slik faktor er depresjon, som forskerne allerede vet at i seg selv kan påvirke barns utvikling. Forskerne er imidlertid også åpne for at det kan være andre faktorer som kan påvirke språkutviklingen.

Folkehelseinstituttet har gjort studien i samarbeid med SERAF ved Universitetet i Oslo og Harvard School of Public Health. (...)

(Anm: Deficits in Bioenergetics and Impaired Immune Response in Granulocytes From Children With Autism. Pediatrics. 2014 Apr 21. [Epub ahead of print].)

(Anm: Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and language competence at age three: results from a large population-based pregnancy cohort in Norway. BJOG. 2014 Apr 14. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12821. [Epub ahead of print].)

Sammenheng mellom forurensning og autisme
dn.no 18.6.2013
Gravide kvinner som utsettes for kraftig luftforurensning, kan mer enn doble risikoen for å få barn med autisme, viser en ny studie.

Forskere ved Harvard-universitetet har gjennomført en landsomfattende studie i USA, i et forsøk på å påvise sammenhengen mellom luftforurensning og atferdsproblemer hos barn.

Konklusjonene publiserer de i siste utgave av tidsskriftet Environmental Health Perspectives.

– Våre funn gir grunn til bekymring, sier Andrea Roberts, som har ledet arbeidet med undersøkelsen.

Undersøkelsen begynte i 1989 og har siden omfattet 116.439 kvinnelige sykepleiere. Forurensningsnivået i områdene der de bodde er sammenholdt med barnas helse.

Det ble tatt høyde for faktorer som røyking under svangerskapet, utdanning og inntekt.

Undersøkelsen fant at kvinner som bodde i områder med høyest forekomst av dieselpartikler eller kvikksølv, hadde mer en dobbelt så høy risiko for å få barn med autisme.

I områder der det også var forhøyede forekomster av bly, mangan, diklormetan og andre stoffer, økte risikoen med rundt 50 prosent.

Forskerne mener på bakgrunn av sine funn at gravide regelmessig bør undersøkes for å fastslå om de har forhøyde forekomster av metaller eller miljøgifter i blodet. (©NTB)

(Anm: Perinatal Air Pollutant Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Children of Nurses’ Health Study II Participants. Environ Health Perspect; 2013 (June).)

Air Pollution and Autism: What Moms Should Know (Luft forurensning og autisme: hva bør mødre vite)
ivanhoe.com 21.6.2013
(Ivanhoe Newswire) – Recent research from the Harvard School of Public Health showed that children whose mothers were exposed to high levels of air pollution during their pregnancy were twice as likely to have autism.

The link was discovered by examining the air pollution exposure during pregnancy of 325 women with an autistic child and 22,000 women whose child did not have autism. While exposure to diesel particulates or mercury doubled the risk of autism, women exposed to high levels of lead, manganese, methylene chloride, and combined metal exposure were 50% more likely to have a child with autism. (...)

(Anm: Perinatal Air Pollutant Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Children of Nurses’ Health Study II Participants. Environ Health Perspect; 2013 (June).)

Parental depression, maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy, and risk of autism spectrum disorders: population based case-control study (Foreldres depresjon, mors antidepressant bruk under svangerskapet, og risikoen forautismespekterforstyrrelser: befolkningsbasert kasus kontrollstudie (case-control study))
BMJ 2013;346:f2059 (19 April 2013)
(...) Objective To study the association between parental depression and maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy with autism spectrum disorders in offspring.
Design Population based nested case-control study.

Conclusions In utero exposure to both SSRIs and non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors (tricyclic antidepressants) was associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders, particularly without intellectual disability. Whether this association is causal or reflects the risk of autism with severe depression during pregnancy requires further research. However, assuming causality, antidepressant use during pregnancy is unlikely to have contributed significantly towards the dramatic increase in observed prevalence of autism spectrum disorders as it explained less than 1% of cases. (...)

Extreme Birth Weights Tied to Autism (Ekstreme fødselsvekt knyttet til autisme)
webmd.com 3.5.2013
Newborns who weigh much more or less than average may be at risk for disorder, researchers say

FRIDAY, May 3 (HealthDay News) -- A much larger or much smaller birth weight than average may be associated with an increased risk of autism, according to a large new study.

Researchers examined data from more than 40,000 children in Swede

, and found that those who weighed more than 9.9 pounds or less than 5.5 pounds at birth were more likely to have autism than those with a normal birth weight.
Specifically, smaller babies had a 63 percent greater risk, and larger babies had a 60 percent greater risk. The link between birth weight and autism risk was independent of whether or not a baby was born premature or past the normal delivery date.

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affect a person's ability to communicate and interact socially.

The study, published recently in the American Journal of Psychiatry, is believed to be the first to show a link between larger babies and increased autism risk and confirms earlier research showing that low weight babies are more likely to develop autism. (...)

Epilepsimedel kopplas till autism
dagensmedicin.se 30.4.2013
Ny dansk forskning tyder på att risken för autismspektrumstörningar ökar om mamman tar läkemedel som innehåller valproat under graviditeten.

Mediciner med substansen valproat är enligt Läkemedelsverket förstahandsval vid generaliserade anfall hos epilepsipatienter. Redan i dag är dock rekommendationen att om möjligt välja andra mediciner hos gravida eftersom valproat tycks kunna öka risken för fosterskador.

Och nu kommer alltså ytterligare stöd för att substansen bör undvikas om det finns andra alternativ.

Forskare vid universitetssjukhuset i Århus har följt upp alla barn som föddes i Danmark under åren 1996-2006, totalt 655 615 stycken. Hos 508 av dem hade mamman hämtat ut recept på valproat under graviditeten.

Exponering för valproat under fostertiden var kopplat till en femfaldigt ökad risk för autism, och trefaldigt ökad risk för autismspektrumstörning, som förutom autism även omfattar bland annat Aspergers syndrom och atypisk autism.

Den absoluta risken var 2,5 procent för autism och 4,4 procent för autismspektrumstörning om mamman tagit valproat under graviditeten.

Studien publiceras i tidskriften Jama, och forskarna skriver att fynden måste balanseras mot nyttan med behandlingen hos kvinnor som behöver valproat för att hålla sin epilepsi under kontroll. (...)

(Anm: Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Childhood Autism (Prenatal eksponering for Valproate (Orfiril) og risiko for autismespekterforstyrrelser og barneautisme) JAMA. 2013;309(16):1696-1703 (April 24, 2013).)

Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Childhood Autism (Prenatal eksponering for Valproate (Orfiril) og risiko for autismespekterforstyrrelser og barneautisme)
JAMA. 2013;309(16):1696-1703 (April 24, 2013)
Betydning Valproate brukes til behandling av epilepsi og andre nevropsykologiske lidelser, og kan være det eneste behandlingsalternativet for kvinneri fødedyktig alder. Imidlertid kan prenatal eksponering for Valproate øke risikoen for autisme. (Importance Valproate is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychological disorders and may be the only treatment option for women of childbearing potential. However, prenatal exposure to valproate may increase the risk of autism.)

Objective To determine whether prenatal exposure to valproate is associated with an increased risk of autism in offspring. (…)

Konklusjoner og relevans Mors bruk av valproate under svangerskapet var assosiert med en betydelig økt risiko for autismespektrumlidelse og barneautisme selv etter justering for mors epilepsi. For kvinner i fødedyktig alder som bruker epilepsilegemidler må disse funnene veies mot nytte av behandling av kvinner som trenger valproate for å kontrollere epilepsi. (…) (Conclusions and Relevance Maternal use of valproate during pregnancy was associated with a significantly increased risk of autism spectrum disorder and childhood autism in the offspring, even after adjusting for maternal epilepsy. For women of childbearing potential who use antiepileptic medications, these findings must be balanced against the treatment benefits for women who require valproate for epilepsy control.)

(Anm: Orfiril (Valproate, Depacon, Depakene etc.) (en.wikipedia.org).)

(Anm: VALPROATE (valproic acid) (dailymed.nlm.nih.gov).)

(Anm: Valproat gir stor risiko for fosterskader. Valproat er fosterskadelig og gir stor risiko for medfødte misdannelser og utviklingsforstyrrelser. Barn av mødre som har brukt valproat i svangerskapet har høy risiko for alvorlige utviklingsforstyrrelser og medfødte misdannelser: - Risikoen for medfødte misdannelser er 10 % - Inntil 40 % opplever forsinket psykomotorisk utvikling - Gjennomsnittlig intelligenskvotient (IQ) reduseres med 7-10 poeng - Økt forekomst av autismelignende tilstander og ADHD  (legemiddelverket.no 26.5.2016 / 15.12.2014).)